Soap Operas

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Posted by motoman 02/28/2009 @ 09:38

Tags : soap operas, tv, entertainment

News headlines
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Editorial: Soap opera takes a good turn for US freelance ... - Contra Costa Times
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The situation, Weber says, is "just another page written for the soap opera." This year, Cooperstown sought two people to fill supervisor positions on its five-member board. Candidate Bill Enz won the first seat with 138 votes in the spring election,...
Editorial: The Antasari soap opera - Jakarta Post
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List of soap operas

This is a list of soap operas by country of origin.

Soap operas in Poland do not air premiere episodes in July and August.

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Indian soap opera

The most common languages in which Indian serials are made in are: Hindi, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam, though most often they contain a mix of the predominant language and English. This often creates and unintentional comic effect: a certain High School-themed serial on Star One has created a bizarre language of its own, a heavy mix of colloquial Hindi and corruptions of modern American slang, which, though fairly odd to understand at first, has created its own coterie of loyal fans devoted to using the very same ‘language’ in daily speech.

Indian serials are often stereotypical, both in storylines and in characters. The ideals of the quintessential Indian Family are often given fanatical attention to, which lines being written in grand, melodramatic tones, drawing in references to events in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, the typical Indian Woman, and other similar themes. Balaji Telefilms has often been frowned at for repeating the same essential storylines with different characters and sets (altering the sequence of events and their intensity) to create more and more serials.

One of the first serials created by the banner was Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi (literally, Because the Mother-in-Law was once the Daughter-in-Law), the story of the fictional industrialist family Virani, the apple-of-their-eye son Mihir, and their loyal and subservient (i.e., quintessential) daughter-in-law, Tulsi, his wife. An almost immediate release was another serial called Kahaani Ghar Ghar Kii (loosely translatable as The Story of (all) our Homes), also a story about an industrialist family—albeit, the “Aggarwals”—also about the apple-of-their-eye son—this time, “Om”, though it is essential to note that later in the series the lives of all the brothers of the families and their wives were dealt with extensively—and yet again, their loyal and subservient daughter-in-law, “Parvati.” The storylines are loosely parallel, though the writers continually attempt to “shock” their audiences with rapes, extramarital affairs, murders, conspiracies, and kidnappings—in all serials, though at different points in time. A standard feature now is the 20-year-jump, where one epoch in the series ends at a stalemate and continues in the next episode with all the characters and surroundings twenty years older, the effects of ageing being shown by white dye in strands in the hair of the women of the family, and not-so-subtle hints of grey around the gentlemen’s moustaches and sideboards.

Another slightly unreal aspect of the Indian serial is the “face-change operation”. A typical scenario is one wherein an accident happens to one of the protagonists, with him/her waking up in hospital with a new face, one that is most often the result of the antagonist scheming with an evil plastic surgeon who creates an entirely new face for the hapless hero(ine). The protagonist invariably loses their memory, leaving them vulnerable to the antagonist’s schemes, and this, along with the 20-year-jump, helps create scenarios such as a missing darling son of the family now being one “converted” to one of the enemy camp, with further clichéd themes as the Indian Mother’s Yearning for her Son helping to create about a month’s worth of material, which inevitably ends in a reunion scene with lots of happy tears.

Dialogue in Indian serials, in addition to being largely melodramatic and filled with historical and religious references, is widely thought lacking as far as dialogue goes. If seen very carefully, one would notice that there is, in fact, little or no conversation that takes place during the 30-odd minutes of a typical Indian soap opera’s episode. Actors’ lines in scenes are often delivered one large monologue at a time (even longer in scenes of “conflict” between the protagonist(s) and the antagonist(s)), there are often dance scenes based on the exact same encountered in the parent film of the song (this being less parody and more of a filler, often seen during idle amorous fantasies of the “goof” of the cast), and features elaborate sound effects, which are actually repeated in different serials which are under the same banner.

