Rudy Giuliani

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Posted by pompos 03/03/2009 @ 20:07

Tags : rudy giuliani, republican, election 2008, politics

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Handicapping 2010, May edition - Long Island Business News
But if he runs for reelection - ignoring the pleas of the party masses - Paterson would still be favored over nearly any Republican challenger not named Rudy Giuliani. Also, if the economy turns, Paterson's ratings are bound to rise....
New York's 9/11 déjà vu - Online Journal
In pointing out how different Kelly is to his predecessor, the deferential Bill Bratton, whose paranoid boss, Rudy Giuliani, still saw as a threat, Leonard Levitt points out that Kelly seemed like the poster boy for police commissioner by Bloomberg....
Giuliani joins speakers to motivate Charleston - Charleston Gazette
Former New York City mayor and GOP presidential candidate Rudy Giuliani was one of about a dozen motivational speakers at the Civic Center Tuesday. By Eric Eyre CHARLESTON, W.Va. - "America's Mayor" Rudy Giuliani came to Charleston Tuesday to talk...
Rudy Giuliani's company, Giuliani Security & Safety, moving into ... - New York Daily News
By David Saltonstall The former mayor announced Monday that his security firm, Giuliani Security & Safety, is forming a "strategic relationship" with the Investigative Management Group, one of the better known provider's of corporate security....
Rudy's aspirations, cont'd - Politico
A Giuliani aide emails to make the case that the departure of his top political aide, Tony Carbonetti, from his firm doesn't mean any scaling back of the former mayor's political aspirations. "Tony is still serving as a political advisor and confidant...
Motivational program draws crowd of 5000 - Sarasota Herald-Tribune
Attendees began to gather at 6 this morning for the Get Motivated! seminar at the Sarasota Convention Center, featuring Rudy Giuliani, Dick Vitale and Robert Schuller. By Bill Hutchinson SARASOTA COUNTY - Trouble getting to work this morning?...
Rudy Giuliani's Son Would Rather Play Golf - PerezHilton.com
Rudy Giuliani's douchey son, Andrew, simply decided that it was more important to him to train for his next tournament - it's for a minor league golf tour! - than to attend his graduation ceremony at Duke University this past weekend....
Gay Giuliani Pals Get Hitched, but Rudy Stays Away - EDGE Boston
by Kilian Melloy He'sa friend of the family, but maybe not so much of gay and lesbian families in general: Rudy Giuliani, who stayed with gay friends Howard Koeppel and Mark A. Hsiao during his own divorce, has said that he doesn't support the right of...
Rudy Giuliani on Ground Zero Flyover - FOXNews
Reaction now from former Republican presidential candidate Rudy Giuliani. RUDOLPH GIULIANI (R), FORMER NEW YORK MAYOR: Good to see you. CAVUTO: All right. I know you're a little under the weather. GIULIANI: A little bit of a laryngitis, but I am doing...
Rudy Giuliani dared to run for gov. as Al Sharpton backs David ... - New York Daily News
Al Sharpton, who all but dared Rudy Giuliani to challenge the embattled governor. The Rev. Al Sharpton challenged his longtime foe, Republican Rudy Giuliani, to run for governor Saturday, predicting struggling Gov. Paterson will prevail in the next...

Rudy Giuliani

Donald Rumsfeld and Rudy Giuliani at the site of the World Trade Center, on November 14, 2001.

Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (pronounced /ˈruːdi ˌdʒuːliːˈɑːni/; born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman and politician from the state of New York who was Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001.

A Democrat and Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican from the 1980s to the present, Giuliani served in the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York, eventually becoming U.S. Attorney. He prosecuted a number of high-profile cases, including ones against organized crime and Wall Street financiers.

Giuliani served two terms as Mayor of New York City, and was credited with initiating improvements in the city's quality of life and with a reduction in crime. He ran for the United States Senate in 2000 but withdrew due to being diagnosed with prostate cancer and revelations about his personal life. Giuliani gained international attention for his leadership, during and after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. In 2001, Time magazine named him "Person of the Year" and he received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 2002.

After leaving office as mayor, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners, a security consulting business; acquired Giuliani Capital Advisors (later sold), an investment banking firm; and joined the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm, which changed its name when he became a partner. Giuliani ran for the Republican Party nomination in the 2008 United States presidential election. After leading in national polls for much of 2007, his candidacy faltered late in that year; he did poorly in the caucuses and primaries of January 2008 and withdrew from the race.

Rudolph Giuliani was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents Harold Angelo Giuliani and Helen C. D'Avanzo, both children of Italian immigrants. The family was Roman Catholic and its extended members included police officers and firefighters. Harold Giuliani had trouble holding a job and had been convicted of felony assault and robbery and served time in Sing Sing; after his release he served as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn.

Early in life, Rudy Giuliani developed a lateral lisp which he still has to this day.

In 1951, when Giuliani was seven, his family moved from Brooklyn to Garden City South on Long Island. There he attended a local Catholic school, St. Anne's. Later, he commuted back to Brooklyn to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961 with an 85 percent average.

Giuliani went on to Manhattan College in Riverdale, Bronx, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy. There he considered becoming a priest, in part to having studied theology for four years in college. He was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity, and was active in shaping its direction. He graduated in 1965.

Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead attending New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made law review and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor in 1968.

Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He has said that he admired the Kennedy family, and volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a Democratic party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s, and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972.

Upon graduation, Giuliani clerked for Judge Lloyd MacMahon, United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York.

Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. He received a student deferment while at Manhattan College and another while at NYU Law. Upon graduation from NYU Law in 1968, he was classified as 1-A, available for military service. He applied for a deferment but was rejected. In 1969, MacMahon wrote a letter to Giuliani's draft board, asking that he be reclassified as 2-A, civilian occupation deferment, because Giuliani, who was a law clerk for MacMahon, was an essential employee. The deferment was granted. In 1970, Giuliani received a high draft lottery number; he was not called up for service although by then he had been reclassified 1-A.

In 1970, Giuliani joined the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York. In 1973, he was named Chief of the Narcotics Unit and became executive U.S. attorney.

In 1975, Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to Independent as he was recruited to Washington, D.C. during the Ford administration, where he was named Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace" Tyler. His first high-profile prosecution was of U.S. Representative Bertram L. Podell (NY-13), who was convicted of corruption.

From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter Administration, Giuliani practiced law at the Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler law firm, as chief of staff to his previous DC boss, Ace Tyler. Tyler later became critical of Giuliani's turn as a prosecutor, calling his tactics "overkill".

In 1981, Giuliani was named Associate Attorney General in the Reagan administration, the third-highest position in the Department of Justice. As Associate Attorney General, Giuliani supervised the U.S. Attorney Offices' federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of Corrections, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United States Marshals Service.

In a well-publicized 1982 case, Giuliani testified in defense of the federal government's "detention posture" regarding the internment of over 2,000 Haitian asylum seekers who had entered the country illegally. The U.S. government disputed the assertion that most of the detainees had fled their country due to political persecution, alleging instead that they were "economic migrants." In defense of the government's position, Giuliani testified that "political repression, at least in general, does not exist" under President of Haiti Jean-Claude Duvalier's regime.

In 1983, Giuliani was appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. It was in this position that he first gained national prominence by prosecuting numerous high-profile cases, resulting in the convictions of Wall Street figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken. He also focused on prosecuting drug dealers, organized crime, and corruption in government. He amassed a record of 4,152 convictions and 25 reversals. As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with bringing the "perp walk," parading of suspects in front of the previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool. After Giuliani "patented the perp walk", the tool was used by increasing numbers of prosecutors nationwide.

Giuliani's critics claim he arranged public arrests of people, then dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than going to trial. In a few cases, his public arrests of alleged white-collar criminals at their workplaces, with charges later dropped or lessened, irreparably damaged their reputations. He claimed that veteran stock trader Richard Wigton, of Kidder, Peabody & Co. was guilty of insider trading; in February 1987 he had officers handcuff Wigton and march him through the company's trading floor, with Wigton in tears. Giuliani had his agents arrest Tim Tabor, a young arbitrageur and former colleague of Wigton, so late that he had to stay overnight in jail before posting bond. However, in three months, charges were dropped against both Wigton and Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial. We're just the tip of the iceberg," but no further charges were forthcoming and the investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place. Giuliani's high-profile raid of the Princeton/Newport firm ended with the defendants having their cases overturned on appeal on the grounds that what they had been convicted of were not crimes.

In the Mafia Commission Trial (February 25, 1985–November 19, 1986), Giuliani indicted eleven organized crime figures, including the heads of New York's so-called "Five Families", under the RICO Act on charges including extortion, labor racketeering, and murder for hire. Time magazine called this "Case of Cases" possibly "the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943", and quoted Giuliani's stated intention: "Our approach is to wipe out the five families." Eight defendants were found guilty on all counts and subsequently sentenced on January 13, 1987 to hundreds of years of prison time.

Ivan Boesky was a Wall Street arbitrageur who had amassed a fortune of about $200 million by betting on corporate takeovers. He was investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission for making investments based on tips received from corporate insiders. These stock acquisitions were sometimes brazen, with massive purchases occurring only a few days before a corporation announced a takeover. Although insider trading of this kind was illegal, laws prohibiting it were rarely enforced until Boesky was prosecuted. Boesky cooperated with the SEC and informed on several others, including junk bond trader Michael Milken. Per agreement with Giuliani, Boesky received a 3½ year prison sentence along with a $100 million fine.

In 1989, Giuliani charged Milken under the RICO Act with 98 counts of racketeering and fraud. In a highly-publicized case, Milken was indicted by a grand jury on these charges, but after a plea bargain, Milken pleaded guilty to six lesser securities and reporting violations and the government dropped the more serious charges of racketeering and insider trading. He paid a total of $900 million in fines and settlements relating primarily to civil lawsuits and was banned for life from the securities industry.

Giuliani was U.S. Attorney until January 1989, resigning as the Reagan administration ended. He garnered criticism until he left office for his handling of cases, and was accused of prosecuting cases to further his political ambitions. He joined the law firm White & Case in New York City as a partner. He remained with White & Case until May 1990, when he joined the law firm Anderson Kill Olick & Oshinsky, also in New York City.

Giuliani first ran for New York City Mayor in 1989, attempting to unseat three-term incumbent Ed Koch. He won the September 1989 Republican Party primary election against business magnate Ronald Lauder, in a campaign marked by claims that Giuliani was not a true Republican and by an acrimonious debate. In the Democratic primary, Koch was upset by Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins.

During two televised debates, Giuliani framed himself as an agent of change, saying that "I'm the reformer," that "If we keep going merrily along, this city's going down," and that electing Dinkins would represent "more of the same, more of the rotten politics that have been dragging us down." Giuliani also accused Dinkins of not having paid his taxes for many years and of several other ethical missteps, in particular a stock transfer to his son. Dinkins said the tax matter had been fully paid off, denied other wrongdoing, and said that "what we need is a mayor, not a prosecutor," and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word - he doesn't like to admit he's a Republican." Dinkins won the endorsements of three of the four daily New York newspapers, while Giuliani won approval from the New York Post.

In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by 47,080 votes out of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in city history.

