Saskatchewan

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Posted by kaori 03/01/2009 @ 21:37

Tags : saskatchewan, counties, canada, world

News headlines
2 CBC northern bureaus to stay open in Saskatchewan, Manitoba - CBC.ca
(CBC) The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has changed its mind about closing one-person northern bureaus in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In March, CBC said budget cuts would force it to close bureaus in La Ronge, Sask., and Thompson, Man....
Soros Fund Cuts Petrobras Stake, Raises Retailers - Bloomberg
By Saijel Kishan May 15 (Bloomberg) -- Billionaire George Soros cut stakes in his biggest holdings, Petroleo Brasileiro SA and Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan, and bought more shares of retailers in the first quarter. Soros Fund Management LLC,...
Calvert owed debt of thanks - StarPhoenix
When it came time to voice his last two questions in the Saskatchewan legislature, former premier Lorne Calvert was true to form -- he stuck up for the people he represents. And true to his character, Mr. Calvert's questions reflected his fierce...
Willie T to Saskatchewan? It could happen … - Arizona Daily Star
Willie Tuitama's fledgling pro football career received a major boost this week, when the CFL's Saskatchewan Roughriders offered the UA's all-time leading passer and touchdown king a roster spot. The full story is here, courtesy of Tuitama's hometown...
Eskimos' defence continues to get facelift - National Post
On Friday the Canadian Football League club confirmed a pair of late Thursday evening trades that sends import defensive end/linebacker Kitwana Jones to Edmonton from Saskatchewan. In exchange, the Green and Gold give up import rookie quarterbacking...
Potash to Keep Output Cuts Until China Demand Returns - Bloomberg
By Christopher Donville May 14 (Bloomberg) -- Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan Inc., the world's largest producer of its namesake crop nutrient, will continue to curtail output until demand from China increases. Shipments of the potassium product to Asia...
Snow Hammers Saskatchewan - Saskatoonhomepage.ca
That's what local farmers are estimating, some parts of eastern Saskatchewan and western Manitoba, received overnight. Ron Risling is the administrator for the RM of Saltcoats southeast of Yorkton. He says snow was so heavy this morning that graders...
Debate goes nuclear in Saskatchewan - Prairie Post South Saskatchewan
By Elizabeth Huber The nuclear debate is heating up in Saskatchewan. Anyone looking to add insight or an inquiry to the provincial reaction to uranium report may do so at an upcoming consultation meeting in Swift Current, June 3 from 7-9:30 pm at the...
Oilsands Quest Inc (BQI) CEO Christopher H Hopkins buys 50000 Shares - GuruFocus.com
Its lead project is an oil sands exploration program being conducted in the province of Saskatchewan. Oilsands Quest is engaged in a significant industry-leading oil sands exploration program in Saskatchewan the first in that province's history....
Opponents call for police probe into NDP membership controversy - CBC.ca
Bill Boyd, a cabinet minister and elected member of the rival Saskatchewan Party, said he wants to know what happened to the bogus membership applications. "Are these documents still available?" Boyd asked. "What has happened to them …...

Geography of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan Wetlands Canada Goose

The geography of Saskatchewan (suskăch'uwun, –wän", săs"–), is unique among the provinces and territories of Canada is some respects. It is one of only two landlocked regions (Alberta is the other) and it is the only region whose borders are not based on natural features like lakes, rivers or drainage divides. The borders of Saskatchewan, which make it very nearly a trapezoid were determined in 1905 when it became a Canadian province. The population in 2006 was 968,157, approximately a 1% decrease from 2001 Saskatchewan has a total area of 651,036 square kilometres (251,366 sq mi) of which 591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi) is land and 59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) is water.

The province's name comes from the Saskatchewan River, whose Cree name is: Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning "swift flowing river".

Saskatchewan can be divided into three regions: grassland (part of the Great Plains) in the south, aspen parkland in the center, and forest (taiga) in the north, part of the Canadian Shield. Its principal rivers are the Assiniboine River, North and South Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan's economy is based on its abundant natural resources, notably petroleum, natural gas, coal, potash, uranium and forests, and agriculture (wheat and other grains, and cattle ranching).

The original inhabitants of Saskatchewan were the Cree Indians in the south and central regions and the Dene in the north. The Hudson's Bay Company controlled the area named Rupert's Land beginning in 1670. The French established settlements in the region c. 1750, though the Hudson’s Bay Company made the first permanent settlement in 1774. The Hudson’s Bay Co. ceded Rupert’s land in 1869, and by 1870, the North West became a member of the Dominion of Canada as a part of the Northwest Territories. From 1882 into the early 1900s, the extension of the railroad brought in large numbers of European settlers. Saskatoon is the largest city and Regina is the second largest city and capital.

Saskatchewan is an approximate trapezoid. Its western border runs concurrent with the 4th meridian or the 110°W latitude, separating Saskatchewan from the province of Alberta. This border extends in 1,225 kilometers (761 mi) length and was established in 1905 when both provinces were formed. The eastern border is not parallel with the prime meridian (1st meridian), but rather is west of the merdian. Manitoba became a province in 1870, enlarging in 1882. The western boundary of Manitoba then was the road allowance between ranges 29 and 30 west of the prime meridian which was surveyed by 1930. When Saskatchewan was formed in 1905, Manitoba and the District of Keewatin were the neighboring areas to the east. Manitoba was enlarged again in 1912 north to the 60th parallel becoming Saskatchewan's only eastern neighbor which separates Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This remaining section of the border was determined by surveyed between 1961 and 1972. The southern border is the Canada – United States border or the 49th parallel determined by the Convention of 1818. This boundary was not formally established until the 1867 survey. The Northwest Territories is north of the 60th parallel which forms the northern border of the province. This border extends 445 kilometers (277 mi) across northern Saskatchewan.

The geology of Saskatchewan can be divided into two main geological regions, the Pre-Cambrian or Cambrian shield and the Phanerozoic or Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Within the Cambrian shield exists the Athabasca sedimentary basin. Meteorite impacts have altered the natural geological formation processes. The Quaternary period is the most recent geological process when the prairies were affected by glacial events. There are six notable meteorite or comet impact craters in Saskatchewan. Carswell, Deep Bay and Gow Lake have affected the Canadian Shield area of the north. In the southern Phanerozoic crater are the Viewfield, Elbow and Maple Creek structures. The Carswell structure is largest astrobleme at 35 kilometers (22 mi) in diameter.