For example, female antagonists often enter the room with screeching cat noises being played in the background, perhaps an allusion to the character’s invariable cattiness; though often antagonists that are well-known and widely-spurned by the TV-seeing public often have their distinctive entrance sound effects: in the serial Kasautii Zindagii Kay (to be correctly read as Kasauti Zindagi Ki, but throughout the serial it was never thought to be corrected), whenever the character ‘Komolika’, began to scheme and soliloquise and/or entered a room, a playful, almost vampish strain of gaudy music was played to an amorous play of her name. This was keeping in with the effect her heavy makeup, thick, bristly fake eyelashes, and garish contact lenses portrayed the character as.

Male antagonists that are young often have Indianised strains of rather obscure hip-hop songs working for them in the background, and those that are older often have deeply resonating kettle drums booming in the background.

The camera often spins wildly from character to character during scenes in which shocking news is revealed, shaking vigorously when a character faints, and showing the same slap hitting the same cheek thrice during a confrontation, keeping in sync with the overall melodramatic touch most of the serials prefer to incorporate.

Indian serials first began with the introduction of the television set in Indian homes: the first soap opera on the State-run channel, Doordarshan (the only television channel that existed at that point in time), was Hum Log, a story of a family comprising of three generations. It was urban, it was middle-class, and it was new, and till today, it, along with Buniyaad, is considered among the best-made Indian serials to be seen by an Indian audience.

In the “old” Star TV channel of the Star Network, certain serials like Saans and Kora Kaagaz broke the mould and gained artistic as well as commercial success; serials on Zee TV like Tara and Banegi Apni Baat (which featured among the early work of renowned Hindi/Tamil actor R. Madhavan), too, were of the same privileged fate.

More recently serials on the Star One channel on the Star Network have seen to be largely different from the conventional, with Saturday Night Live-esque programmes like The Great Indian Comedy Show, stand-up shows like The Great Indian Laughter Challenge and game shows like Bluffmaster being of great popularity. However, it should be noted that in a purely technical sense game and comedy shows aren’t really ‘soap operas’, and though alternatively-themed shows on crime (Siddhant), High School (Happy Go Lucky), and twentysomethings do exist and are relatively popular, a grand majority of Indian television shows are soap operas based on the Family-and-Marriage theme.

Based on predictions made by celebrity astrologer/numerologist/tarot-card reader Sunita Menon, almost all serials made under the Balaji Telefilms banner are supposed to begin with a ‘K’, regardless of what language it’s made in. This is believed to be Creative Head (Ekta Kapoor)’s ‘lucky alphabet’, and consequently, the K Phenomenon was born. Examples are Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi, Kahaani Ghar Ghar Kii, Kasautii Zindagii Kay, Kkusum, Kavyanjali, Kahiin To Hoga , Kasamh Se and so on.

An exception is, however, Hum Paanch, a comedy about a family of five sisters, their bent-on-their-getting-married but loving stepmother, and their father, who talks to their dead mother via a framed photograph hung on a living room wall. This is probably because the show was created and shown in an entirely different time—the late nineties—presumably before Ms Kapoor met Ms Menon. It is interesting to note that despite all the stereotypical content K-serials contain, they are all immensely popular with the masses, which is believed by some to be a result of the initial K.

Another exception is 'Ghar Ek Mandir'(literally: The House is like a Temple), which has been one of Sony TV's most popular soaps.

No Indian serial so far has dealt with issues such as the legislative system, rural issues, etc., and though some are set within legal/medical/rural contexts, it has storylines, once more, largely based on marriage and family, or rather, the concepts of marriage and family in the traditional Indian context.

Neither has an Indian serial dealt with homosexuality or AIDS which are burgeoning issues in India. An ironic fact, considering Ekta Kapoor, Creative Head of Balaji Telefilms, which is believed to produce the largest number of Indian soap operas, was quoted in a film magazine in an interview as saying one of her favourite shows was Queer as Folk (unavailable for purchase in India, incidentally), and that the actor who played Brian, Gale Harold, was one of her favourite TV drama actors.