In 1993, Giuliani again ran for mayor. Once again, Giuliani also ran on the Liberal Party line but not the Conservative Party line, which ran activist George Marlin. The principal issues of the election of 1993 were crime and taxes. Giuliani also declared that expansion of the city's budget was going unchecked, and that Dinkins was incompetent.

In addition, the city was suffering from a spike in unemployment associated with the nationwide recession, with local unemployment rates going from 6.7 percent in 1989 to 11.1 percent in 1992. There was also a public perception that crime was increasing, although in fact the crime rate in most categories had decreased during the Dinkins administration; for example, the per capita murder rate had peaked and then begun to decline under Dinkins, and rapes decreased in each year of his term.

Dinkins and Giuliani never debated during the campaign, because they were never able to agree on how to approach a debate. Dinkins was endorsed by The New York Times and Newsday, while Giuliani was endorsed by the New York Post and, in a key switch from 1989, the New York Daily News.

In the end Giuliani won by a margin of 53,367 votes, with 49.25 percent of the electorate to the incumbent's 46.42 percent. He became the first Republican elected Mayor of New York City since John Lindsay in 1965.

Giuliani's opponent in 1997 was Democratic Manhattan Borough President Ruth Messinger, who had beaten Al Sharpton in the September 9, 1997 Democratic primary. In the general election, Giuliani once again had the Liberal Party and not the Conservative Party listing. Giuliani ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who had cleaned up the city. Giuliani's popularity was at its highest point to date, with a late October 1997 Quinnipiac University poll showing him as having a 68 percent approval rating; 70 percent of New Yorkers were satisfied with life in the city and 64 percent said things were better in the city compared to four years previously.

Throughout the campaign he was well ahead in the polls and had a strong fund-raising advantage over Messinger. On her part, Messinger lost the support of several usually Democratic constituencies, including gay organizations and large labor unions. All four daily New York newspapers—The New York Times, New York Daily News, New York Post, and Newsday—endorsed Giuliani over Messinger.

In the end, Giuliani won 59 percent of the vote to Messinger's 41 percent, and became the first Republican to win a second term as mayor since Fiorello H. La Guardia in 1941. Voter turnout was the lowest in 12 years, with 38 percent of registered voters casting ballots. The margin of victory included gains in his share of the African American vote (20 percent compared to five percent in 1993) and the Hispanic vote (43 percent from 37 percent) while maintaining his base of white and Jewish voters from 1993.

Giuliani served as mayor of New York City from 1994 through 2001.

In his first term as mayor, Giuliani, in conjunction with New York City Police Department Commissioner Bill Bratton, adopted an aggressive enforcement-deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken Windows" approach. This involved crackdowns on relatively minor offenses such as graffiti, turnstile jumping, and aggressive "squeegeemen", on the theory that this would send a message that order would be maintained. Giuliani and Bratton also instituted CompStat, a comparative statistical approach to mapping crime geographically and in terms of emerging criminal patterns, as well as charting officer performance by quantifying criminal apprehensions. Critics of the system assert that it creates an environment in which police officials are encouraged to underreport or otherwise manipulate crime data. The CompStat initiative won the 1996 Innovations in Government Award from the Kennedy School of Government.

During Giuliani's administration, crime rates dropped in New York City, which Giuliani's presidential campaign website credited to his leadership. The extent to which his policies deserve the credit is disputed. A small nationwide drop in crime preceded Giuliani's election, and critics say that he may have been the beneficiary of a trend already in progress. Additional contributing factors to the overall decline in crime during the 1990s were federal funding of an additional 7,000 police officers and an overall improvement in the national economy. Changing demographics were a key factor contributing to crime rate reductions, which were similar across the country during this time. Because the crime index is based on that of the FBI, which is self-reported by police departments, some have alleged that crimes were shifted into categories that the FBI doesn't collect.

Bratton was featured on the cover of Time in 1996. Giuliani forced Bratton out of his position after two years, in what was generally seen as a battle of two large egos in which Giuliani was not tolerant of Bratton's celebrity.

Giuliani's term also saw allegations of civil rights abuses and other police misconduct. There were police shootings of unarmed suspects, and the scandals surrounding the sexual torture of Abner Louima and the killings of Amadou Diallo and Patrick Dorismond. Giuliani supported the New York Police Department, for example by releasing what he called Dorismond's "extensive criminal record" to the public, including a sealed juvenile file.

The Giuliani administration advocated the privatization of failing public schools and increasing school choice through a voucher-based system.

Giuliani supported protection for illegal immigrants. He continued a policy of preventing city employees from contacting the Immigration and Naturalization Service about immigration violations, on the grounds that illegal aliens should be able to take actions such as sending their children to school or reporting crimes to the police without fear of deportation.

During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic partnership rights. Giuliani induced the city's Democratic-controlled New York City Council, which had avoided the issue for years, to pass legislation providing broad protection for same-sex partners. In 1998, he codified local law by granting all city employees equal benefits for their domestic partners.

Several of Giuliani's appointees to head City agencies became defendants in criminal proceedings.

In 2000, Giuliani appointed 34-year-old Russell Harding, the son of Liberal Party of New York leader and longtime Giuliani mentor Raymond Harding, to head the New York City Housing Development Corporation, although Harding had neither a college degree nor relevant experience. In 2005, Harding pleaded guilty to defrauding the Housing Development Corporation and to possession of child pornography. He was sentenced to five years in prison. In a related matter, Richard Roberts, appointed by Giuliani as Housing Commissioner and as chairman of the Health and Hospitals Corporation, pleaded guilty to perjury after lying to a grand jury about a car that Harding bought for him with City funds.

Giuliani was a longtime backer of Bernard Kerik, who started out as a NYPD detective driving for Giuliani's campaign. Giuliani appointed him as the Commissioner of the Department of Correction and then as the Police Commissioner. Giuliani was also the godfather to Kerik's two youngest children. After Giuliani left office, Kerik pleaded guilty to state corruption charges dating from his Corrections days. Kerik is currently awaiting trial on related federal charges of conspiracy, tax fraud and obstruction of justice. Giuliani has not been implicated in any of the Kerik scandals.

Due to term limits, Giuliani could not run in 2001 for a third term as Mayor. In November 1998, long-serving Democratic New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan retired and Giuliani immediately indicated an interest in running in the 2000 election for the now-open seat. Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party, even though he had irritated many by endorsing incumbent Democrat Governor Mario Cuomo over Republican George Pataki in 1994. Giuliani's entrance led Democratic Congressman Charles Rangel and others to recruit then-U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to run for Moynihan's seat, hoping she might combat his star power.

An early, January 1999 poll showed Giuliani trailing Clinton by 10 points. In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in connection with the Senate run. By January 2000, Giuliani had reversed the polls situation, pulling nine points ahead after taking advantage of several campaign stumbles by Clinton. Nevertheless, the Giuliani campaign was showing some structural weaknesses; so closely identified with New York City, he had somewhat limited appeal to normally Republican voters in Upstate New York. The New York Police Department's fatal shooting of Patrick Dorismond in March 2000 inflamed Giuliani's already strained relations with the city's minority communities, and Clinton seized on it as a major campaign issue. By April 2000, reports showed Clinton gaining upstate and generally outworking Giuliani, who stated that his duties as mayor prevented him from campaigning more. Clinton was now 8 to 10 points ahead of Giuliani in the polls.

Then followed four tumultuous weeks, in which Giuliani's medical life, romantic life, marital life, and political life all collided at once in a most visible fashion. Giuliani discovered that he had prostate cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; he announced a separation from his wife Donna Hanover; and, after much indecision, on May 19, 2000 he announced his withdrawal from the Senate race.

The 9/11 attacks occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September 25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month emergency extension of his term from January 1 to April 1 under the New York State Constitution (Article 3 Section 25). He threatened to challenge the law imposing term limits on elected city officials and run for another full four-year term, if the primary candidates did not consent to the extension of his mayoralty. In the end leaders in the State Assembly and Senate indicated that they did not believe the extension was necessary. The election proceeded as scheduled, and the winning candidate, the Giuliani-endorsed Republican convert Michael Bloomberg, took office on January 1, 2002 per normal custom.

Giuliani claimed to have been at the Ground Zero site "as often, if not more, than most workers.... I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them." Some 9/11 workers have objected to those claims. While his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks, Giuliani spent a total of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days.

When Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal suggested that the attacks were an indication that the United States "should re-examine its policies in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stand toward the Palestinian cause", Giuliani asserted, "There is no moral equivalent for this act. There is no justification for it... And one of the reasons I think this happened is because people were engaged in moral equivalency in not understanding the difference between liberal democracies like the United States, like Israel, and terrorist states and those who condone terrorism. So I think not only are those statements wrong, they're part of the problem." Giuliani subsequently rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the aftermath of the attack.

In January 2008, an eight-page memo was revealed which detailed the New York City Police Department's opposition in 1998 to location of the city's emergency command center at the Trade Center site. The Giuliani administration overrode these concerns.

The 9/11 Commission noted in its report that lack of preparedness could have led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. The Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Family members of 9/11 victims have said that these radios were a complaint of emergency services responders for years. The radios were not working when Fire Department chiefs ordered the 343 firefighters inside the towers to evacuate, and they remained in the towers as the towers collapsed. However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11 Commission he said that the firefighters ignored the evacuation order out of an effort to save lives. Giuliani testified to the Commission, where some family members of responders who had died in the attacks appeared to protest his statements. A 1994 mayoral office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty. Replacement radios were purchased in a $33 million no-bid contract with Motorola, and implemented in early 2001. However, the radios were recalled in March 2001 after a Probationary Firefighter's calls for help at a house fire could not be picked up by others at the scene, leaving firemen with the old analog radios from 1993. A book later published by Commission members Thomas Kean and Lee Hamilton, Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, argued that the Commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning with Giuliani.

An October 2001 study by the National Institute of Environmental Safety and Health said that cleanup workers lacked adequate protective gear.

In the wake of the attacks, Giuliani was widely hailed for his leadership during the crisis. When polled just six weeks after the attack Giuliani received a 79 percent approval rating among New York City voters, a dramatic increase over the 36 percent rating he had received a year earlier – average at the end of a two-term mayorship. Oprah Winfrey called him "America's Mayor" at a 9/11 memorial service held at Yankee Stadium on September 23, 2001, a term now in common use by his supporters. Other voices denied it was the mayor who had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have come together if Bozo was the mayor", said civil rights activist Al Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. "He was a power-hungry person", Sharpton also said. Many New Yorkers were impressed with Giuliani's response to the attacks, precisely because his calm and soothing demeanor seemed markedly out of character, after seven years in which he had gained a reputation as a divisive mayor.

Giuliani was praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue and recovery efforts, but others, including some firefighters, police, rescue workers, and families of WTC victims argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a hero for political gain." Giuliani has collected $11.4 million from speaking fees in a single year (his demand increasing after the attacks). Before September 11, Giuliani's assets were estimated to be somewhat less than $2 million, but his net worth could now be as high as 30 times that amount.