Archaelogists have dated the first human settlements to 9,500 BCE. The four groups inhabiting the area at the time of the first European contact were the Cree, Assiniboine, Salteaux and Dene. Henry Kelsey of the Hudson's Bay Company is considered the first European person to see this area. The earliest trading posts were made by the French; however, the first permanent settlement was established at Cumberland House in 1774 by the HBC. In addition, several more ports were set up by British fur traders among the area's waterways. The forested area of the Canadian Shield was the favoured area for early settlement, and the economy was heavily dependant on hunting and trapping.

In 1870, the Hudson Bay's Company sold Rupert's Land and ceded its rights to the Canadian Government. The region became a part of the Northwest Territories. The majority of the Canadians of indigenous descent in the Northwest Territories sold their lands to the government in the 1870s and were settled on reservations. Additional native peoples and Métis (people of mixed French and indigenous Canadian ancestry), led by Louis Riel, rebelled between 1884 and 1885 and were suppressed.

The arrival of settlements and the rail lines also brought agricultural economies and development in the Central Lowlands Area. The Great Plains or Palliser Triangle area to the south was mainly used for ranching economies. In the beginning of the 20th century, Saskatchewan farmers created cooperative organizations to maintain grain marketization. During the drought and depression of the 1930s, the population decreased as immigration nearly ended and numerous families left. During World War II, conservation programs and the increased demand for grain revived the economy.

Being in the center of the North America, Saskatchewan is far removed from the moderating effects of any large body of water and therefore has a temperate continental climate, Köppen climate classification type Dfb and Dfc. Hot to warm summers and cold winters mean that the annual temperature range can be up to 65°C. On average, Saskatchewan has 211 days per year when the temperature drops below freezing. Plough winds, cyclones, Supercell hail or high precipitation rain storms and tornadoes are eventful summer occurrences. Midale reached 45 °C (113 °F) on July 5, 1937, the highest recorded temperature in Canada, and Estevan, with its 2,435 hours of bright sunshine each year is Canada's sunniest place.

Compared to average values from all thirteen Canadian provinces and territories, Saskatchewan is the sunniest province or territory year round (2206 hours per year), has the second lowest annual snowfall (145 cm), the fourth lowest total precipitation (428 mm) and the second hottest summer (22.5 °C). The number of frost-free days ranges from 95 days in the north (Prince Albert, for example) to as high as 124 days in the south (Estevan).

The native flora of the Saskatchewan includes vascular plants, plus additional species of other plants and plant-like organisms such as algae, lichens and other fungi, and mosses. Non-native species of plants are recorded as established outside of cultivation in Saskatchewan, of these some non-native species remain beneficial for gardening, and agriculture, where others have become invasive, noxious weeds. Saskatchewan is committed to protecting species at risk in Canada. The growing season has been studied and classified into plant hardiness zones depending on length of growing season and climatic conditions. Biogeographic factors have also been divided into ecoregions and floristic kingdoms across Saskatchewan, and natural vegetation varies depending on elevation, moisture, soil and weather. The study of ethnobotany uncovers the interelation between humans and plants and the various ways people have used plants for economic reasons, food, medicine and technological developments. The Government of Saskatchewan has declared 3 indigenous plants as provincial symbols.

The Fauna of Saskatchewan include several diverse land and aquatic animal species. From the multiplicity of invertebrates and vertebrates two have been chosen as symbols of Saskatchewan. Cenozoic vertebrate fossils reveal the geological evolution of the interior plains and its prehistoric biogeography. Today, Saskatchewan's ecosystems range from the sub-arctic tundra of the Canadian Shield in north Saskatchewan to aspen parkland, and grassland prairie. Fauna inhabit areas unique to their own specific and varied breeding, foraging and nesting requirements. With a large land and water area, and small population density, the ecoregions of Saskatchewan provide important habitat for many animals, both endangered and not. Naturalists observing wildlife have enumerated shrinking and growing wildlife populations. They advocate programs and methods to preserve or re-introduce endangered species and identify programs of control for outbreaks of wildlife populations. A broad diversity of wildlife habitats are preserved as parks and reserves protecting the feeding and breeding grounds of protected and indigenous fauna of Saskatchewan.

The total area of freshwater is 59,366 km². There are two main river basins, the Nelson and Churchill River Basins, both of which drain into Hudson Bay. Qu'Appelle and Souris, the North and South Saskatchewan, confluence is east of Prince Albert becoming the Saskatchewan which are all a part of the Nelson river basin. The Churchill River connects lakes and streams through the lower portion of the Canadian shield. Rupert's Land a historical political division of Canada comprised all lands of the Hudson Bay drainage system between the years 1670 to 1870. Frenchman River does not flow east to Hudson bay, but rather south to the Missouri River, which is part of the Missouri river basin catchment area. The Mackenzie River basin of north Saskatchewan flows north draining into the Arctic Ocean, which belongs to the Mackenzie river basin drainage area.

There are over 10 thousand of lakes across Saskatchewan, the main lake region being north of the tree line in the Canadian Shield. Saskatchewan's largest lake is Lake Athabasca which sits astride the Saskatchewan - Alberta border. The second in size is Reindeer Lake which is located on the Saskatchewan - Manitoba border. Other lakes of notable size would be Wollaston, Cree, Frobisher, and Lac La Ronge. The deepest water point 220 meters (722 ft) is located in Reindeer Lake at the Deep Bay Structure site which was created by a meteor impact.

Saskatchewan is also home to preserved wetlands which are partially submerged areas of land. Saskatchewan's waterways also contain bogs, as well as the salt water lakes. Quill Lake is Canada's largest saltwater lake, Chaplin Lake is a Western Hemispheric Shorebird Reserve Network and Little Manitou, an ehdorheic lake, is a popular tourist resort. Brine shrimp siheries have existed on sodium magnesium sulphate lakes such as Chaplin, Frederick, Ingebright, and Little Manitou lakes.

Saskatchewan has 34 provincial parks that provide for recreational use or preserve wilderness, special environments or sites of historic importance.

The province is also home to two of Canada's 36 National Parks. Grasslands National Park, which covers 907 square kilometres (350 sq mi) in southernmost part of the province, was established in 1981. The other is Prince Albert National Park covering 3,874 square kilometres (1,496 sq mi) in central Saskatchewan, which was established in 1927.

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Saskatchewan

Map of Canada with Saskatchewan highlighted

Saskatchewan (IPA: /səs.ˈkætʃ.əw.an/, pronunciation (help·info)) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588,276.09 square kilometres (227,134.67 sq mi) and a population of 1,015,895 (according to 2008 estimates), mostly living in the southern half of the province. Of these, 233,923 live in the province's largest city, Saskatoon, while 194,971 live in the provincial capital, Regina. Other major cities, in order of size, are Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, and North Battleford. The province's name comes from the Saskatchewan River, whose name comes from its Cree designation: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, meaning "swift flowing river".