However, in commercial terms, Indian serials almost always do well. Not many Indian serials ever end—and so, writers are forced to stretch storylines over a generation or more to cope with the lack of character-exploration/situation-exploitation. Many Indian serials run for over five years, and, analogous to Bollywood film stars being deified to Godhood, many soap opera stars are treated with a demigod-like quality. The actress who played “Tulsi Virani” in Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi, Smiti Irani, stood to be elected as MP in the 2004 General Elections from the Delhi constituency of Chandni Chowk, and it was hoped by her party, the BJP, that her popularity would help them out in that largely pro-Congress area. However, she lost, and the seat, along with the entire election, was won by a massive pro-Congress vote.

For a long time, sensuality or scenes with sexual overtones were covertly expressed on the small screen. Even if it were an integral part of a story, directors resorted to suggestive scenes to convey the message.

The usual props like rain and thunder, turning off the lights, snuggling behind closed doors, drawing up the sheets, etc hinted at physical intimacy between the lovers.

The kiss was just one aspect of Tara which thrived on showing women smoking, drinking and wearing minis. It also had tracks of extramarital affair and live-in relationships. This mother of all bold serials was a channel-driver for Zee.

But the one serial that sensationalised the smooch was Kurukshetra. The serial was about corporate warfare with Seema Kapoor and Parmeet Sethi playing adversaries. Seema, who had a vampish role, had to seduce Parmeet and get important information out of him. Parmeet, who knows her intentions, plays along. At one point, he pulls her and plants a kiss right on her lips. The celebrated kiss was the talk of the town for many weeks. Talking about it, Seema says, “I distinctly remember the day when we shot the scene. When I arrived on the sets, I could feel tension in the air. Lekh Tandonji who was the director was being vague about the scene while narrating it to me. I thought it would be a peck on the cheek but to my shock it was a kiss on the lips. It was not all that long, it took just a few seconds but the media hyped it no end.” And no, she doesn’t regret it, on the contrary “I enjoyed it,” she says non-chalantly.

One serial that indulged in heavyduty lovemaking scenes shocking the viewers was Hasratein. The serial revolved around extramarital affair and within the first four episodes only there was a hot bedroom scene between a married Himani Shivpuri and her lover. Later on, in the same serial a passionate meeting was shown between Seema Kapoor and Harsh Chhaya. It’s a song sequence and Seema comes out of the bathroom, suggestively nude and runs into Harsh Chhaya. What follows is a steamy love scene.

Ajai Sinha, who produced Hasratein, points out that the serial was about carnal desires and there was no way he couldn’t avoid it. “In any case I feel scenes with hidden meaning are more vulgar,” he justifies. In another of his serials Justajoo, Ajai portrayed a scene of seduction between Harsh Chhaya and Arpita. “Harsh Chhaya, who is married to Pallavi Joshi, falls in love with his sister-in-law Arpita. She is also attracted to him. They had to drop their inhibition for the story to move ahead and a lovemaking scene between them was shown to that affect,” he explains.

With Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi, anything to do with sexuality was relegated to the bedroom behind closed doors. That was two years ago. Recently, however, they showed a suggestive smooching scene between Gomzee and Tisha. That is just the beginning. The recently launched serials are slowly and surely getting into the forbidden territory all over again. For instance, in Lipstick, there was a lovemaking scene between Abhay and Sheetal, where the girl is playfully seducing the guy. Another scene, was the gay love making scene between Sheetal's husband and another guy, where Sheetal eventually catches him and decides to divorce him. Says Shristi Arya, producer, Lipstick, “It is a part of our story and will be shot between Aly Khan and Nigaar.” Promoted as an adult night soap, Lipstick promised to be a hot, hot serial but has been quite tame. According to Shristi, the serial depicts the lifestyle of the rich and the famous where they are open about their sensuality. Yet they had to concentrate on the track of Sunidhi, a middle-class girl ruled by middle-class morals. “We were getting letters favouring her character and we had to follow viewer feedback,” she admits.

Serials like Love Marriage, Kittie Party and Kkusum are tracing bold storylines but seduction is only briefly ‘touched’ upon.

But today, quite a bunch of lovemaking & sensual scenes can be seen in serials like Tumhari Disha, Jab Love hua, Kumkum, Sindoor, Kaisa yeh pyar hai, etc.