Giuliani initially downplayed the health effects arising from the September 11, 2001 attacks in the Financial District and lower Manhattan areas in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site. He moved quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. In the first month after the attacks, he said "The air quality is safe and acceptable." However, in the weeks after the attacks, the United States Geological Survey identified hundreds of asbestos hot spots of debris dust that remained on buildings. By the end of the month the USGS reported that the toxicity of the debris was akin to that of drain cleaner. It would eventually be determined that a wide swath of lower Manhattan and Brooklyn had been heavily contaminated by highly caustic and toxic materials. The city's health agencies, such as the Department of Environmental Protection, did not supervise or issue guidelines for the testing and cleanup of private buildings. Instead, the city left this responsibility to building owners.

Giuliani asked the city's Congressional delegation to limit the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses be limited to a total of $350 million. Two years after Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.

In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter asserting that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill," it said, adding: "Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on them." Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal action alleging that New York City negligently dumped body parts and other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill.

Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions America to help elect Republicans candidates across the nation.

After campaigning on Bush's behalf in the 2004 election, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security after Tom Ridge's resignation. When suggestions were made that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination, information about Kerik's past – most notably, that he had ties to organized crime, had been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien as a domestic servant – became known. The political fallout damaged the perception of competence in the White House vetting process and raised doubts as to Giuliani's ethics and political judgment in recommending Kerik in the first place.

On March 15, 2006, Congress formed the Iraq Study Group (ISG). This bipartisan ten-person panel, of which Giuliani was one of the members, was charged with assessing the Iraq War and making recommendations. They would eventually unanimously conclude that contrary to Bush administration assertions, "The situation in Iraq is grave and deteriorating" and called for "changes in the primary mission" that would allow "the United States to begin to move its forces out of Iraq".

On May 24, 2006, after missing all of the group's meetings, including a briefing from General David Petraeus, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and former Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, Giuliani resigned from the panel, citing his "previous time commitments". Giuliani's fundraising schedule had kept him from participating in the panel, a schedule which raised $11.4 million in speaking fees over 14 months, and that Giuliani had been forced to resign after being given "an ultimatum to either show up for meetings or leave the group" by group leader James Baker. Giuliani subsequently said that he had started thinking about running for President, and being on the panel might give it a political spin.

Giuliani was described by Newsweek in January 2007 as "one of the most consistent cheerleaders for the president’s handling of the war in Iraq" and as of June 2007 remained one of the few candidates for president to unequivocally support both the basis for the invasion and the execution of the war.

After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani founded a security consulting business, Giuliani Partners LLC, in 2002, a firm that has been categorized by various media outlets as a lobbying entity capitalizing on Giuliani's name recognition, and which has been the subject of allegations surrounding staff hired by Giuliani and due to the firm's chosen client base. Over five years, Giuliani Partners has earned more than $100 million. In June 2007 he stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners, although this action was not made public until December 4, 2007; he maintained his equity interest in the firm.

In 2005, Giuliani joined the law firm of Bracewell & Patterson LLP (renamed Bracewell & Giuliani LLP) as a name partner and basis for the expanding firm's new New York office. When he joined the Texas-based firm he brought Marc Mukasey, the son of Attorney General Michael Mukasey, into the firm.

Despite a busy schedule, Giuliani was highly active in the day-to-day business of the law firm, which was a high-profile supplier of legal and lobbying services to the oil, gas, and energy industries. Its aggressive defense of pollution-causing coal-fired power plants threatened cause political risk for Giuliani, but association with the firm helped Giuliani achieve fund-raising success in Texas. In 2006, Giuliani acted as the lead counsel and lead spokesmen for Bracewell & Giuliani client Purdue Pharma, the makers of Oxycontin, during their negotiations with federal prosecutors over charges that the pharmaceutical company misled the public about Oxycontin's addictive properties. The agreement reached resulted in Purdue Pharma and some of its executives paying $634.5 million in fines.

Overall, Giuliani profited – which helped his net worth reaching the millions of dollars – from Bracewell & Giuliani's work representing corporate clients before many U.S. Government departments and agenties, which might have led to ethical entanglements if he achieved high public office again. The firm's clients also worked with corporations and foreign governments, some of which Giuliani might have opposed on political grounds in the past.

In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee toward a run for President of the United States in 2008. In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live that he was indeed running.

Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support among the Republican candidates. Throughout most of 2007 he was the leader in most nationwide opinion polling among Republicans. Original front-runner Senator John McCain had faded, and most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only former Senator Fred Thompson and former Governor Mitt Romney showing greater support in some per-state Republican polls. On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an endorsement from evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson. This was viewed by political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of his positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights.

Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and December 2007, in which Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to or recommended for several top positions, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges; the media reported that while Mayor of New York, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair (later analysis showed the billing to likely be unrelated to hiding Nathan); and several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani being in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. Giuliani's national poll numbers began steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later, multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states was seen at risk.

Despite his strategy, Giuliani did compete to a substantial extent in the January 8, 2008 New Hampshire primary, but finished a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote. Similar poor results continued in other early contests, as Giuliani's staff went without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January Florida Republican primary. The shift of the electorate's focus from national security to the state of the economy also hurt Giuliani, as did the resurgence of McCain's similarly-themed campaign. On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain and Romney. Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming large Super Tuesday states, including that of his home New York, Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain.

Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears, and in June 2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part of the proceeds go towards his campaign. During the 2008 Republican National Convention, Giuliani gave a prime-time speech that praised McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin, while criticizing Democratic nominee Barack Obama. He cited Palin's executive experience as a mayor and governor and belittled Obama's lack of same, and his remarks were met with wild applause from the delegates. Giuliani continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the remainder of McCain's eventually losing campaign.

Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani returned to work at both Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani. He said his political career was not necessarily over, and did not rule out a 2010 New York gubernatorial or 2012 presidential bid. A November 2008 Siena College poll indicated that although Governor David Paterson was popular among New Yorkers, he would have just a slight lead over Giuliani. By February 2009, after the prolonged Senate appointment process, a Siena College poll indicated that Paterson was losing popularity among New Yorkers, and showed Giuliani with a fifteen point lead in a hypothetical contest. Giuliani will most likely not run for U.S. Senate in 2010, and will instead opt to throw his support behind Congressman Peter T. King. In January 2009, Giuliani said he would not decide on a gubernatorial run for another six to eight months, adding that he thought the governor should be given time to focus on his job rather than run a two year campaign.

Giuliani has been married three times. On October 26, 1968, soon after he graduated from law school, he married Regina Peruggi, whom Giuliani had known since childhood. In the mid-70s the marriage was in trouble and in 1975 they agreed to a trial separation. Peruggi did not accompany him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's Office. Giuliani met local television personality Donna Hanover sometime in 1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. Giuliani filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982. The Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was ended in two ways: a civil divorce was issued by the end of 1982, while a Roman Catholic Church annulment of the Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was granted at the end of 1983, according to Giuliani, because he discovered that he and his wife were second cousins, rather than third cousins, and they did not have the Church dispensation thus needed. Giuliani and Peruggi did not have any children.

Giuliani and Hanover then married in a Catholic ceremony at St. Monica's Church in New York on April 15, 1984. They had two children, son Andrew Harold (born January 30, 1986 in New York) and daughter Caroline (born 1989). Andrew first became a familiar sight by misbehaving at Giuliani's first mayoral inauguration, then with his father at New York Yankees games, of which Rudy Giuliani is an enthusiastic fan; Andrew also was an accomplished junior golfer.

Beginning in 1996, Giuliani and Hanover's public relationship became distant, with Hanover appearing at few public events. In 1997, a Vanity Fair article reported that Giuliani had a romantic relationship with Cristyne Lategano, the mayor's communications director. The mayor and Lategano denied the allegations. On Father's Day, 1995 Giuliani had told reporters that he was returning to Gracie Mansion to play ball with Andrew. However, he instead went to City Hall, to a basement suite with his press secretary. Three hours later, Hanover, angered, appeared at City Hall; a mayoral aide prevented her from entering the suite.

On May 10, 2000, Giuliani called a press conference to announce that he intended to separate from Hanover. Hanover, however, had not been told about his plans before his press conference, an omission for which Giuliani was widely criticized. Giuliani now went on to praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman", and said about his marriage with Hanover, that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown to live independent and separate lives." Hours later Hanover said, "I had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because of his relationship with one staff member," a reference to Lategano. Giuliani, Hanover and Nathan appeared on the cover of People in the aftermath.

Giuliani then moved out of Gracie Mansion and into an apartment belonging to two gay friends. Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in October 2000, and a public battle broke out between their representatives. Nathan was barred by court order from entering Gracie Mansion (where Hanover still lived) or meeting his children before the divorce was final. In May 2001, in an effort to mitigate the bad publicity from the proceedings, Giuliani's attorney revealed (with the mayor's approval) that Giuliani was impotent due to his prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and radiation all by yourself," Giuliani said. "You need people to help you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith Nathan." Giuliani argued in a court case that he aimed to introduce Nathan to his children on Father's Day, 2001, and that Hanover had prevented this visit. Giuliani and Hanover finally settled their acrimonious divorce case in July 2002, after his mayoralty had ended, with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6.8 million settlement and granting her custody of their children.

Giuliani subsequently married Nathan on May 24, 2003, and thus gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. It was also Nathan's third marriage after two prior divorces.

By March 2007, The New York Times and the New York Daily News reported that Giuliani had become estranged from both his son Andrew and his daughter Caroline, missing major events in their lives, such as graduations, and sometimes going long stretches without talking to them, and that neither of them was taking part in his presidential campaign. Caroline uses her mother's surname, Hanover, rather than Giuliani's, and according to reports, she did not inform Giuliani when she was accepted to Harvard. She also linked her personal Facebook page for a while to a page related to the campaign of Democratic presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama.

Giuliani explored hosting a syndicated radio show, and was reported to be in talks with Westwood One about replacing Bill O'Reilly before that position went to Fred Thompson.

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Rudy Giuliani presidential campaign, 2008

Rudy Giuliani

Rudy Giuliani’s 2008 presidential campaign began in October 2005 when the “Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc” organization was formed. The committee filed papers with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) on November 22, 2006. On February 5, 2007, Giuliani officially entered the 2008 U.S. presidential election by filing a "statement of candidacy" with the FEC.

As the 2008 Republican presidential nomination field first formed, Senator John McCain was viewed as the front-runner. However, Giuliani held a lead in the nationwide polls by January 2007. McCain's candidacy faltered, and throughout 2007 Giuliani maintained his lead in both national poll numbers and in fundraising. Political observers predicted that Giuliani's position would fall, either due to Republican base voters discovering his liberal positions on some social issues, his personality or management style leading to campaign blunders, or former Senator Fred Thompson entering the race. Giuliani did not campaign actively in the early voting states, focusing instead on surviving those smaller early states. He campaigned in Florida throughout the primary season, hoping that a win in the primary there on January 29, 2008, would give him enough momentum to win the large primaries on Super Duper Tuesday (February 5), such as Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Illinois, and California,, where he had already campaigned heavily.

After finishing third in Florida's primary, Giuliani's campaign indicated he would withdraw from the race following this poor showing. On January 29, 2008, news agencies announced that Giuliani was withdrawing from the race and endorsing John McCain.