From a great scale, Saskatchewan appears to be somewhat a quadrilateral. However, because of its size, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928). Saskatchewan is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. It is also one of only two provinces that are land-locked, the other being Alberta.

Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Canadian Shield in the north and the Interior Plains in the south. Northern Saskatchewan is mostly covered by boreal forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (Grasslands National Park) are areas of the province that remained unglaciated during the last glaciation period. The province's highest point at 1,468 metres (4,816 ft) is located in the Cypress Hills. The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres (700 ft). The province has fourteen major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay, and Gulf of Mexico.

Saskatchewan lies far from any significant body of water. This, combined with its northerly latitude gives it a cold summer version of humid continental climate (Köppen type Dfb) in the central and most of the eastern part, drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate (Köppen type BSk) in the southern and southwestern part of the province. The northern parts of Saskatchewan — from about La Ronge northward — have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). Summers can be very hot, with temperatures sometimes above 32 °C (90 °F) during the day, and humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the United States during much of July and August. While winters can be bitterly cold, with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (0 °F) for weeks at a time, warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 in) annually across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August.

Prior to European settlement, Saskatchewan was populated by various indigenous peoples of North America including members of the Athabaskan, Algonquian, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux and Sioux tribes. The first European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the province's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House founded by Samuel Hearne in 1774.

In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province.

In the 1870s, the Government of Canada formed the Northwest Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia and Manitoba. The government also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as they are called today, and the Crown.

In 1885, post-Confederation Canada's first "naval battle" was fought in Saskatchewan, when a steamship engaged the Métis at Batoche in the North-West Rebellion.

A seminal event in the history of what was to become Western Canada was the 1874 "March West" of the federal government's new North-West Mounted Police. Despite poor equipment and lack of provisions, the men on the march persevered and established a federal presence in the new territory. Historians have argued that had this expedition been unsuccessful, then the expansionist United States would have been sorely tempted to expand into the political vacuum. And even had it not, then the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway would have been delayed or taken a different, more northerly route, stunting the early growth of towns like Brandon, Regina, Medicine Hat and Calgary — had these existed at all. Failure to construct the railway could also have forced British Columbia to join the United States.

Settlement of the province started to take off as the Canadian Pacific Railway was built in the early 1880s, and the Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey and gave free land to any willing settlers.

The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Post in south central Saskatchewan near the United States border.

In 1876, following the Battle of Little Bighorn Lakota chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Wood Mountain Reserve was founded in 1914.

Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Resistance in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom. He was hanged on November 16, 1885.

As more settlers came to the prairies on the railway, the population grew, and Saskatchewan became a province on September 1, 1905; inauguration day was held September 4.

The Homestead Act permitted settlers to acquire ¼ mi² of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life, distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour, a prosperous agrarian society was established.

In 1913, the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established as Saskatchewan's first ranchers' organization. Three objectives were laid out at the founding convention in 1913 have served as a guide: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the Stock Growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. Its farming equivalent, the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s and had close ties with the governing Liberal party.

In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan imported from the U.S. and Ontario and gained brief popularity in WASP nativist circles in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan) enjoyed about two years of prominence, then disappeared, the victim of widespread political and media opposition plus scandals involving their own funds.

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm industry trade show, with a heavy emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston, Denver, Louisville and Toronto.

According to the 2006 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German (30.0%), followed by English (26.5%), Scottish (19.2%), Irish (15.3%), Ukrainian (13.6%), French (12.4%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (7.2%), Polish (6.0%), Métis (4.4%), Dutch (3.7%), Russian (3.7%) and Swedish (3.5%) - although 18.1% of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".

The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30 %); the United Church of Canada with 187,450 (20 %); and the Lutherans with 78,520 (8 %).

Saskatchewan's economy is associated with agriculture; however, increasing diversification has meant that now agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting together make up only 6.8% of the province's GDP. Saskatchewan grows 45% of Canada's grain. Wheat is the most familiar crop and perhaps the one stereotypically associated with the province, but other grains like canola, flax, rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced. Beef cattle production in the province is only exceeded by Alberta. Mining is also a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world leader in potash and uranium exports. In the northern part of the province, forestry is significant.

Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Only Alberta exceeds the province in overall oil production. Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas.

A list of the top 100 companies includes The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO.

Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility.

The Tabulated Data covers the previous fiscal year (e.g. 2008 covers April 1, 2007 - March 31, 2008). All data is in $1,000s.

1 These values reflect estimates made after the mid-year fiscal update (April 1 - September 30).

2 These values reflect the estimated population at the end of the previous fiscal year.

3 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone. It does not reflect the debt of Government Service Organizations (Health Authorities, Crop Insurance Corporation, etc.) or Government Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations).

4 This value does not reflect a $334,000 personal income tax cut announced on October 21, 2008.

Saskatchewan has the same form of government as the other Canadian provinces with a lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the Crown in Right of Saskatchewan), premier, and a unicameral legislature.

For many years, Saskatchewan has been one of Canada's more progressive provinces, reflecting many of its citizens' feelings of alienation from the interests of large capital. In 1944 Tommy Douglas became premier of the first avowedly socialist regional government in North America. Most of his Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party.

Provincial politics in Saskatchewan is dominated by the New Democrats and the Saskatchewan Party. Numerous smaller political parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the Liberal Party, the Green Party and the Progressive Conservative Party, but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. After 16 years of New Democratic governments under premiers Roy Romanow and Lorne Calvert, the recent 2007 provincial election was won by the Saskatchewan Party under Brad Wall.

Federally, the province has been a stronghold of the New Democratic Party, although recent elections have been dominated by the Conservative Party. Of the 14 federal constituencies in Saskatchewan, 12 were won by members of the Conservative Party of Canada in 2006, and 13 of 14 were won by Conservatives in 2004, while the federal New Democratic Party has been shut out of the province for two consecutive elections. Since the resignation of Gary Merasty from the House of Commons, the only Liberal Member of Parliament in the province is former Finance Minister Ralph Goodale.

Politically, the province is characterized by a dramatic urban-rural split — the federal and provincial New Democratic Party dominate in the cities, while the Saskatchewan Party and the federal Conservatives are stronger in the rural parts of the province. While both Saskatoon and Regina (Saskatchewan's largest cities) are roughly twice the population of an urban riding in Canada, both are split into multiple ridings that blend them with rural communities.

This list does not include Lloydminster, which has a total population of 24,028 but straddles the Alberta-Saskatchewan border. As of 2006, only 8,118 people lived on the Saskatchewan side, which would make it Saskatchewan's 11th largest municipality. All of the listed communities are considered cities by the province, with the exception of Corman Park, which is a rural municipality. Municipalities in the province with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official city status.