There has been some partial nude scenes, but there has not been any full nudity in Indian serials as of yet.

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Another World (TV series)


Another World is a television soap opera that ran on the NBC network from May 4, 1964 to June 25, 1999. It was created by legendary serial creator Irna Phillips along with William J. Bell, and was produced by Procter & Gamble Productions in studios located in Brooklyn.

AW was the first soap opera to talk about abortion in 1964 when such subjects were taboo. It was the first soap opera to do a crossover, with the character of Mike Bauer from Guiding Light coming from Springfield to Bay City, and the first to go to one hour, then to 90 minutes, and then back to an hour. It was the first soap to launch two spin-offs (Somerset and Texas) as well as an indirect one (Lovers and Friends, which would be re-named For Richer For Poorer).

AW was also the first soap opera with a theme song to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 "(You Take Me Away To) Another World" by Crystal Gayle and Gary Morris, in 1987.

Irna Phillips envisioned Another World as a spin-off of her popular soap opera As the World Turns, but CBS did not have room for it and would not allow a spin-off to air on a competing network. Phillips instead sold the show to NBC (eager to snap up a show by the successful Phillips), removing references to ATWT's Oakdale and cancelling plans to have character crossover appearances by the Hughes family, but used the name Another World in reference to its origins. Expectations were so high that Another World had six weeks of commercial time sold in advance.

On November 22, 1963, a group of executives (including Executive Producer Allen M. Potter and director Tom Donovan) met at the Young & Rubicam ad agency in New York to discuss the show’s opening story, the death of William Matthews, when they heard the news of another death in Dallas: the assassination of President Kennedy.

The first episode was the aftermath of the funeral of wealthy William Matthews. His widow Liz (most notably played by Audra Lindley and later Irene Dailey) did not like his working-class brother Jim (Shepperd Strudwick, later Hugh Marlowe) or his family. The fights between upper-class Liz and her middle-class in-laws started the show. As the '60s went on, the lives and loves of Jim's children (Russ, Alice, and Pat) took center-stage. Jim's wife, Mary (Virginia Dwyer), usually intervened when there was a crisis, which was most of the time.

In the first year, the show had a controversial storyline involving teenager Pat Matthews, having an illegal abortion after becoming pregnant. This was the first time that American television had covered the subject. In the story, the abortion made her sterile, and the shock from the news caused her to find her ex-boyfriend and shoot him in cold blood. Pat was eventually brought to trial and acquitted. She then fell in love and married her lawyer, John Randolph (Michael M. Ryan).

Another notable early storyline revolved around the star-crossed romance of Bill Matthews (Joseph Gallison) and Melissa Palmer (Carol Roux). Liz Matthews did not consider Melissa good enough for her son and was constantly interfering in their relationship. After many trials and hardships, Bill and Melissa were finally married, but their happiness was short-lived, as Bill later drowned in a boating accident.

After a one-year run, NBC was expected to cancel the program. But instead, former soap opera actor James Lipton was hired to write the show. His ideas included pushing the Matthews family into the background and introducing the Gregory family. Agnes Nixon, who was then the Head Writer of CBS's Guiding Light, was hired to write for the program. Beverly Penberthy replaced Susan Trustman in the role of Pat Matthews Randolph. Trustman had been on nearly every show while Miss Phillips was the writer, and she was exhausted. Nixon created the roles of hairdresser Ada Lucas Davis (Constance Ford) and her daughter Rachel (Robin Strasser), which were immediate successes. Rachel was a schemer who grew up in a lower-class background, and fought for what she wanted, even if it meant she had to resort to underhanded means. Her mother Ada was much more honest and down-to-earth, and provided a good foil for Rachel, as Ada was the only person Rachel really loved, besides herself.

The next year, businessman Steve Frame (George Reinholt) was introduced. A shrewd businessman, he grew up in a poor background and earned everything he worked for. He and Rachel immediately bonded over their respective pasts, but he also became involved with Alice Matthews (Jacqueline Courtney), who was more sophisticated, shy, and demure, something he really looked for in a wife. They courted and were to marry in 1969, but the marriage was called off when Rachel, who was married to Alice's brother Dr. Russ Matthews (Sam Groom), crashed the engagement party with the news that she was carrying Steve's child. She gave birth to a son, James (later referred to as Jamie), in November.