A draft movement began in late 2005 to get Giuliani to run for President of the United States in 2008. No Italian American had ever been elected president. Throughout 2006, rumors circulated regarding a possible Giuliani campaign, abetted by hints from the former Mayor himself. Over the Independence Day holiday weekend in July 2006, Giuliani declared that he would run for president in 2008 if he could raise sufficient funds. In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee. In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live that he was indeed running. Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc. registered with the FEC in October 2005, becoming the first federal committee formed with the sole purpose of encouraging former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani to run for President of the United States in 2008. Throughout 2006, various rumors circulated concerning a Giuliani campaign for President and Giuliani himself hinted at his intentions.

On November 13, 2006, Giuliani announced during a leadership conference in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania that he had taken the first step toward a potential 2008 White House bid by forming the Rudy Giuliani Presidential Exploratory Committee, Inc., allowing him to raise money for national travel and for a Presidential campaign. By forming the committee Giuliani was able to travel and gauge support without formally declaring his candidacy, which would subject him to federal fundraising laws. The committee filed papers with the FEC on November 22, 2006.

On February 5, 2007, Giuliani officially entered the race for the 2008 US presidential election by filing a "statement of candidacy" with the Federal Election Commission.

On June 11, 2007, Giuliani released "Twelve Commitments to the American People" that he wants to accomplish if he is elected President; these were intended to become the centerpieces of his campaign. Two days later, he released an expanded version of the twelve commitments, with more detailed goals for each one.

In June 2007, Giuliani drew some criticism for dropping out of the August Iowa Straw Poll. Some Republican officials felt the move could be seen as "dissing Iowa." In response, a man in a chicken suit, known as the Iowa Chicken, began demonstrating at Giuliani's appearances in Iowa. Despite this, Giuliani maintained that he was still planning on competing in the Iowa Caucus. Some political observers have opined that the Straw Poll results are bought by campaigns.

Polls taken in June showed that Giuliani's Iowa support had dropped slightly from the mid-20s to 15% - though this may have been due to the exposure of Fred Thompson rather than his dropping out of the Iowa Straw Poll. The same month, a poll of New York voters revealed that a majority of New York City voters disapproved of him, while Giuliani's favorable rating among New York Republicans was 76%.

In July, the Associated Press reported that Giuliani was focusing his time on more populated states with more delegates, such as California and Florida, rather than primary battleground states like Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina. Indeed Sam Brownback, a lower-tier candidate had more staff in Iowa than Giuliani did. Some political analysts called it a risky strategy that had never been attempted before by a Republican presidential candidate. On August 11, 2007 the Ames Straw Poll was held. Mitt Romney led with 31.6 percent; Thompson received 1.4 percent; Giuliani received 1.3 percent.

Giuliani unveiled his health care plan on July 31, 2007 which proposed a tax deduction (not a tax credit) of up to $15,000 for families and up to $7,500 for individuals who purchase private individual health insurance policies. Giuliani wrote about his plan on August 3, 2007 in an article to the Boston Globe. In it he stated that taxes should not be raised to provide more health care but instead lowered for "individual empowerment". He talked about the creation of a tax-free Health Savings Account that would allow individuals and small businesses to stock up on health insurance and in effect lower rates.

Giuliani wrote an essay speaking about the need for changes in the State Department and a "revolution in diplomatic affairs". The essay entitled "Toward a Realistic Peace" recognizes the need for a return to the policies of the Eisenhower Administration, praising it as the last coherent policy-making and policy-executing system in Washington. The essay criticizes the Clinton Administration stating,"We have responded forcefully to the Terrorists' War on Us, abandoning a decade long — and counterproductive — strategy of defensive reaction in favor of a vigorous offense." Giuliani stresses that diplomacy should be an important facet of foreign policy but cannot be overused.

On September 21, 2007, numerous news agencies reported on Giuliani's interruption by, presumably, a phone call from his wife during a publicized National Rifle Association speech.

The official stance from Giuliani is not yet concrete, as during the same day Mitt Romney's political camp revealed a prior video wherein June, he had again left his cell phone on and received another call from his wife.

According to the Wall Street Journal editorial page, Giuliani has taken approximately 40 calls during speeches.

On November 9, 2007, Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to several top positions during his mayoralty, brought in as a partner at Giuliani Partners, and recommended for Secretary of Homeland Security, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges. Due to questions about Giuliani's judgement in promoting Kerik's career, The New York Times said that the forthcoming legal proceedings could "cast a shadow" on Giuliani's presidential campaign, while The Washington Post said the indictment "was expected to provide an opening for political rivals" of Giuliani. Giuliani said that "I made a mistake of not clearing him effectively enough. I take the responsibility for that," and defended Kerik's performance in the city positions he had held. Giuliani also declined to say whether he might one day issue a presidential pardon for Kerik.

By late November 2007, there were consistent attacks, sometimes personal, between Giuliani and fellow Republican contender Mitt Romney. The tension between them was increased by Romney's lead in polling in the early caucus and primary states of Iowa and New Hampshire, while Giuliani continued to lead in national polls. The two traded charges on past appointments, with Giuliani questioning Romney's appointment of a Massachusetts judge who allowed the release without bail of a convicted killer who was subsequently charged in another murder. Romney responded that Giuliani was "throwing stones from a glass house" in light of the Kerik indictment. The two also sparred over the immigration issue during a November 28 debate.

In late November 2007, The Politico reported that while Mayor of New York in 1999 and 2000, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair, in The Hamptons. Giuliani denied that he or his administration had done anything improper, and called the charges a "political hit job". Questions continued in the press not over his need for the security, but over the appearance of trying to hide the expenses in the city budget, which Giuliani aides eventually said was due to vendor payment efficiencies. Shortly thereafter, the New York Daily News reported another angle on the story, stating that Giuliani had ordered police department protection and chauffering services for Nathan in early 2000, before her relationship with him had even become public.

During late November and early December 2007, several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani's consultancy firm, Giuliani Partners, and his law firm, Bracewell & Giuliani. The Village Voice and others reported that Giuliani Partners had been given contracts from the Qatar Ministry of the Interior for security advice and consulting since 2005, and these contracts had been overseen by then-Minister of Religious Affairs Abdullah Bin Khalid Al-Thani, a member of Qatar's royal family who is considered sympathetic to Al Qaeda and who had sheltered future September 11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed from the FBI in 1996. The New York Times reported that Bracewell & Giuliani had lobbied for an Ethiopian political faction opposing its government and in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. In fact, Giuliani had already stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners in June 2007, although this action was not disclosed publicly. On December 4, 2007, in the wake of the latest attention to the firm's client base, Giuliani Partners announced the stepping down, with Giuliani defending his work there, saying, "Everything I did at Giuliani Partners was totally legal, totally ethical. There's nothing for me to explain about. We acted honorably, decently." Giuliani maintained his equity interest in the firm..

The Nathan security billing and Giuliani client base stories dominated Giuliani's press coverage for much of a week and coincided with a significant drop in his national poll figures and a worsening of his fortunes in the first caucus and primary states. The The Wall Street Journal stated that "These are perilous times for Rudy Giuliani." In a lengthy interview on the nationally-televised Meet the Press, Giuliani defended the security detail decisions, saying they were warranted by threat assessments at the time, and defended his refusal to release a full Giuliani Partners client list, saying every client of significance had already been pointed out in the press. Within a month after the original Nathan report, an investigation of city records by The New York Times revealed that the billing of mayoral travel-related expenses to obscure city agencies had started two years before the Nathan visits began, and totaled a hundred times more than what was spent for the Nathan visits, thus strongly suggesting that the Nathan visits "had nothing to do with any accounting legerdemain." Nevertheless the political damage had been done.

By mid-December 2007, Giuliani was keeping to his strategy of campaigning in big states such as New York, New Jersey, Florida, California, Illinois, Missouri, and other Super Duper Tuesday states, while the other contenders focused on the earlier states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina. However, the strategy was now seen as at risk. Not only were his poll numbers in the early states falling — despite an attempt for a while to boost his standing in New Hampshire with $3 million of radio and television advertising, which ended up not having any effect — but he had lost his national lead and had fallen into statistical ties with Mike Huckabee. Most dangerously, his lead in Florida, the first state that he planned to heavily contest, was dwindling as well. Furthermore, changes in Giuliani's campaign messaging went largely unnoticed by the press, given that they were focused on Iowa and New Hampshire developments. Giuliani's woes were further symbolized when he got sick with flu-like symptoms during a campaign flight and was admitted overnight to Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri as a precaution. Giuliani resumed limited campaigning in subsequent days; the campaign would not give precise details of tests done; Giuliani then stated it had been a "terrible headache", not flu, and a full medical report would be given after Christmas; but the health question had become an ongoing campaign story. Giuliani did indeed get a clean bill of health from his doctor on the day after Christmas, but again a minor amount of political damage had been done.

In the January 3 Iowa Republican caucus, in which Giuliani essentially did not compete, he finished a distant sixth out of seven candidates with 4 percent of the vote. He had been second in polls in the state as late as early October.

Giuliani did compete, off and on, in the January 8 New Hampshire primary, making the second most appearances there of any Republican after Mitt Romney and spending the third most money there after Romney and John McCain. He had been second in the polls in the state as late as the start of December, but finished fourth in the primary with 9 percent of the vote, far behind McCain and Romney and trailing as well third-place finisher Mike Huckabee.

Meanwhile, Giuliani's results in the early primaries and caucuses were very low: sixth place with 3% of the vote in the Michigan primary (where he had leading in polls as recently as mid-December), sixth place with 4% of the vote in the Nevada caucuses, and sixth place with 2% of the vote in the South Carolina primary (where he had been tied for the lead in polls as late as mid-December).

Giuliani said on January 8 that Florida was "real important" to the campaign, and that they would put "almost everything" into Florida. Several senior staffers in the campaign went without their January paychecks in order to assure that more funds could be spent in the state. A January 14, 2008 poll from Rasmussen Reports showed that Giuliani, Mike Huckabee, John McCain and Mitt Romney were all tied within the margin of error On January 23, 2008 the Miami-Herald reported that Giuliani's Florida support was in "freefall" as polls showed him fighting Huckabee (who was only campaigning part-time in the state) for third place, well behind front-runners McCain and Romney. By a January 24, 2008 poll, Giuliani was in third place in Florida with 20% of the vote, compared to 23% for John McCain and 27% for Mitt Romney.

Another blow to Giuliani was the late endorsements for McCain of Florida Senator and former Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mel Martinez on January 25 and the highly popular Governor of Florida, Charlie Crist, on January 26. Crist had planned to endorse Giuliani in the early autumn, and had still been expected to do so in early January. The Giuliani camp was "visibly upset" by Crist's endorsement of McCain. Whereas previously Giuliani had declared that he would campaign on regardless of the Florida results, he now was more vague. By the day before the Florida vote, a new Quinnipiac University final poll showed Giuliani's slide continuing down to 14 percent, 18 points behind McCain. Giuliani chartered a Boeing 727 to conduct a barnstorming tour of airports: Orlando Sanford International Airport, St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, Southwest Florida International Airport (near Fort Myers), and Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, with actor-surrogate Jon Voight along with him, but the crowds for the tarmac rallies usually struggled to reach one hundred. Giuliani's staff handed out gifts to members of the press on the plane, which one reporter said seemed like a "going-away present". By that night, it was being reported that Giuliani might quit the race if he failed to pull off a surprise win there.