The first education on the prairies was learned within the family group of the first nation or early fur trading family settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's Land later known as the North West Territories.

The first 76 North West Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins, and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings.

The roaring twenties and established farmers who have successfully proved up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education. Text books, normal schools for formally educated teachers, school curricula, state of the art school house architectural plans, provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room school house districts across Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of the one-room school house educational system in the late 1940s.

Following World War II, the transition from many one room school houses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean that the farmer could successfully manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.

School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.

Saskatchewan's flag was officially dedicated on September 22, 1969. The flag features the Armorial Bearing (Coat-of-Arms) in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the Prairie Lily, in the fly. The upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the gold lower half symbolizes the southern prairie wheat fields. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville.

Saskatchewan's heraldic shield contains a red lion on a yellow field, reversing the conventional heraldic colours, indicating the prairie fires of this region during the pre-settlement North-West Territories.

Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black.

In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh visited Regina, Saskatoon and Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.

Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately characterised as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients. Unlike in Medicare in Australia and private medicine in the UK, Saskatchewan sets a statutory tariff for medical services which may not be exceeded.

Canadian television sitcoms Corner Gas and Little Mosque on the Prairie, are both set in small Saskatchewan towns. The novels of W. O. Mitchell, Sinclair Ross, Frederick Philip Grove, Guy Vanderhaeghe, Michael Helm and Gail Bowen are also frequently set in Saskatchewan, as are children's novels of Farley Mowatt. The English naturalist "Grey Owl" spent much of his life living and studying in what is now Prince Albert National Park.

The Arrogant Worms song The Last Saskatchewan Pirate about a disgruntled farmer who takes up piracy on the namesake river, mentions various parts of the Province such as Saskatoon, Regina and Moose Jaw. Popular Québécois band Les Trois Accords recorded a song in French called Saskatchewan on their first album Gros Mammouth Album. It was the third single of that album and met moderate success in French Canada.

The Saskatchewan Roughriders are the province's only major professional sports franchise, and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation".

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University of Saskatchewan

Lilium "University of Saskatchewan" – the University of Saskatchewan centennial lily by plant breeder Donna Hay.

The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) is a coeducational public research university located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, founded over 100 years ago in 1907. The University of Saskatchewan Act was passed by the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan in 1995. It established the provincial university on April 3, 1907 "for the purpose of providing facilities for higher education in all its branches and enabling all persons without regard to race, creed or religion to take the fullest advantage". The University of Saskatchewan is now the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.

The university began as an agricultural college in 1907 and established the first Canadian university-based department of extension in 1910. 300 acres (1.2 km2) were set aside for university buildings and 1,000 acres (4 km2) for the U of S farm, and agricultural fields. In total 10.32 km² was annexed for the university. Currently, main University campus is situated upon 2,425 acres (10 km2) with another 500 acres (2 km²) allocated for Innovation Place Research Park. The University of Saskatchewan agriculture college still has access to neighbouring urban research lands. University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO) facility, (2003) develops DNA-enhanced immunization vaccines for both humans and animals. Since its origins as an agricultural college, research has played an important role at the university. Discoveries made at the U of S include sulphate-resistant cement and the cobalt-60 cancer therapy unit. The university currently offers over 200 academic programs. Duncan P. McColl was appointed as the first registrar, establishing the first convocation from which Chief Justice Edward L. Wetmore was elected as the first chancellor. Walter Charles Murray became the first president of the university's board of governors.

The institution was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research. The University was created on April 3, 1907 by a provincial statute known as the University Act. It provided for a publicly funded, yet independent institution to be created for the citizens of the whole province.

The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate (faculty), responsible for academic policy, and a board of governors (citizens) exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The scope of the new institution was to include colleges of arts and science, including art, music and commerce, agriculture with forestry, domestic science, education, engineering, law, medicine, pharmacy, veterinary science and dentistry.

It awarded its first degrees in 1912. In the early part of this century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology, law and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced.

Battleford, Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Regina, and Saskatoon all lobbied to be the location of the new university. Walter Murray preferred the provincial capital, Regina. In a politically influenced vote, Saskatoon was chosen on April 7, 1909.

Saskatchewan's Provincial University and Agricultural College were officially opened May 1, 1913 by Hon. Walter Scott.

The original architectural plan called for the university buildings to be constructed around a green space known as the bowl. Currently, the original university buildings are being connected by skywalks and tunnels. Clockwise, from the north; Thorvaldson Building (August 22, 1924) (Spinks addition); Geology, W.P. Thompson Biology (1960) adjoined to Physics Building (1921); College Building (May 1, 1913) (Administration addition); Saskatchewan cojoined with Athabasca Hall (1964); Qu'Appelle Hall (1916); Marquis Hall adjoined to Place Riel – Qu'Appelle Addition; Murray Memorial Main Library (1956); Arts (1960) cojoined with Law and adjoined to Commerce building complete the initial circle around the perimeter of the bowl.

Roughly adhering to the original plan of 1909, numerous colleges were established: Arts & Science (1909), Agriculture now called Agriculture and Bioresource (1912), Engineering (1912), Law (1913), Pharmacy now called Pharmacy & Nutrition (1914), Commerce now the N. Murray Edwards School of Business (1917), Medicine (1926), Education (1927), Home Economics (1928), Nursing (1938), Graduate Studies and Research (1946), Physical Education now called Kinesiology (1958), Veterinary Medicine (1964), Dentistry(1965), and School of Physical Therapy (1976).

The U of S also has several graduate programs amongst these colleges, which give rise to a masters or doctorate degree. In 1966, the University of Saskatchewan introduced a masters program in adult education. Diploma, and certificate post secondary courses are also available to aid in professional development.

Theological Colleges, affiliated with the university, were also established: Emmanuel College – (Anglican denomination) (1909), St. Andrew's College (as Presbyterian College, Saskatoon) then United Church of Canada (1913), Lutheran Theological Seminary (1920), St. Thomas More College (1936), and Central Pentecostal College (1983).

Regina College was saved from bankruptcy and became part of the university in 1934, and was given degree-granting privileges in 1959, making it a second University of Saskatchewan campus. By another act of legislation in 1974, Regina College was made an independent institution known as the University of Regina.

The policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. The single-university policy in the West was changed as existing colleges of the provincial universities gained autonomy as universities.

Correspondence courses were established in 1929.

Other federated and affiliated colleges include Briercrest Bible College and Biblical Seminary in Caronport, Saskatchewan; Gabriel Dumont College and St. Peter's Historic Junior College in Muenster, Saskatchewan.