The show's popularity shot up, thanks to a love triangle revolving around Steve, Alice, and Rachel.

As 1970 began, Alice had a breakdown and went to live in France. Steve and Rachel bonded yet again, this time over their child, but Alice eventually returned and she married Steve the next year.

After the departure of Agnes Nixon (who left the show in order to create One Life to Live for ABC), Robert Cenedella was briefly hired to replace her. He also created the spin-off show Somerset. It was decided that he should leave the original show to concentrate on the spin-off, so sponsor Procter &and Gamble hired a newcomer, playwright Harding Lemay, to write the program. Lemay's screenplays took the form of tragic plays, as they were carried out in five dramatic acts. As the show rose higher in the ratings, NBC brass wished to expand the show to an hour; the first regularly scheduled hour-long episode was telecast on January 6, 1975.

Thoroughly convinced that her child would be instrumental in breaking up the new Frame marriage and snagging her Steve once and for all, Rachel enlisted the help of her drifter father, who tricked Alice into finding Steve and Rachel in a compromising position. She filed for divorce and again left town. Fed up with Alice's wavering ways, and already feeling an attachment to Rachel and a duty to have more of a role in his son's life, Steve married Rachel (now played by Victoria Wyndham, who succeeded Strasser and Margie Impert in the role). When Alice returned from Europe for a second time, she exposed Rachel and her father's scheme, which accidentally sent Steve to prison as an accomplice to embezzlement. When he was released, Steve reunited with Alice; although she had sent him away, he was too alienated against Rachel to rekindle any feeling.

As Steve and Alice were finally allowed to be together (they were married for the second time on the tenth-anniversary telecast), Rachel continued to scheme, even trying to evict Alice from the house Steve had given to her; Rachel tried to say that Steve had given her the house. After Alice had another mental breakdown, and Steve sided with Alice, Rachel decided to reform herself.

Rachel tried her best to stay away from the couple, and even found love with an older, wise magazine editor, Mackenzie "Mac" Cory (Douglass Watson). This was in tune with Wyndham's wish that Rachel be played with more facets to her character — for many years, her character was totally "black" in personality, compared to "white", good Alice. Both Lemay and Wyndham, who were at the time new to the series, wanted to change the character of Rachel as she was so blindly hated by many fans, who wrote to the NBC studios wishing that she be killed off.

Originally, Mac and Rachel were not planned to have a romantic coupling. Harding Lemay noticed the chemistry between actors Douglass Watson and Victoria Wyndham, and wrote a slow-developing love story for them. Fearing backlash from viewers who may have found an older man-younger woman relationship tasteless, Lemay penned chance encounters for the two characters, which led to innocent yet intimate conversations. By the time the characters had their first kiss, the story had gone on for six months. Continuing on the slow path, Mac and Rachel's relationship blossomed until they were wed.

Mac and Rachel were married by a justice of the peace in Mac's New York City townhouse on Valentine's Day 1975. The drama produced by their marriage and Mac's insanely jealous daughter, Iris Carrington (portrayed at this time by Beverlee McKinsey) fueled the storylines for most of the late 1970s. Iris, who was spolied and wanted to be the only woman in her father's life, resented Rachel, who also happened to be her same age. Iris's many schemes to drive Rachel away from Mac often backfired, driving a wedge between father and daughter, instead of bringing them together. The presence of the Cory maid, Louise (Anne Meacham), proved for sometimes comedic relief in an otherwise dramatic storyline. Other times, Louise served as a stern confidante and a sometime voice of reason for Mac during fights with either Rachel or Iris.

Steve was presumed dead in 1975 when his helicopter supposedly crashed in Australia. Alice became a backburner character for the first time in 11 years, in tune with Lemay's wish that Jacqueline Courtney leave the show. She was replaced by actress Susan Harney. Over time, Alice became a registered nurse, and cared for her adopted daughter, Sally (first played by Cathy Greene). While Alice's story finally calmed down, her siblings' stories expanded. Her sister Pat Randolph experienced marital problems with her husband John. He ended up divorcing Pat and marrying the maniacal Olive (Jennifer Leak).