Although he hoped to win most of the necessary delegates for the nomination on Super Tuesday, February 5, late January polls by Rasmussen Reports showed that he was in 5th place in California with 11% support , and a Rasmussen Reports poll out of New Jersey showed him in 2nd place with 27% support. One New Jersey poll had him losing a 32-point lead since October and trailing McCain there. Perhaps the biggest concern for Giuliani was the fact that two polls released on January 20 showed McCain with a double-digit lead in Giuliani's home state of New York. A Zogby poll showed a close race in New York, but also put McCain ahead.

Thus, following his Florida defeat, there was no reason to continue on. Giuliani flew cross-country to give his withdrawal announcement on January 30 at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, endorsing McCain at the same time.

Giuliani's defeat continued a long tradition of Mayors of New York not succeeding at attempts for higher office.

Giuliani's campaign has faced challenges due to repeated scandals involving political associates and campaign staff. In June 2007 the Giuliani campaign was forced to change its choice for Pennsylvania campaign chair after the media noted the selectee, Pennsylvania GOP National Committeeman Bob Asher, had been convicted of bribery-related charges in 1986. Giuliani's state chairman in South Carolina, state treasurer Thomas Ravenel, was indicted on June 19, 2007 on cocaine distribution charges. Giuliani released a statement saying that Ravenel had stepped down from his position in the Giuliani campaign. Ravenel's father, former congressman Arthur Ravenel Jr., replaced his son as state co-chair. The elder Ravenel had previously seen his own share of controversy due to racially inflammatory remarks. Ravenel has called the NAACP the "National Association of Retarded People" and once said that his fellow white congressional members operated on "black time" which he characterized as meaning "fashionably late." In July 2007 it was revealed that U.S. Senator and Giuliani Southern Region campaign chair David Vitter (R - Louisiana) had been associated with an alleged Washington prostitution service.. Subsequently, a former brothel operator from New Orleans also asserted Senator Vitter had been one her clients. Giuliani stated that the allegations were "a personal matter" for Vitter.

In the foreign policy realm, Podhoretz and others drew media attention, because of their Neoconservative roots and calls for the assertive use of American power abroad to spread American values.

PAUL: No, non-intervention was a major contributing factor. Have you ever read about the reasons they attacked us? They attack us because we've been over there. We've been bombing Iraq for ten years. We've been in the Middle East . I think Reagan was right. We don't understand the irrationality of Middle Eastern politics. Right now, we're building an embassy in Iraq that is bigger than the Vatican. We're building 14 permanent bases. What would we say here if China was doing this in our country or in the Gulf of Mexico? We would be objecting. We need to look at what we do, from the point of view of what it would be like if someone did it to us.

MODERATOR: Are you suggesting we invited the 9/11 Attacks, sir?

PAUL: I'm suggesting that we listen to the people who attacked us and the reason they did it, and they are delighted that we're over there because Osama bin Laden has said, "I'm glad you're over on our sand because we can target you so much easier." They've already now since that time have killed 3,400 of our men, and I don't think it was necessary.

GIULIANI: That's really an extraordinary statement. That's an extraordinary statement, as someone who lived through the attack of September 11, that we invited the attack because we were attacking Iraq. I don't think I've heard that before, and I've heard some pretty absurd explanations for September 11th. And I would ask the congressman to withdraw that comment and tell us that he didn't really mean that.

MODERATOR: Congressman?

PAUL: I believe very sincerely that the CIA is correct when they teach and talk about blowback. When we went into Iran in 1953 and installed the Shah, yes there was blowback. The reaction to that was the taking of our hostages, and that persists. And if we ignore that, we ignore that at our own risk. If we think we can do what we want around the world and not incite hatred, then we have a problem. They don't come here to attack us because we're rich and we're free, they come and attack us because we're over there. I mean what would we think if other foreign countries were doing that to us?

Look, for someone who went to parochial schools all his life, this is a very frightening thing that’s happening right now. (Laughter.) But the reality is, I respect, you know, the opinion of Catholic — (off mike) — religious leaders of all kinds. Religion is very important to me, it’s a very important part of my life. But ultimately, as a — (off mike) — I’ve been in public life most of my life and taken oaths of office to enforce the law, I’ve got to make the decisions that I think are the right ones in a country like ours. And my view on abortion is that it’s wrong, but that ultimately government should not be enforcing that decision on a woman. That’s — that is my view that I — I consult my religion, I consult my reading of the Constitution, I consult my views of what I think are important in a pluralistic society, and the reality that we have to respect the fact that there are people that are equally as religious, equally as moral that make a different decision about this. And should government put them in jail?

After the debate, Giuliani's press secretary notified the police about a freelance reporter, Matt Lepacek, a reporter for infowars.com (a conspiracy theory website that promotes that the government had prior knowledge about 9/11) after he asked the press secretary a question about conspiracy theories of 9/11. The police arrested the reporter on charges of criminal trespassing, though the reporter claims he held a CNN press pass. Lepacek, released on bail, said he was pursuing criminal indictments against Giuliani for the incident. Video of the arrest was captured and put on YouTube.

The May 15 South Carolina debate was sponsored by Fox News. News Corporation, the parent company of Fox News, is a client of the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm. Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid charged after the debate that this represented a conflict of interest, and that Fox News moderators Chris Wallace and Wendell Goler and post-debate interviewer Sean Hannity failed to ask Giuliani pertinent follow-up questions regarding the Ron Paul exchange about the causes of the September 11 attacks.

The charge reflected other observations that Fox News has pro-Giuliani tendencies: Giuliani and Fox News head Roger Ailes have professional and personal connections that go back to the late 1980s, a study by The Hotline found that Giuliani had spent more time on Fox News interview programs than any other Republican candidate, and Hannity is known in particular to be a Giuliani admirer. However, Fox News anchor Brit Hume stated he had been no directives about coverage of the Giuliani campaign. On November 13, 2007, former publisher Judith Regan, with whom Giuliani appointee and partner Bernard Kerik had had an extramarital affair, filed a $100 million defamation lawsuit against News Corporation, claiming among other things that News Corporation executives told her in 2004 to lie to federal investigators about her relationship with Kerik, in order to protect Giuliani's future presidential campaign.

An October 29, 2007 study by the Project for Excellence in Journalism and the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy found that Giuliani had received the most media coverage of any of the Republican 2008 presidential candidates, being the subject of 9 percent of all stories (compared to 7 percent for John McCain and 5 percent for Mitt Romney). Giuliani's coverage amount trailed that of Democratic contenders Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama, however. The study found that 28 percent of pertinent stories had a favorable tone towards him, 37 percent had an unfavorable tone, with the balance neutral. This ratio was very close to Clinton's, better than McCain's, and worse than Obama's.

By January 2008, things had changed. Measurements by the University of Navarra indicated that throughout that month, Giuliani's amount of global media attention was a distant fourth among Republican candidates, trailing Huckabee, Romney, and McCain.

Giuliani's campaign has hired Scott Howell & Company, headed by Heath Thompson who as George W. Bush's campaign director in South Carolina in the 2000 election helped the president win the state by eleven points. The company is led by Scott Howell, the same consultant that produced the controversial "Harold, call me" advertisement against Rep. Harold Ford, Jr. that critics deemed racially insensitive but helped Bob Corker win the senate race. The firm has also represented the winning campaigns of John Thune of South Dakota, Norm Coleman of Minnesota, Jim DeMint of South Carolina, Saxby Chambliss of Georgia and Kay Bailey Hutchison of Texas. Also representing the Giuliani camp as consultants are, Chris Mottola and Associates, BrabenderCox and Crossroads Media.

In late November 2007, Giuliani began airing his first television advertisement, in key caucus-primary states. Surprinsingly to some observers, it did not mention 9/11 once, but instead concentrated solely on the transformation of New York City under the Giuliani mayoralty. Observers likened the ad to Republican icon Ronald Reagan's famous "Morning in America" ad.

According to the Federal Elections Commission Giuliani raised $18,029,974 in the first quarter of 2007, second to Mitt Romney among Republicans and fourth overall. Out of that money he spent only $6,080,239. Among that money he raised the second-most from Wall Street of all presidential candidates, with $1.8 million raised.

In the second quarter, Giuliani revealed that he raised $17 million, first among Republicans and third overall behind Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton.

In the third quarter, Giuliani raised $11 million, first among Republicans. Overall he has raised $44 million and has $16 million cash on hand as of October 4, 2007.

Since the start of his Presidential campaign, Giuliani has raised a total of $45,846,956 for his political campaign. $43,457,397 has come from private donors, $1,850,000 from authorized committee transfers, $259,691 from PACs, and $2,250 from Party Committees. Giuliani's total disbursements amounted to $30,211,662, and a total of $464,004 was reimbursed to individuals. Giuliani also refunded $2,600 to PACs.

Rudy Giuliani's presidential campaign has been endorsed by some notable individuals including businessmen, politicians, athletes, and actors.

President and Chief Executive Officer of Forbes, Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine and former perennial Presidential candidate Steve Forbes announced his endorsement of Giuliani on March 27, 2007. He cited the economic platform and leadership of the candidate in his reasoning for support. "I am honored to support Rudy Giuliani for President, As Mayor of New York City, Rudy Giuliani showed how exercising fiscal discipline, including tax cuts, lowers deficits, spurs economic growth, and increases revenue. It is time the rest of the country benefit from a true fiscal conservative leader who gets real results." Forbes was named National Campaign Co-Chair and Senior Advisor for the campaign following his endorsement.

In October 2007, Former Wisconsin Governor, Secretary of Health and Human Services and 2008 presidential candidate Tommy Thompson endorsed Giuliani. Thompson told the Associated Press in a statement that "Rudy Giuliani has shown that he is a true leader. He can and will win the nomination and the presidency. He is America's mayor, and during a period of time of great stress for this country he showed tremendous leadership." Thompson was the first withdrawn Republican presidential candidate and the first member (past or present) of the Bush Administration to make an endorsement in the race.

Texas Governor Rick Perry endorsed Giuliani for President of the United States stating that "Rudy Giuliani is the most prepared individual of either party to be the next President...I'm not talkin' about any mayor, I'm talkin' about America's Mayor". The endorsement fueled speculation that Giuliani would select Perry to be his running mate for Vice President if he won the nomination.

On November 7th, 2007, evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson endorsed Rudy Giuliani for President of the United States at a news conference in Washington D.C. This was viewed by observers as a key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of Giuliani's positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights. It also showed that support from evangelicals was split among multiple candidates, as withdrawn candidates Sam Brownback had recently endorsed John McCain and prominent figures Bob Jones III and Paul Weyrich had recently endorsed Mitt Romney; as the Baltimore Sun noted, "It suggests that Christian conservatives aren't ready to coalesce behind any single candidate and are unable to stop Giuliani from winning the nomination." The action was protested by the U.S. Islamic advocacy group CAIR, which said that Robertson had "a clear record of anti-Muslim bigotry" and called on Giuliani to renounce the endorsement.