In the late 1990s, the U of S launched a major revitalisation program, comprising new capital projects such as an expansion to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, the building of a new parkade, and a revision of its internal road layout (which has already seen the East Road access being realigned). The Thorvaldson Building, which currently is home to the departments of chemistry and computer science, hosts a new expansion known as the Spinks addition. The College of Pharmacy and Nutrition has also seen a number of renovations.

Up until the late 1980s, the University of Saskatchewan held an extensive area of land in the northeast quadrant of Saskatoon, stretching far beyond the core campus, east of Preston Avenue and north of the Sutherland and Forest Grove subdivisions. Much of this land was used for farming, though some areas were intended for future campus and facility development. In the late 1980s, most U of S land beyond Circle Drive was earmarked for residential development; Silverspring was the first of these neighbourhoods to be developed.

In the 1970s and again in the 1980s, the U of S considered opening up some of its land holdings south of College Drive and north of 14th Street for residential development, but opposition from nearby neighbourhoods that appreciated the "green belt" offered by the university led to these plans being dropped.

The University Act provided that the University should provide "facilities for higher education in all its branches and enabling all persons without regard to race, creed or religion to take the fullest advantage". It further stated that "no woman shall by reason of her sex be deprived of any advantage or privilege accorded to the male students of the university." Seventy students began the first classes on September 28, 1909. The first class graduated on May 1, 1912. Of the three students who earned graduation honours, two were women.

342 students, faculty, and staff enlisted for World War I. Of these, 67 were killed, 100 were wounded, and 33 were awarded medals of valour.

Between 1907 and 2007 there have been over 132,200 members of the University of Saskatchewan Alumni Association. The alumni feature those who have successfully graduated from a degree, certificate and/or diploma programme at the University of Saskatchewan.

Over the years, some of the most prominent projects at the University have been associated with the Department of Physics. In 1948, the university built the first betatron facility in Canada. Three years later, the world's first non-commercial cobalt-60 therapy unit was constructed. (The first female Chancellor of the University, Sylvia Fedoruk, was a member of the Cobalt-60 research team. She also served as Saskatchewan's Lieutenant-Governor from 1988–1994.) The success of these facilities led to the construction of a linear accelerator as part of the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory in 1964 and placed university scientists at the forefront of nuclear physics in Canada. Experience gained from years of research and collaboration with global researchers led to the University of Saskatchewan being selected as the site of Canada's national facility for synchrotron light research, the Canadian Light Source. This facility opened October 22, 2004 and is the size of a football field. The Plasma Physics Laboratory operates a tokamak on campus. The University used the SCR-270 radar in 1949 to image the Aurora for the first time.

The university owns the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization. Innovation Place Research Park is an industrial science and technology park that hosts private industry working with the university.

The University of Saskatchewan has numerous royal and vice-regal connections. Lieutenant Governor Archibald McNab is credited with bringing the institution to Saskatoon. Its campuses have been venues for royal and vice-regal visits, including visits by the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, who lodged at the President's Residence in 1978. A handful of University alumni were invited to a reception for Canadians at Buckingham Palace ahead of that visit to Saskatoon. The main campus is home to Saskatoon's only royally-designated institution, the Royal University Hospital. The Diefenbaker Canada Centre, also on campus, houses original correspondence between the Queen and Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, and has staged such exhibits as Happy and Glorious: The Royal Presence in Canada, opened by Lieutenant Governor Lynda Haverstock in 2004. The campus was the first in Western Canada to host the Vanier Cup, named for Governor General Georges Vanier, in 2006. Fifteen fellows of the Royal Society of Canada are affiliated with the University of Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan's Lieutenant Governors have filled the office of Visitor to the University of Saskatchewan since its establishment. Former Lieutenant Governor Sir Richard Lake was famously called upon to assume the visitor's role in the so-called Crisis of 1919. Four senior members of the Board of Governors had been dismissed after three among them abstained from a vote of confidence in university president Walter Murray. Murray was under scrutiny for his maintenance of University finances. The public and press clamoured for an explanation, and, in accordance with provincial law, Lake held a series of hearings through the office of the King’s Bench. His findings, delivered in April 1920, vindicated the dismissals, saying they were “regular, proper and in the best interest of the university.” In other words, their acts of disloyalty were enough to cost them their jobs.

Certain vice-regal representatives have held teaching and governance positions on campus. Before becoming Lieutenant Governor, Gordon Barnhart was university secretary and professor in Canadian politics. Sylvia Fedoruk was university chancellor, professor in oncology and associate member in physics. Grant MacEwan, before becoming Lieutenant Governor of Alberta, was director of the School of Agriculture and professor of animal husbandry at the University of Saskatchewan. Honorary Doctor of Laws degrees have been conferred by the university on vice-regal representatives. Recipient Lieutenant Governors include William Patterson in 1955, Robert Hanbidge in 1968, Stephen Worobetz in 1984 and Sylvia Fedoruk in 2006. Recipient Governors General include Vincent Massey in 1955 and Ramon Hnatyshyn in 1990.

There are three separate areas of governance at the University of Saskatchewan. Financial, management, as well as administration affairs are handled by the Board of Governors, which comprises 11 members. The University of Saskatchewan liaison between the public and professional sector is dealt with by the university Senate, a body of 100 representatives. Finally, the General Academic Assembly is the university's advisory body wherein, all the faculty members and elected students combine to determine academic policies and direction. In 1995, the General Academic Assembly is represented by elected members to the University of Saskatchewan Council which is made up of a combination of 116 faculty and students. As of 2006, faculty and staff total 7,000, and student enrolment comprised 15,005 full time students as well as 3,552 part time students.

In October 2008, the University of Saskatchewan was named one of Saskatchewan's Top Employers, which was announced by the Saskatoon StarPhoenix and Regina Leader-Post newspapers.

The Board of Governors administrators comprise Chancellor W. Tom Molloy, O.C., Q.C., B.A., LL.B, President and Vice-Chancellor Dr. R. Peter MacKinnon Q.C., B.A., LL.B, LL.M., LL.D.; Vice-Presidents or Resource Officers: Dr. Michael Atkinson, Provost and Vice-President Academic; Richard Florizone, Vice-President (Finance & Resources); Dr. Steven Franklin, Vice-President (Research); Heather Magotiaux, Vice-President (University Advancement).

In many fields Biologist Walter P. Thompson leadership brought innovation, insight and research to new areas beginning with rust resistant varieties of wheat which curtailed the 1916 catastrophic outbreak of rust. He also was instrumental in developing in Saskatchewan a comprehensive medicare program. His popularity and qualities of administrator and teacher served the U of S well during his presidency. The fourth and youngest Canadian university president, John William Tranter Spinks (1959–74) brought in a whirlwind era for the university.