The ratings for Another World had declined since its final peak at #1 in 1978. To keep the spot, executive producer Paul Rauch pitched the idea to NBC to make the show longer. Although not at its peak, the show was still the most successful soap in NBC's lineup, so they agreed. Lemay (with the help of Tom King), penned a special effects-laden storyline involving the fiery death of Michael M. Ryan's character John Randolph, who had appeared on the show since 1964. The storyline, which was meant to be kept secret from the press, was leaked a month before the scenes aired, prompting Guiding Light to counteract with their own shocking episode to air in the same timeslot: the rape of Holly by her husband Roger.

John's death on March 6, 1979, as he was saving his former sister-in law Alice from a burning building, coincided with the move to 90-minute episodes each weekday. It was at that time that Lemay, who had written since 1971, decided to hand over his duties to Tom King, citing overwork. While the ratings got a slight boost, most viewers did not like the change to longer episodes. The episode duration opened up space for many new characters to be introduced to the storyline; but most of these did not catch on with the audience.

In the final months of the 90-minute experiment, many characters debuted on Another World in storylines that focused on the character of Iris, played by Beverlee McKinsey, as she planned a move to Houston, Texas.

This fictional move was followed in the new spinoff serial Texas in 1980. A range of new characters who had been introduced in the storyline connected to Iris's move, also moved to the new series. To accommodate Texas, Another World went back to 60 minutes, and was moved from the three o'clock hour to two o'clock. Another two million viewers defected, partly due to McKinsey's departure, partly due to the time change, and partly due to the influx of new characters who then moved to Texas. Because of the audience erosion, the move to 90-minute installments is generally regarded as a failure.

Mac and Rachel had their own marital troubles, mostly regarding Rachel's decision to work full-time as a sculptress. Rachel did not want to pursue a career at first, thinking she could simply live off Mac's earnings as a publisher, but Mac encouraged her to find work in a field that interested her. When she found that she was very good at sculpting, it took up more and more of her time, even after giving birth to their daughter, Amanda, in 1978. After Rachel falsely accused Mac of infidelity (Mac was unfaithful years before, but this time he wasn't), Mac became involved with the editor of his Brava magazine, Janice Frame (now played by Christine Jones), and in 1979, Rachel asked for a divorce. To crack a scheme that Rachel suspected Janice was spearheading, Rachel slept with photographer Mitch Blake (William Gray Espy). The long-running Mac/Rachel/Janice/Mitch storyline carried on for a year until it culminated in a scene taped on location in St. Croix, in which Janice Frame's plan to kill Mac and acquire his estate was found out by Rachel. After a scuffle involving a knife, the two women fell into a swimming pool, and Rachel came out alive, having killed Janice.

Mac and Rachel were married again, but Rachel was mortified to find our that she was pregnant — with Mitch's child. She was prepared to keep the secret until Mitch was "murdered." Rachel was went on trial and was forced to admit on the witness stand that the child (Matthew) in question was Mitch's. She was then sentenced to eight years in prison for Mitch's murder, and Mac started divorce proceedings, all the while believing that something wasn't right. After giving birth Rachel first arranged for her son - whom she named in honor of the Matthews family - to be raised by ex-husband Dr. Russ Matthews (David Bailey) and his new wife, singer Tracy Merrill (who was subsequently killed in a mob hit). However, Mac protested, desiring to raise Matthew himself. Following his intuition, he and son Jamie Frame, along with an escaped Rachel, who had been let out of prison for a day to attend stepfather Charlie Hobson's funeral, tracked down Mitch, who was alive and didn't remember any events surrounding his supposed death. Mac freed Rachel from prison and even dropped the divorce, but he was always jealous of Mitch, who had returned to Bay City to be closer to his son. In the end, it could not be worked out and Mac and Rachel divorced a second time.