Poll numbers suggested that Giuliani was the front-runner among other Republican presidential candidates for the party's nomination throughout 2007. His campaign's perception by the public was both negative and positive on issues of the past and present. He focused on trying to woo conservative Republicans and Southerners while keeping favor with moderates. His campaign's major strategy was making the case that he was the best candidate pointing to his leadership of New York City during the September 11, 2001 attacks and his coordination of the emergency response in the immediate aftermath, as well as his track record of success in reducing crime and improving the economy of New York City. The prospect of a Republican candidate with the potential to win New York State's electoral votes would have been a strategic victory for the Republican Party, although the prospect was perhaps less likely with New York Senator Hillary Clinton running on the Democratic ticket.

Early polls showed him with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support and the front-runner in the race for the Republican nomination. However in June 2007 a poll of New York voters revealed that Giuliani had less support in his home state than elsewhere, and particularly that a majority of New York City voters disapproved of him. However the Associated Press reported that Giuliani did appear to be the favorite candidate of the largest Gay Republican organization, the Log Cabin Republicans, although some within the organization expressed concerns that Giuliani has spoken against civil unions.

Giuliani and the nine other Republican presidential contenders participated in the first MSNBC 2008 Republican Presidential Candidates Debate on May 3, 2007, held at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. In the non-scientific six part MSNBC online vote following the debate, Giuliani finished in 3rd place (15%).

Giuliani had emerged as the frontrunner after overtaking John McCain in the polls but with the exposure of Fred Thompson to the field his poll numbers dropped. But even with all this he still maintaied the majority throughout 2007. According to the CBS News Poll taken June 26-28, Giuliani held the lead over Thompson 34% to 21%.

As of September 2007, most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only Senator Thompson and Governor Romney showing greater support in some state polls. Specifically, state-by-state polls for the 2008 Republican nomination showed that Giuliani polls ahead of all other candidates in a majority of states including the delegate-rich states of California, New York, and Florida.

A CNN/Opinion Research Corp. Poll conducted November 28 found that in the crucial state of Florida 53% of voters found Giuliani to be the best candidate to fight the War on Terrorism. 33% of the Florida voters found Giuliani to be the best to deal with the Iraq conflict and 34% viewed him as the best candidate concerning economic issues. Giuliani leads among primary voters in Florida receiving 38%, leading his closest rival, Mitt Romney by 21%.

Conservatives have both been highly critical and supportive of Giuliani's campaign. Many like the fact that Giuliani has a record of reducing abortions and pornography while others cannot forgive the fact that Giuliani holds pro-choice positions and have voiced their criticism.

Giuliani is a Roman Catholic who is pro-choice, supports same-sex civil unions, and embryonic stem cell research. Pro-life groups, such as the Republican National Coalition for Life, have already announced their intention to oppose Giuliani or any other pro-choice candidate, though evidence suggests that even among these voters, he enjoys some support. This may be because Giuliani has pledged to nominate Supreme Court Justices in the mold of John Roberts, Sam Alito, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony Kennedy (all Ronald Reagan appointees, former colleagues of his in the Reagan Justice Department or both).

Giuliani has not strayed away from his pro-choice stances, instead remarking that it is better for leaders to make abortion rare and increase the number of adoptions than to criminalize the practice. As mayor, the abortion rate in New York City dropped by 16% in comparison to the 12% drop nationally. Adoptions raised by 133% while Giuliani was mayor. Some social conservatives have accepted this as a reason for their support, contending that Giuliani's position on abortion is the most pragmatic pro-life view ever taken by a candidate on the issue.

Giuliani expressed pro-choice positions during election years when he was running for mayor of New York City, (1989 and 1993), and when he was running for a New York State seat in the United States Senate (2000).

Some Catholic archbishops have come forward criticizing Giuliani's views on abortion as not consistent with the teachings of the Catholic church. Catholic bishops had said that 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry should be denied communion, and many believe the same will happen with Giuliani's campaign. “It’s becoming ever more clear that Rudy Giuliani suffers from John Kerry syndrome. It’s just a matter of time before more bishops step up, because he shares the identical position on abortion as John Kerry and Hillary Clinton," said Joseph Cella, president of a Catholic advocacy group in Michigan.

George Marlin and other socially conservative Republican activists have expressed concern about whether it is appropriate to nominate Giuliani as the Republican party's standard bearer. They cite Giuliani's history of taking liberal positions and making statements that are consistent with liberals in areas of social policy, particularly as relating to abortion, gay and lesbian rights, gun control, and illegal immigration. Some national leaders of the Christian right, at a meeting of the Council for National Policy in September 2007, at the Grand America Hotel in Salt Lake City, decided that they would consider supporting a third-party candidate for president if Giuliani were to win the Republican nomination. The CNP's statement read, "If the Republican Party nominates a pro-abortion candidate, we will consider running a third-party candidate." Attending the meeting were notable social conservatives, including James Dobson, Richard Viguerie, Tony Perkins and Morton Blackwell.

The Council for National Policy is scheduled to have a conference in late October 2007. Most Republican presidential candidates have pledged to appear, with the exception of Giuliani.

However, Giuliani has pointed out that Conservative political pundit George Will wrote near the end of his time as mayor that Giuliani had run the most conservative government in America in the last 50 or 60 years.

His first marriage to his second cousin may also be an issue. Similarly, in March 2007, John Lott writing in the National Review criticized Giuliani's initiation of New York City's lawsuit against gun makers.

Moderates expressed a desire to have a candidate who holds fiscally conservative views and expresses social libertarianism. Supporters pointed to his electability. The Giuliani campaign held moderates as their main supporters but as Giuliani tried to woo Conservatives many moderates felt alienated by the campaign.

An August 2006 poll from Rasmussen Reports showed that the American public perceives Giuliani overall to be a moderate. Specifically, of those polled, 36% classified him as a moderate, 29% as a conservative, and 15% as a liberal, with the remaining 20% being unsure.

Giuliani cast himself as the candidate who could beat Hillary Clinton in the general election by being competitive in traditional blue states such as New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. A May 10, 2007 Quinnipiac poll put Giuliani ahead of Hillary Clinton, 48% to 42% in Connecticut. A September 26, 2007 Quinnipiac poll taken in New Jersey gave the mayor a slight lead over Hillary Clinton in the state, 45% to 44%. In more traditionally Republican states, Giuliani did not fare as well. A November 9–11th poll had Clinton and Giuliani tied at 45% in Virginia.

Supporters claim that while Giuliani was mayor of New York he showed that he had an abundance of leadership skills pointing to his actions in the aftermath of the World Trade Center Attacks. In 2002 Giuliani released a book called Leadership in which he gave techniques that he used while he was mayor. According to a Gallup Poll taken February 9–11 2007, responders who supported Giuliani were asked why they supported him. The results showed that 13% of supporters did so because of Giuliani's strong leadership and 53% did so because of leadership related topics such as time as mayor and handling of 9/11. Another poll taken by Marist showed that 42% of Giuliani supporters believed that leadership is the most important quality for a candidate, this is compared to 34% of McCain supporters who believed the same.

However Giuliani also has also been criticized by vocal opponents from his mayoral days, homing in on Giuliani's support for the NYPD during the racially-charged cases of Abner Louima and Amadou Diallo and his crackdown on porn shops in Times Square. In November 2006, civil-rights lawyer and frequent Giuliani critic Norman Siegel pledged to "swift boat" the former Mayor by bringing attention to these and other controversies.

At the time Giuliani became Mayor, 2,000 murders occurred every year and 11,000 crimes occurred every week in New York City. With Giuliani as the mayor the crime rate dropped by 56% and is now considered one of the safest big cities in the country. Supporters of Giuliani contend that this is evidence of his leadership skills and efficiency.

In an article published by New York Daily News in September 2006, Sally Regenhard, mother of a 9/11 Fire Department of New York victim and later activist, was quoted saying, "There's a large and growing number of both FDNY families, FDNY members, former and current, and civilian families who want to expose the true failures of the Giuliani administration when it comes to 9/11," and that she intends to "Swift Boat" Giuliani and his campaign.

In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter accusing Giuliani of "egregious acts" against the 343 firemen who had died in the September 11th attacks. The letter asserted that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill." The Giuliani camp stated that the union was politically motivated from tough contract negotiations from Giuliani's second term as mayor and quoted a retired firefighter, Lee Ielphi (a father of 9-11 victim who was called to duty as a firefighter that day), saying "Firefighters have no greater friend and supporter than Rudy Giuliani." The union denied political motivation for the criticism.

The IAFF and other unions have argued that work at Ground Zero of the World Trade Center have led first responders at the site to develop Ground Zero illnesses, cancer and sarcoidosis.

Giuliani declined to appear at the IAFF-sponsored March 14, 2007 forum. The bipartisan presidential forum in Washington, D.C., included ten other major Democratic and Republican candidates for president.

Firefighters and their families confronted Giuliani with protests at two of four May 28, 2007 fund-raisers on the occasion of his birthday. Jim Riches, an official at a firefighters' union and the father of a fallen Ground Zero firefighter, said, "We have all the UFA, the UFOA, and the fire members are all behind us -- the International Association of Fire Fighters.... And we’re going to be out there today to let everybody know that he’s not the hero that he says he is." The unions' complaints focus on the malfunctioning radios used by the fire department on September 11, 2001 and what they claim was a lack of coordination at the Ground Zero site.

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Political positions of Rudy Giuliani

Below are remarks and positions of Rudy Giuliani, former candidate for the Republican nomination for President of the United States.

An August 2006 poll from Rasmussen Reports showed that the American public perceives Giuliani overall to be a moderate. Specifically, of those Americans polled, 36% classified him as a moderate, 29% as a conservative, and 15% as a liberal, with the remaining 20% being unsure.

Giuliani was originally a Democrat, and supported both John F. Kennedy and George McGovern in their presidential bids. He switched to the Republican Party in 1980 after a short stint as an Independent.

Giuliani has pointed out that Conservative political pundit George Will wrote at the end of Giuliani's time as mayor that he had run the most conservative government in America in the last 50 or 60 years.

Giuliani has said that he cut taxes 23 times as mayor of New York City. However, the city's Independent Budget Office has pointed out that seven of these tax cuts were state initiatives, and that Giuliani had actually opposed the largest cut which was due to come with the expiration of a 12 1/2-percent surcharge on the city's personal income tax. Giuliani supported President Bush's tax cuts.

Giuliani has not signed a pledge by Americans for Tax Reform (signed by every Republican presidential nominee since 1988) to not raise taxes while in office.

By 2007, Giuliani was more amenable to a flat tax, but still claimed difficulties in adopting one. In an interview, he said: "If we were doing income tax for the first time. In other words, if we were starting off new back at the beginning of the last century, then probably we should go with a -- we probably should've gone with a flat tax, maybe two levels of tax, but really simple. Our economy has kind of grown up now on depreciation and deductions and industries have grown up around that and so I don't know exactly how much you can simplify it, but you sure have to make a stab at it." Later that week, in accepting Forbes' endorsement of his own presidential candidacy, Giuliani said that "a flat tax would make a lot of sense".

We have to adjust the AMT. That has to be reduced. We have to get rid of the death tax, which is going to go to zero in 2010, which is going to create an incentive -- I can't imagine what kind of an incentive it's going to create. It's going to go to zero in 2010. And then in 2011, it's going to go to 55 percent. And we have to make sure that the tax cuts that went into effect, that that level remains. Otherwise, we're going to have one of the biggest tax increases in history in 2011. And I would look to try to regularize the rates and look for some marginal reduction, even beyond what we're doing right now.