The next president was Leo Friman Kristjanson (1980–89) who served a foreshortened term due to the onset of Parkinson's disease. However, even during this tenure from which he left early, the University saw the addition of the Innovation Place research park, Geology Building, Kinsmen Children's Centre, The Centre for the Study of Co-operatives, a new Saskatoon Cancer Clinic, expansion of health science facilities, the Rt. Hon. John G. Diefenbaker Centre, and the groundwork was laid for the new agriculture building. The sixth university president was J.W. George Ivany (1989–99).

The J.W. George Ivany Internationalization Award, to be presented annually, was established in 1998 to acknowledge Dr. Ivany's "commitment to internationalization and his leadership in fulfillment of that commitment".

The current president ushering forward the University of Saskatchewan's centennial year is R. Peter MacKinnon (1999– ).

The University of Saskatchewan chancellor would have the duties to preside over convocation ceremonies whereupon they would confer degrees, they chair the Senate and become members of the Board of Governors.

On July 1, 2007, Dr. Vera Pezer BA, MA PhD. was elected thirteenth chancellor of the University of Saskatchewan. Vera Pezer has served the university for a number of years as student counsellor, faculty member and dean. She has achieved success as a champion curler, author, and member of several civic steering committees.

Agricultural Displays and Kloppenburg Collection are hosted in the Agriculture & Bioresources College. The agricultural wall displays are located in the walkway connecting the Agriculture Building and the Biology Building. The Kloppenburg Collection is featured on the sixth floor of the College of Agriculture and Bioresources building which opened in 1991. Twenty seven works by famous Saskatchewan artists are featured in this donation to the University of Saskatchewan. Beamish Conservatory and Leo Kristjanson Atrium is also located within the Agriculture & Bioresources College. The Leo Kristjanson atrium is located in the College of Agriculture and Bioresources building and hosts the conservatory. The Beamish Conservatory is named in honour of the donor May Beamish who is the daughter of artist Augustus Kenderdine.

The University of Saskatchewan's 75th Anniversary in 1984 was the starting catalyst for the Athletic Wall of Fame at which time 75 honours were bestowed. The wall of fame celebrates achievements by athletes, teams securing a regional and/or national championship, as well as builders who can be either an administrator, coach, manager, trainer or other major contributor toward the Huskie athletic community for a time period of at least 10 years and have provided outstanding notable support. As of 2001, an annual event, the Huskie Salute inaugurates a new candidate into the Athletic Wall of Fame.

The College Building was officially declared a Canadian National Historic Site by Sheila Copps, Minister of Canadian Heritage on February 27, 2001. The College building was the first building under construction on the University, and upon completion was used for agriculture degree classes.

The Right Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre for the Study of Canada or The Diefenbaker Canada Centre houses the Diefenbaker paper collection and legacy, changing exhibit, Centre for the Study of Co-operatives and the Native Law Centre. The grave site of Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker is located near this museum.

The Gordon Snelgrove Gallery features displays of Master of Fine Arts graduating exhibitions, as well as Bachelor of Fine Arts shows, and is located within the Murray Building on campus.

Kenderdine Art Gallery celebrated its official opening October 25, 1991. Augustus Frederick Lafosse (Gus) Kenderdine began the University Art Camp at Emma Lake in 1936, the precursor to the Emma Lake Kenderdine Campus, a bequest was donated to the University of Saskatchewan by his daughter, Mrs. May Beamish, and initialized the formation of the Kenderdine Art Gallery which has a permanent collection started by Dr. Murray, as well as ongoing exhibits.

The Museum of Antiquities started its collection in 1974, and opened in 1981 at its new location. The museum celebrates notable artistic, sculptural and art achievements of various civilisations and eras.

W. P. Thompson Biology Building hosts a two story high atrium which houses both geological and biological displays as well as a full-size skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus Rex.

The University of Saskatchewan Observatory offers public viewing hours, school tours, as well as an adopt-a-star program. An adopted star can commemorate a special or significant achievement, or person and the award is given via certificate, honourable registry mention and maps of star location and facts sheet.

Rugby Chapel, moved from Prince Albert, built in 1912, has been declared a City of Saskatoon Municipal Heritage Property. Rugby Chapel, the precursor to College of Emmanuel and St. Chad was first constructed in 1883 and designated the The University of Saskatchewan {Saskatchewan Provisional District of the North West Territories), in Prince Albert.

St. Thomas More College Art Gallery was first opened in 1964 and hosts artwork of local and regional artists.

Victoria School House (Little Stone School House) built 1888 as the first school house of the Temperance Colony. The one room school house was originally constructed in Nutana. The location is now known as five corners at the south or top of the Broadway Bridge. The school yard at one time comprised three school houses, as the population grew. The little stone school house was preserved and moved on campus. It was declared a historic site June 1, 1967.

The Sheaf, a student publication, was first published in 1912, monthly or less frequently. By 1920, it was published weekly with the aim of becoming a more unifying influence on student life. It has continued to publish.

In 1965, a student-run campus radio station, CJUS-FM began broadcasting on a non-commercial basis. In 1983, the station became a limited commercial station. By 1985, however, funding was no longer provided, and the campus radio presence died. In early 2005, CJUS was revived in an internet radio form and continues to broadcast today. The university also maintains a relationship with the independent community radio station CFCR-FM, which actively solicits volunteers on campus.

Place Riel Theatre, a campus theatre, was opened in 1975, as was Louis, a campus pub. Place Riel, the existing campus student centre, opened in 1980, and now holds retail outlets, arcade, lounge space, student group meeting areas, and a food court. These facilities were named after Louis Riel. In the late 1990s, Place Riel Theatre stopped public showings and it is now used for campus movie features and lectures.

The University of Saskatchewan has adopted as its logo the book of knowledge and three wheat sheaves set inside of a green heraldic shield. The wheat sheaves and book of knowledge are yellow. Upon the pages of the book of knowledge is the Latin phrase Deo et Patrie which when translated means For God and Country.

The official motto of the university is Deo et Patriae (Latin) which translates to God and Country.

Campus sports teams in Canadian Interuniversity Sport use the name Saskatchewan Huskies. The U of S Huskies presently compete in eight men's sports: Canadian football, basketball, cross country, hockey, soccer, track and field, volleyball and wrestling and seven women's sports: basketball, cross country, hockey, soccer, track and field, volleyball and wrestling. The men's Huskyfootball team has won the Vanier Cup as national champions on three occasions; in 1990, 1996, and 1998.