Once again, Mac and Rachel fought over custody of daughter Amanda, and the break up caused conflict with Jamie, who had been named Mac's heir and given significant responsibilities at Cory Publishing. Further straining Cory family relationships was the discovery of Alexander "Sandy" Cory (Christopher Rich), a son Mac was unaware of. Jamie and Sandy first became friends, until Jamie's scheming wife Cecile (Nancy Frangione) left him for Sandy and subsequently gave birth to Mac's second grandchild, Maggie Cory. During this time Mac was briefly engaged to Rachel's former rival Alice Frame (Vana Tribbey, then Linda Borgeson), who had served as his private nurse following a near-fatal gunshot wound. Alice was struggling to raise adopted teen-age daughter Sally (Jennifer Runyon), after failed romances with brother-in-law Willis Frame and Dan Shearer, ex-husband of her cousin Susan Matthews Shearer, and a brief marriage to Ray Gordon (Sally's biological uncle and ex-husband of Olive). In mid 1982, the Matthews family also mourned the passing of long-time patriarch Jim Matthews, following the death of veteran actor Hugh Marlowe earlier that year.

Steve Frame was "resurrected" in 1981 and returned from Australia, first masquerading at the mysterious, wealthy Edward Black (it was revealed that he did not die in 1975, but had suffered amnesia; he received a new look in the form of David Canary taking over the role). His original plan was to reunite with Alice & son Jamie. His presence caused Alice to break off her engagement with Mac, and Rachel left Mitch in San Francisco, as Steve toyed with both her and Alice. Once again, things went sour with Alice, she left Bay City and Steve proposed to Rachel. On their wedding day in February 1983, a car accident claimed Steve's life — for good. Rachel survived, and Mac told Rachel how much he loved her. A double wedding was planned in the summer of 1983, with Mac's son Sandy (Christopher Rich) and his fiancée Blaine Ewing Frame (Laura Malone), ex-wife of brother Jamie Frame.

As the show went through the 1980s, the Love family became more prominent, at the expense of the core Matthews family. In 1982, Beverly Penberthy was written out of the show. Marianne Randolph left Bay City, attempting to resurrect her marriage with Rick Halloway, Russ Matthews departed for Seattle and Alice eventually left again, too, leaving only Aunt Liz remaining in Bay City, where she continued on and off as Mac Cory's private secretary.

The Love family was headed by tyrannical patriarch Reginald (John Considine), who had either allied with or alienated all of his children. His daughter Donna (Anna Stuart) ended up marrying the love of her life in stable boy-turned-businessman Michael Hudson (Kale Browne). However, the fact that she was raped years ago by Michael's brother John (David Forsyth) complicated matters for years. Donna had twins, Marley and Victoria, who ended up reunited after many years apart. Victoria's nanny, Bridget Connell (Barbara Berjer), who raised her after the death of her adoptive parents, ended up moving in with the Hudsons and took care of the family until her character died.

Love stories of the 1980s included Felicia Gallant's (Linda Dano) storybook wedding to Mitch Blake (who came back to town), and the pairing of John Hudson with Sharlene Frame (Anna Kathryn Holbrook). Also, the triangle of Vicky Hudson (Anne Heche) trying, and succeeding, to steal Rachel's son Jamie Frame (Laurence Lau) from Felicia's niece Lisa Grady (Joanna Going) interested many viewers.

One aborted love story was the impending marriage between M.J. McKinnon (Sally Spencer) and Adam Cory (Ed Fry). After a videotaped surfaced, showing M.J. in her prostitute days having sex with a client, Adam dumped her, and she left town. Adam, and M.J.'s old flame, and her former pimp, Chad Rollo (Richard Burgi), both left Bay City a year later.