With regard to Social Security, Giuliani has expressed his opposition to a tax increase but has declined to rule it out.

On February 26, 2007, Giuliani said that he was against any notion of universal health care in America, which would mean a "socialization" of American medicine. "That would be a terrible, terrible mistake. have to be free market solutions. They have to be a competitive system." Giuliani did say that it is an appropriate role for the government to "find ways" to expand access to health insurance.

On July 29, 2007, Giuliani announced his five key health care advisors: Daniel P. Kessler, Scott W. Atlas, David G. Gratzer, Sally C. Pipes, and Donald W. Moran.

On July 31, 2007, Giuliani unveiled his health care plan which proposed a tax deduction (not a tax credit) of up to $15,000 for families and up to $7,500 for individuals who purchase private individual health insurance policies.

Giuliani wrote an August 3, 2007 article for the Boston Globe on his official position on health care. In it he stated that taxes should not be raised to provide more health care but instead lowered for "individual empowerment". He talked about the creation of a tax-free Health Savings Account that would allow individuals and small businesses to stock up on health insurance and in effect lower rates.

Giuliani was a supporter of public financing for sports stadiums and arenas as mayor of New York, including $194 million in the budget for sports arenas for 2001. Days before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build a $1 billion stadium. Of $1.6 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation. The plan also called for forgiving $80,000 that the Mets owed the city in cable revenues and giving both teams an additional $25 million in planning money. The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams. The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadiums, and would get low-cost electricity from New York state.

During his eight years as mayor, Giuliani was a constant advocate of publicly funded stadiums. Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities KeySpan Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. The dual $1 billion plans had also been put forth unsuccessfully by Giuliani in 1996. Giuliani faced questions about how to finance these stadiums, while the city struggled to balance the budget. Recently built stadiums in Baltimore and Cleveland had cost one-third to one-fourth the $1 billion set aside for the proposed New York stadiums; the $1 billion stadiums were to be the most expensive in American history. His 1998 plan to relocate the Yankees to the west side of Manhattan had been met with strong opposition; at that time, $3 million in city money was given to the Yankees for site planning. Six city officials were sent on a city trip to explore stadiums in Baltimore, Denver and other cities.

In September 2007, the influential journal Foreign Affairs published a major exposition of Giuliani's views on foreign policy.

Giuliani believes that the leaders of Iran have objectives that are similar to those of al-Qaeda. In a New York Times interview he said, " movement has already displayed more aggressive tendencies by coming here and killing us," and asserted that Iran has "a similar objective in their anger at the modern world".

Giuliani was described by Newsweek magazine in January 2007 as "one of the most consistent cheerleaders for the president’s handling of the war in Iraq." Later that year he supported Bush's proposal for a surge in the number of U.S. troops in Iraq.

Giuliani has been considered one of the staunchest supporters of Israel among the candidates. A project created by Haaretz, rated Giuliani as the best candidate for Israel. Giuliani urged NATO to admit Israel, as well as several other nations to help combat terrorism.

Giuliani did not address the fact that coal-generated electricity produces more carbon dioxide than other fossil fuels, and was not asked what specific measures could be taken to reduce the environmental impacts of coal. His Texas-based law firm, Bracewell & Giuliani, is a major lobbyist on behalf of coal-fired power plants and the fossil fuel industry.

Commenting on Al Gore's movie, An Inconvenient Truth, Giuliani said he feels that the film did not go far enough to outline what the United States can do to combat global warming.

Giuliani has a history of taking positions and making statements that are liberal in areas of social policy, particularly as relating to abortion, gay and lesbian rights, gun control, illegal immigration and school prayer. During the 2008 presidential campaign he has sought to present a more conservative image vis-a-vis abortion, gun rights and illegal immigration. He remains hawkish on the War on Drugs, and opposes the medicinal use of marijuana.

Giuliani expressed pro-choice positions during his campaigns for mayor of New York City, (1989 and 1993), a seat in the United States Senate (2000) and in his 2008 presidential run.

He had also stated that he disagreed with President Bush's veto of public funding for abortions.

As mayor, Rudy Giuliani will uphold a woman's right of choice to have an abortion. Giuliani will fund all city programs which provide abortions to insure that no woman is deprived of her right due to an inability to pay. He will oppose reductions in state funding. He will oppose making abortion illegal. Although Giuliani is personally opposed to abortion, his personal views will not interfere with his responsibilities as mayor.

Rudy Giuliani supports reasonable restrictions on abortion such as parental notification with a judicial bypass and a ban on partial birth abortion—except when the life of the mother is at stake. He’s proud that adoptions increased 66% while abortions decreased over 16% in New York City when he was mayor. But Rudy understands that this is a deeply personal moral dilemma, and people of good conscience can disagree respectfully.

These statements are consistent with his six contributions to Planned Parenthood in the 1990s. The payments, totaling $900, were made in 1993, 1994, 1998 and 1999. Planned Parenthood is one of the top abortion advocates and abortion providers in the United States.

As mayor, Giuliani stated that he was against banning late-term abortions, and that he didn't see his position on that changing. He told The Albany Times Union that he would not support a ban on late-term abortions. He also stated that Bill Clinton made the right decision when he vetoed legislation in 1997 banning intact dilation and extraction, often referred to as "partial birth abortion". Nonetheless, he praised a 2007 Supreme Court decision upholding a 2003 ban on the procedure, saying that this was because the 2003 law had included "more scientific language protecting the life of the mother." However, Media Matters disputed Giuliani's contention that more scientific language had been inserted into the 2003 bill.

I don't. I support the Hyde Amendment. I hate abortion. I wish people didn't have abortions. I believe that the Hyde Amendment should remain the law. States should make their decision. Some states decide to do it. Most states decide not to do it. And I think that's the appropriate way to have this decided. I supported it in New York, but I think, in other places, people can come to a different decision.

As long as we're not creating life in order to destroy it, as long as we're not having human cloning, and we limit it to that, and there is plenty of opportunity to then use federal funds in those situations where you have limitations. So I would support with those limitations.

Giuliani only favors capital punishment for murder in certain circumstances. One such example is that he has advocated the death penalty for terrorists following September 11.

Giuliani expressed frustration with the New York City Board of Education. He said in April 1999 that he would like to "blow up" the Board of Education.

In the 1998 case of a New York City public schoolteacher who led her class in prayer, Mayor Giuliani condemned her actions and said that "if in fact she was using her position in order to teach her religion, then that would be a dismissible offense." Giuliani later said that the teacher should have received a warning rather than lose her job.

However, in 1999 Giuliani sent out national fundraising letters in which he portrayed himself as in favor of school prayer, the posting in schools of the Ten Commandments, and in general support for a greater role for faith in the public sphere. On August 15, 2007 Giuliani told an Iowa audience that government has gone too far in removing God from schools and that he supports prayers in school ceremonies. In 2000 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against prayer before football games. Likewise a federal court in Iowa ruled against the singing of the Lord's Prayer at commencement ceremonies.

He also supports school prayer in regards to praying for victims of 9/11.

As mayor of New York, Giuliani was a proponent of gun control, but, while running for President, has made statements supporting the right to carry concealed weapons.

During his time in the United States Department of Justice in the early 1980s, Giuliani said that a mandatory waiting period before purchasing a handgun was "sensible and moderate".

As Mayor of New York, Giuliani became a nationally visible figure in favor of national gun control measures, beginning with an appearance on Meet the Press in late 1993. He was in favor of the 1993 Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act and the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban.

Clinton further said that he was "grateful" for Giuliani's "dedicated" support of the legislation.

Beginning in 1997, he regularly criticized states in the Southern United States for having permissive laws on gun sales, that fed an illegal movement of guns into New York City; he said that 60 percent of guns found in New York came from Florida, Georgia, Virginia, and the Carolinas. He endorsed amendments to city laws requiring gun owners to use trigger locks and prohibiting guns within a thousand feet of schools.

On June 20, 2000, the City of New York filed a lawsuit against gun manufacturers and distributors. Giuliani accused gun companies of "deliberately manufacturing many more firearms than can be bought for the legitimate purposes of hunting and law enforcement." Giuliani also said, "This lawsuit is meant to end the free pass that gun industry has enjoyed for a very, very long time.... The more guns you take out of society, the more you are going to reduce murder." The lawsuit remains active. During his abortive run for the New York Senate seat in 2000, he advocated a uniform national standard for all gun owners and supported legislation that gave New York State the most restrictive gun laws in the nation.

In a February 2007 Sean Hannity interview, he said that " is part of the Constitution. People have a right to bear arms," and that while tough gun-control laws were needed in New York City, "in another place, more rural, more suburban ... you have a different set of rules." He applauded the March 2007 Parker v. District of Columbia United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit decision that struck down D.C.'s highly restrictive Firearms Control Regulations Act of 1975. His campaign officials declined to say whether Giuliani would still support the federal assault weapons ban, the imposition of federal rules on the states, or his claims about Southern states feeding weapons into the North. Giuliani has also stated that decisions regarding concealed carry laws should be left to the states.

During Giuliani's mayoralty he oversaw major crackdowns on illegal drugs, especially marijuana. He also indicated that he will continue to arrest, prosecute, and imprison patients who use marijuana.

As prosecutor under the Reagan administration in the 1980s, Giuliani defended the administration's position to keep thousands of Haitian refugees in detention centers rather than granting them asylum after they fled the regime of Jean-Claude Duvalier.

Giuliani was a strong defender of illegal immigrants' rights as mayor, fighting for them to be allowed to use public services and attend public schools. But he has changed some of his position on the 2007 campaign trail.

He pressed for $12 million to start a city agency which would help immigrants gain citizenship. He defended the city's policy of not allowing police and hospital workers to ask about citizenship status.

He pursued this lawsuit to the U.S. Supreme Court, but he lost the case.

In April 2006, Giuliani went on the record as favoring the US Senate's comprehensive immigration plan which includes a path to citizenship and a guest worker plan. He rejected the US House approach because he does not think House Resolution 4437 could be enforced.

In February 2007, in a meeting with California Republicans, Giuliani was quoted as saying "We need a fence, and a highly technological one." Giuliani also reiterated his support for some sort of path to citizenship for certain illegal immigrants after a process to be determined, but added that at the end of the process the immigrants should "display the ability to read and write English" and must assimilate into American society. In 2000, Giuliani said, "I wish that we would actually make America more open to immigrants." He does not believe in deportation of illegal immigrants and advocates a "tamper-proof" national ID card and database for illegal immigrants.

On September 7, 2007, during a CNN interview, he said that illegal immigrants are not criminals.

On the topic of legal immigration, in June 2007 Giuliani rejected Tom Tancredo's calls for a temporary stop of legal immigration. Giuliani stated: "We should always be open to legal immigration." In September 2007, Giuliani affirmed that legal immigration should be increased.

In 2006, on numerous occasions, he has stated thoughtful well educated judges whether liberal or conservative would be what he would appoint. He would not hold any political philosophy as a litmus test.