Voyageur Place has historically been organized on the house system, with each house named after an explorer associated with Saskatchewan's early history. Thus, traditionally there were three male houses: Hearne House (named after Samuel Hearne and consisting of the residents of Saskatchewan Hall); Kelsey (named after Henry Kelsey and consisting of the residents of Qu'Appelle Hall); and Lav (named after Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye and consisting of the residents of Qu'Appelle Hall Addition). There were also three female houses (all of which were composed of residents of the all-female Athabasca Hall): Pond (named after Peter Pond), Henday (named after Anthony Henday), and Palliser (named after John Palliser).

The University of Saskatchewan provides services to Aboriginal people in more remote communities. The University of Saskatchewan Summer University Transition Course brings first-year Aboriginal students to campus before the start of the school year for some campus orientation. Academic counsellors, tutors and Aboriginal elders are present on campus at the University of Saskatchewan to provide academic and social supports. To assist with the transition to a fulfilling career, the University of Saskatchewan is participating in an Aboriginal Lynx Career and Employment Project led by University of Calgary.

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Monarchy in Saskatchewan

Gordon and Naomi Barnhart at a Monarchist League of Canada event, during their first year as Saskatchewan's Vice-regal Couple, 2006.

The Monarchy in Saskatchewan is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, forming the core of the province's Westminster style parliamentary democracy. As the institution from which the power of the state flows, the terms Crown in Right of Saskatchewan, Her Majesty in Right of Saskatchewan, or The Queen in Right of Saskatchewan may also be used to refer to the entire executive of the government of Saskatchewan. As the pinnacle of governance, the authority of the Crown in the province is symbolised through elements included in various government institutions' insignia, as well as their names, such as the Court of Queen's Bench and the Queen's Printer.

The Crown in Right of Saskatchewan was established through the Saskatchewan Act, 1905, though the governments of the previous incarnations of the province, going back to the establishment of the Northwest Territories in 1868, have been monarchical in nature, and historical links with the French and British Crowns extend back even further, to the mid 1600s. Thus, there are numerous monuments and memorials to members of the Royal Family located across the province. However, though Saskatchewan has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Saskatchewan is not itself a kingdom.

The present Canadian monarch is Elizabeth II, who has reigned since February 6, 1952; as she does not reside in Saskatchewan, a vice-regal representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan, is appointed by the Governor General, on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, to carry out all the monarch's duties in the province, which include a vast number of functions and duties central to the provincial government, judicial system, and system of honours, as well as governing provincial Crown corporations and Crown Land, and calling Royal Commissions. His Honour The Honourable Gordon Barnhart is the current Lieutenant Governor, having served since August 1, 2006. The viceroy is provided an official residence in Regina by the Crown, as well as an office and entertainment venue at Government House.

Though the Crown is central to the functioning of the government in Saskatchewan, members of the Royal Family predominantly perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province, visiting hospitals, charities, schools, communities, and the like.

The monarch is not a part of the constitutions of any of Saskatchewan's orders, though authority for their creation does stem from the Crown. On occasion, members of the Royal Family will bestow awards in person, such as when Anne, Princess Royal, presented the Saskatchewan Protective Services Medal to 25 recipients, in Saskatoon in 2004. This marked the first time a member of the Royal Family had presented a provincial honour in Canada. Queen Elizabeth II also appointed Saskatchewan citizens to the Royal Victorian Order and personally presented them with the insignia when in the province in 2005. Under the authority of the Queen in Right of Saskatchewan, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, have both been inducted into Saskatchewan Order of Merit (in 2001 and 2005, respectively), and both the Earl of Wessex and his wife, Sophie, Countess of Wessex, were awarded the Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan in 2005.

The Cabinet will also present gifts to the sovereign and other Royal Family members during their visits to the province, the giving of which is administered by the Office of Protocol and Honours. Past gifts have include two paintings by Robert Newton Hurley to Queen Elizabeth II in 1951, and commissioned works by Catherine Perehudoff for Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. Non-official gifts are also offered on various occasions, including a carload of locally-milled flour from Yorkton for Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, on her marriage in 1947.

Before that point members of the Royal Family were visiting the area. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, with her husband, who was then Governor General, were the first to pass through in 1882, on an official visit to the newly designated, but not yet named, territorial capital. It was during this stop, in the dining room of the royal train, that Princess Louise named the new community Regina, after her mother the Queen. The royal viceroys were followed by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall, and his wife, Mary, Duchess of Cornwall (later King George V and Queen Mary), in 1901, when the stopped twice in Regina, once in September, while heading west to the coast, and again on October 5, on the return trip. Their uncle, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, innagurated the Legislative Building in 1912, George VI, was the first reigning monarch to travel Saskatchewan, coming with his consort, Queen Elizabeth, in May 1939. The royal train arrived in the town of Melville at 10:00 pm on June 3, bringing over 60,000 people to the town of 3,000. The stop was only meant to last ten minutes, after which the train would stay overnight for servicing. But, with the throngs of people who arrived, the royal party decided to extend the visit to a half hour, after which the train pulled away, returning a few hours later, once the crowds had dispersed. Canadian Press reporter R. J. Carnegie said of the stop: "Never throughout the tour did I see such unbridled enthusiasm as then." On June 4, the King and Queen took a brief walk around Unity, and in Saskatoon, where the royal couple visited the University of Saskatchewan, some 150,000 people turned out to see the monarchs, and hundreds of teenage girls dressed in red, white, and blue assembled in the image of a Royal Union Flag and sang "God Save the King".

George VI's daughter, Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, visited in 1951, on behalf of her ailing father. Three months later, she acceeded to the throne as Queen Elizabeth II, and was crowned a year later, in June 1953; Premier Tommy Douglas was in attendance at the event. The couple returned again in 1959, Elizabeth by then queen, and a number of times after that, including for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police centennial in 1973, where she opened the new RCMP Museum Building. In 1980, the Queen's sister, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presided over the celebrations of the 75th anniversary of Saskatchewan's joining Confederation, and, in 1982, Princess Anne went to Regina to mark the city's centennial. between 2002 and 2003, the province marked Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee with various events, both official and unofficial, as well as commemorative publications, a provincial Royal Proclamation read out at the Legislative Assembly, and the Queen's Golden Jubilee Statue Project, which resulted in the equestrian statue of the Queen riding Burmese (the horse gifted to the Queen by the RCMP), in front of the Legislature Building. Elizabeth II passed through Saskatchewan on her coast-to-coast tour for her Golden Jubilee celebrations, and retuned again in 2005 to mark the centennial of the province, when, like her parents before her, she visited the University of Saskatchewan and toured the Canadian Light Source Synchrotron.

Saskatchewan's monarchical status is illustrated via associations between the Crown and many private organizations within the province, as well as through royal names applied to regions, communities, schools, buildings, and monuments, many of which may also have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family.