But in a February 2007 interview with Hannity, Giuliani said he would nominate Supreme Court justices who are "very similar, if not exactly the same as," John Roberts and Samuel Alito. In a February 2007 interview with Hugh Hewitt, Giuliani mentioned those two as well as Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, and Clarence Thomas as models, and said that former Solicitor General Ted Olson would possibly be one of his primary advisers in selecting judges on lower federal courts as well as Supreme Court justices. He further stated that abortion would still not be a litmus test and such views would not even be asked of any prospective nominee.

More recently, on July 17, 2007, at a campaign rally in Iowa, Rudy has been talking more conservatively, stating that he would be appointing judges like Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia (not even mentioning the very slightly less conservative Roberts, Alito, or Kennedy) for the Supreme Court but abortion would still not be a litmus test either way.

Giuliani supports all forms of same-sex civil unions but has a personal viewpoint against same-sex marriage.

In a 2004 interview with Bill O'Reilly on Fox News, Giuliani said, "I'm in favor of ... civil unions." On NBC's "Meet the Press", also in 2004, Giuliani stated that he would oppose the federal ban on gay marriage.

Giuliani opposes the Don't ask, don't tell policy, but thinks the repeal of it should wait until after the war on terror is over.

He also supports LGBT adoption, sexual orientation to be added to the hate crimes legislation, and all other rights.

The Empire State Pride Agenda issued a report of Giuliani's record and statements on LGBT rights.

Giuliani has expressed that he believes the President has the authority to arrest U.S. citizens with no judicial review, but that "he would want to use this authority infrequently".

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Rudy Giuliani during the September 11 attacks

Donald Rumsfeld and Rudy Giuliani at the site of the World Trade Center, on November 14, 2001.

As Mayor of New York City during the September 11, 2001 attacks, Rudy Giuliani played a key role in the response to the terrorist attack against the World Trade Center towers in New York City. For this he earned great praise at the time, but he has also become the subject of substantial criticism regarding preparedness before the attack and aspects of the response afterwards.

Giuliani has been criticized for ignoring the ongoing threat to New York City from Islamist terrorism in the years between the World Trade Center 1993 bombings and September 11.

Prior to September 11, Giuliani reportedly never referred to the 1993 bombing publicly except for a single metaphorical reference in his inaugural address not referring to terrorism. Giuliani also reportedly never discussed the threat of terrorism with the U.S. Attorney in his district, and had to ask Henry Kissinger for background information on Osama Bin Laden after the September 11th attacks despite the fact that the Bin Laden had previously declared a Fatwa against the United States, the Clinton administration had established a section of the CIA devoted exclusively to hunting Bin Laden, and despite Clinton's military attacks on Al Qaeda.

In September 2006, Village Voice writer, and long-time Giuliani critic, Wayne Barrett and senior producer for CBSNews.com, Dan Collins, published The Grand Illusion: The Untold Story of Rudy Giuliani and 9/11, one of the strongest reassessments of Giuliani's role in the events of 9/11. The book highlights his decision to locate the Office of Emergency Management headquarters (long-identified as a target for a terrorist attack) on the 23rd floor inside the 7 World Trade Center building, a decision that had been criticized at the time in light of the previous terrorist attack against the World Trade Center in 1993.

The Office of Emergency Management was created to coordinate efforts between police and firefighters, but with the distraction of evacuating its headquarters, it was not able to conduct these efforts properly.

The 9/11 Commission noted in its report that lack of preparedness could have led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. The Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Giuliani testified to the Commission, where some family members of responders who had died in the attacks appeared to protest his statements. A 1994 mayoral office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty. Replacement radios were purchased in a no-bid contract. They were implemented in early 2001. However, in March 2001 the replacement radios were found to be faulty also.

Fire Department chiefs issued orders for the firefighters to evacuate. However, the order was issued over the radios that were not working in the towers, thus, the 343 firefighters inside the Twin Towers could not hear the evacuation order. They remained in the towers as the towers collapsed. However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11 Commission he said that the firefighters ignored the evacuation order out of an effort to save lives.

Also criticized was Giuliani's focus on personal projects and turf wars rather than vital precautions for the city, and his role in communications failures (which may have been the result of patronage deals inside City Hall). Kirkus Reviews stated, "Giuliani may not have been directly responsible for all those woes, but they happened on his watch".

Giuliani was highly visible in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. After the attacks, Giuliani coordinated the response of various city departments while organizing the support of state and federal authorities for the World Trade Center site, for city-wide anti-terrorist measures, and for restoration of destroyed infrastructure. He made frequent appearances on radio and television on September 11 and afterwards — for example, to indicate that tunnels would be closed as a precautionary measure, and that there was no reason to believe that the dispersion of chemical or biological weaponry into the air was a factor in the attack.

Giuliani subsequently rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the aftermath of the attack.

Giuliani claimed on August 9, 2007 that "I was at Ground Zero as often, if not more, than most workers.... I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them." This angered NY Fire and Police personnel 911 workers. A New York Times study a week later found that --while his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks-- he spent a total of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days. The recovery workers often spent hundreds of hours working 8 to 12 hour shifts.

In the wake of the attacks, Giuliani was hailed by many for his leadership during the crisis. When polled just six weeks after the attack Giuliani received a 79% approval rating among New York City voters, a dramatic increase over the 36% rating he had received a year earlier — 7 years into his administration.

In his public statements, Giuliani mirrored the emotions of New Yorkers after the September 11 attacks: shock, sadness, anger, resolution to rebuild, and the desire for justice to be done to those responsible. "Tomorrow New York is going to be here", he said. "And we're going to rebuild, and we're going to be stronger than we were before...I want the people of New York to be an example to the rest of the country, and the rest of the world, that terrorism can't stop us." Giuliani was widely praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue and recovery efforts, but others, including many many police, rescue workers, and families of WTC victims argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a hero for political gain." Additionally, many New Yorkers have pointed out that his actions on and immediately after September 11 were so widely praised in part because they were so surprising. Prior to the terrorist attacks, Giuliani was perceived by many as a divisive and combative politician, who frequently made enemies of minority leaders and those whose political or social views differed from his own.

As an avid and public fan of the New York Yankees, who won four World Series Championships during his time as mayor, Giuliani was frequently sighted at Yankee games, often accompanied by his son. On September 21, 2001, the first game was played in New York City after the attacks, with the New York Mets at home facing the Atlanta Braves. Despite his being a Yankee fan, the crowd cheered for him and for his leadership over the preceding days.

The term "America's Mayor", now in common usage among Giuliani supporters, was coined by Oprah Winfrey at a 9/11 memorial service held at Yankee Stadium on September 23, 2001.

The 9/11 attack occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September 25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month emergency extension of his term, from its scheduled expiration on January 1 to April 1, due to the circumstances of the emergency besetting the city. He threatened to challenge the law imposing term limits on elected New York City officials and run for another full four-year term, if the primary candidates did not consent to permit the extension of his mayoralty.

Advocates for the extension contended that Giuliani was needed to manage the initial requests for funds from Albany and Washington, speed up recovery, and slow down the exodus of jobs from lower Manhattan to outside New York City.

Opponents viewed the extension as an unprecedented power grab and as a means for Giuliani to profit politically from the sudden, international prominence of the role of New York City Mayor. Voices were also countering the refrain that it was the mayor who had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have come together if Bozo was the mayor", said civil-rights activist Al Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. "He was a power-hungry person", Sharpton also said.

Although a provision for emergency extensions is written into the New York State Constitution (Article 3 Section 25), in the end leaders in the State Assembly and Senate indicated that they did not believe the extension was necessary. The election proceeded as scheduled, and the winning candidate, the Giuliani-endorsed Republican Michael Bloomberg, took office on January 1, 2002 per normal custom.

Giuliani has been subject to increased criticism for downplaying the health effects of the air in the Financial District and lower Manhattan areas in the vicinity of the Ground Zero. He moved quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. He said, in the first month after the attacks, "The air quality is safe and acceptable." However, in the weeks after the attacks, the United States Geological Survey identified hundreds of asbestos hot spots of debris dust that remained on buildings. By the end of the month the USGS reported that the toxicity of the debris was akin to that of drain cleaner. It would eventually be determined that a wide swath of lower Manhattan and Brooklyn had been heavily contaminated by highly caustic and toxic materials. The city's health agencies, such as the Department of Environmental Protection, did not supervise or issue guidelines for the testing and cleanup of private buildings. Instead, the city left this responsibility to building owners.

Firefighters, police and their unions, have criticized Giuliani over the issue of protective equipment and illnesses after the attacks. An October 2001 study by the National Institute of Environmental Safety and Health said that cleanup workers lacked adequate protective gear. The Executive Director of the National Fraternal Order of Police, Sally Regenhard, reportedly said of Giuliani: "Everybody likes a Churchillian kind of leader who jumps up when the ashes are still falling and takes over. But two or three good days don't expunge an eight-year record." she went on to say, "There's a large and growing number of both FDNY families, FDNY members, former and current, and civilian families who want to expose the true failures of the Giuliani administration when it comes to 9/11." She told the New York Daily News that she intends to "Swift Boat" Giuliani.

A May 14, 2007 New York Times article, "Ground Zero Illness Clouding Giuliani's Legacy," gave the interpretation that thousands of workers at Ground Zero have become sick and that "many regard Mr. Giuliani's triumph of leadership as having come with a human cost." The article reported that Giuliani seized control of the cleanup of Ground Zero, taking control away from experienced federal agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. He instead handed over responsibility to the "largely unknown" city Department of Design and Construction. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators. Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal if cleanup work slowed. The New York Times faulted his decision-making on the post September 11 cleanup of the World Trade Center site, in the lead editorial of the May 22, 2007 issue. Additionally, the Times took Giuliani to task for his handling of worker safety at the site and the issue of first responder health problems.

Giuliani wrote to the city's Congressional delegation and urged that the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses be limited, in total, at $350 million. Two years after Mayor Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.

Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton is contemplating calling Giuliani to testify before a Senate committee on whether the government failed to protect recovery workers from the effects of polluted Ground Zero air.

Matt Taibbi wrote an article for the June 14, 2007 issue of Rolling Stone, blaming Giuliani for rushing the recovery effort and setting a poor example for recovery workers.

In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter accusing Giuliani of "egregious acts" against the 343 firemen who had died in the September 11th attacks. The letter asserted that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill," it said, adding: "Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on them." Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal action alleging that New York City negligently dumped body parts and other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill.

A book later published by Commission members Thomas Kean and Lee Hamilton, Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, revealed that the Commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning with Giuliani when he appeared before the Commission, because its members were afraid of public outcry. Family members had interrupted the proceedings, demanding an explanation from Giuliani for the lack of working radios. Some were removed from the hearing. The Commission had experienced criticism the morning of Giuliani's testimony for allegedly implying that police and firefighters had not done their jobs properly with their hard questions directed to some of Giuliani's staff the previous day. Commission member John Lehman had said that New York City's disaster planning was "not worthy of the Boy Scouts, let alone this great city." The morning of Giuliani's testimony, the New York Post ran a picture of a New York firefighter with the headline "Insult" in response to Lehman's statement.

By April 2007 it was reported that Giuliani had been forced to limit his appearances in New York City due to the increasing protests by family members of 9/11 victims, particularly police, fire and other emergency workers.

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Source : Wikipedia