Within some of Saskatchewan's towns can also be found streets with royal names, such as Regina's Victoria Avenue, named for Queen Victoria, which crosses Albert Street, named in honour of Victoria's consort, Albert. Situated near Regina is Duke of Edinburgh Way at the McKell Wascana Conservation Project, named by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, in 2005. Further, the main thoroughfare streets in Viceroy are named for Canadian Governors General, while a similar concept was adopted in the town of Imperial, where street names include King, Queen, Prince and Princess. In Saskatoon, several city streets have royal namesakes including Victoria, Albert and Prince of Wales Avenues, and King, Queen and Princess Streets. Others with vice-regal namesakes include Landsdowne and Dufferin Avenues, and Devonshire, Vanier and Michener Crescents.

In Saskatoon there exist the neighbourhoods of King George, Queen Elizabeth, and Massey Place.

Members of Canada's royal family and viceroys of Saskatchewan have associated themselves through personal visits, such as that of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Elizabeth II to the University of Saskatchewan in 1939 and 2005, respectively, and those of Queen Elizabeth II, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Earl of Wessex to the First Nations University of Canada between 2003 and 2005. Further, Saskatchewan's Lieutenant Governors act, by law, as visitors to both the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina. They may be called upon in this role under special circumstances, as happened in the University Crisis of 1919 at the University of Saskatchewan.

Saskatoon's only institution with a royal prefix, the Royal University Hospital, is located at the University of Saskatchewan, and, on the same campus, is the Diefenbaker Canada Centre, which holds original correspondence between former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and Queen Elizabeth II.

Schools across the province are also named for Canadian sovereigns, royal family members, or either federal or provincial viceroys.

At the various levels of education within Saskatchewan, there exist a number of scholarships and academic awards either established by or named for members of the Royal Family. The Queen Elizabeth II Scholarship in Parliamentary Studies, for example, awards $20,000 to graduate and post-graduate students, established to commemorate the 1987 visit of Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh to the province. Also, the Queen Elizabeth II Centennial Aboriginal Scholarship of $20,000 is awarded to First Nations and Métis graduates of the First Nations University of Canada, and was created to mark the visit of the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh in 2005. The Queen Elizabeth II Scholarship awardeds $10,000 for graduate or post-graduate study of Saskatchewan politics and government at any of the province's universities.

The $500 Prince of Wales Scholarship was set up as an incentive for high school graduation, in commemoration of the first visit of Prince Chales, Prince of Wales, to Saskatchewan in 2001, and the 2003 visit of Charles' brother, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, was honoured with the creation of the Prince Edward Drama Scholarship of $500 for youth studying theatre in Saskatchewan. Similarly, the C. Irwin McIntosh Journalism Prize of $450 was initiated to memorialise Cameron Irwin McIntosh, Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan between 1978 and 1983.

Royal Family members and viceroys have also been conferred honorary degrees by Saskatchewan universities. The Princess Royal, for example, was awarded her first Canadian honorary degree by the University of Regina in 2004, for her charitable work. The University of Saskatchewan awarded six degrees on viceroys between 1955 and 2006.

A number of buildings, monuments and geographic locations are named for Canadian monarchs, members of the Royal Family, or federal or provincial viceroys. For example, the Prince of Wales Branch Library in Regina opened as the Eastern Branch Library in 1913 and was renamed after a visit by Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, six years later. More than eight decades after that, the sod-turning for the Prince of Wales Cultural and Recreation Centre in Assiniboia was performed by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, on visiting Saskatchewan in 2001. Further, the former post office in Regina was renamed as the Prince Edward Building in 1994, and was rededicated by its namesake. In Saskatoon is the King George Hotel, named for King George V, and the Patricia Hotel, which owes its name to Princess Patricia. For a viceroy, the Hotel Bessborough, called Saskatoon's "Castle on the River," was named with the consent of former Governor General Vere Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough, in 1931. The hotel was visited by the Earl and his wife in 1932, and has served as the accommodation for a number of royal visitors. As well, the barrier-free entrance to the Legislative Building is named as the Prince of Wales Entrance.

Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh have worshipped on three occasions – in 1951, 1959, and 1987 – at Saskatoon's Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, the cornerstone of which was laid in 1912 by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, and Governor General Viscount Alexander worshipped there in 1948. Also, St. Paul's Cathedral in Regina has been a place for worship by members of Canada's Royal Family, including Princess Anne, Princess Royal, while St. John's Church in Moose Jaw has hosted Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, for worship. Both churches were the sites of provincial memorial services for Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, where Lieutenant Governor Lynda Haverstock presided.

Monuments to members of the Royal Family are located across the province. In Saskatchewan's capital city, the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Equestrian Statue stands prominently in front of the Legislative Building. Unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005, the bronze statue depicts the sovereign on Saskatchewan-born horse Burmese, the favourite horse she was presented with by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1969. A bronze statue of Saskatchewan-born Governor General Ramon Hnatyshyn was commissioned by the Ukrainian Canadian Congress, and stands along the banks of the South Saskatchewan River in downtown Saskatoon. The Anniversary Arch, rebuilt from stones taken from the original Saskatoon YWCA outside the organization's downtown location, was dedicated by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.

Saskatoon civic parks such as Victoria Park, Princess Diana Multi-District Park, and Massey Park are also evidence of the Crown's presence in names, as well as Prince Albert National Park in central Saskatchewan. Similarly, Queen Elizabeth Court, in front of Regina City Hall, was dedicated by Her Majesty during her visit to the city in July 1978, and Prince Edward Park in Melfort, and Queen's Golden Jubilee Rose Garden in Moose Jaw, were both inaugurated by the Queen's son, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, in 2003. Additionally, the Prince of Wales Promenade along the South Saskatchewan River is a popular viewpoint along the Meewasin Valley trails. Along that river stands the natural gas-fired Queen Elizabeth Power Station, which was originally named the South Saskatchewan River Generating Station but was renamed and commissioned by the Queen in 1959.

Organizations in Saskatchewan may be founded by a Royal Charter, receive a royal prefix, and/or be honoured with the patronage of a member of the Royal Family. The Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History, for instance, received royal designation from Queen Elizabeth II in 1993, becoming the Royal Saskatchewan Museum. Similarly, in 1999, Saskatchewan's first golf course, the Regina Golf Club, joined an elite group of only five courses in Canada to receive the honour of royal designation by Elizabeth II. The Globe Theatre, housed in the Prince Edward Building in Regina, was granted patronage by Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, in 1992.

Although neither a royal designation or patronage, Regina's Western Hockey League team, the Regina Pats, is named in honour of Princess Patricia, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, who visited Saskatchewan several times as a child and proved popular with the people of the province.

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Source : Wikipedia