In the late 1980s, Mac and Rachel's children came back as young adults (Amanda recast in the form of Sandra Ferguson and Matt Crane in the role of Matthew). Amanda was married to Sam Fowler, a budding artist, and Matthew started a relationship with Sharlene Frame's daughter Josie Watts (at that time the role was played by Alexandra Wilson). While these characters proved to be fan favorites, the importance of the Cory family on the show was shaken when Douglass Watson unexpectedly died while on vacation in Arizona in the spring of 1989. At the time of Watson's death, Another World was about to celebrate its 25th anniversary, which writers had scripted in the form of a 25th anniversary celebration for Brava magazine. The Corys, minus an absent Mac, hosted a gala celebration that featured the return of several veteran characters, including Russ Matthews (David Bailey), Alice Frame (Jacqueline Courtney), Pat Randolph (Beverly Penberthy), Dennis Carrington Wheeler (Jim Poyner), Gwen Frame (Dorothy Lyman) and Robert Delaney (Nicolas Coster). It also featured a mystical sequence with Rachel coaxed back from near-death by Steve Frame (George Reinholt), thwarting Janice Frame's (Christine Jones) attempt to lure Rachel "into the light".

Shortly after, it was revealed that the absent Mac had died off-screen while in Maine. Rachel and her family tearfully buried him on the June 16, 1989 episode. With Watson's passing, the show was left without a unifying center, as for the next few years, the character of Rachel tried to adjust to life without Mac, and sometimes stumbled on her way. Although actress Victoria Wyndham tried to fill the void left by Watson's absence, much of her central role shifted to Jensen Buchanan, who, by the early 1990s, had taken over for Anne Heche as scheming Vicky Hudson.

Mac's daughter Iris Carrington Wheeler (now played by Carmen Duncan) had returned to Bay City from Europe late in 1988, having lost her husband Alex (and following the demise of the spin-off series "Texas" ) some years earlier. When it was revealed she had been behind a plot to take over his company, Cory Publishing, it had devastated Mac and he left town prior to the Brava anniversary to ponder the implications, dying without having ever reconciled with her. This set up a series of conflicts between Iris, Amanda and Rachel, who had been left equal shares of Cory Publishing, as Rachel attempted to head the company and counter Iris's continued interference. Mac's death also ushered in the appearance of yet another daughter, Paulina (first played by Cali Timmins), who fought to prove her legitimacy as a Cory and win over Rachel and her family, while constantly at odds with Iris.

As the show moved into the 1990s, Felicia and Mitch got a divorce due to both of them straying from their marriage vows. Felicia found the love of her life in the form of Lucas Castigliano (John Aprea), who hunted her down in an attempt to find the daughter she thought had died at birth. They discovered that their daughter, Lorna Devon, had moved to Bay City in 1991.

Felicia and Lorna (Alicia Coppola) had become enemies quickly, especially after Lorna went behind the scenes at Felicia's talk show and switched live footage with a videotape of a pornographic video Felicia's adoptive daughter Jenna Norris (Alla Korot) had unwittingly made. Felicia and Lorna ended up repairing their relationship, especially after Lucas's death.

Jenna found true love with rocker Dean Frame (Ricky Paull Goldin); their happiness, and Dean's success as a rock star, was chronicled in the nighttime special Summer Desire. After his first wife Kathleen McKinnon (Julie Osburn) was pronounced dead in a plane crash, Cass Winthrop (Stephen Schnetzer) grew close to Reginald Love's daughter Nicole (Anne Howard). When Nicole Love was institutionalized for the murder of Jason Frame (Chris Robinson), Cass slowly became attracted to Frankie Frame (Alice Barrett), who came to town to investigate her uncle's murder. After many hindrances (including Kathleen's return to Bay City after being in the Witness Protection Program), Cass and Frankie were finally wed. They honeymooned on the Orient Express.

Jake McKinnon (Tom Eplin) came back to town for good in 1988, with his wife Marley Hudson. Their marriage broke down and the two were forced to get a divorce. After a reconciliation two years later, Jake asked Marley to marry him again. However, she had found out that he was in the midst of an affair with Paulina Cory (Cali Timmins, but by 1991, the role had gone to Judi Evans Luciano). Marley turned down his proposal, and Jake raped her. Then, Jake was shot and near death, and Marley was forced to go on trial for his attempted murder. In the end, it was proven that Paulina shot him. Jake and Marley were officially over, but it was just beginning for Jake and Paulina. Over the next five years, Jake and Paulina were married and divorced twice. While they still had a good partnership, Paulina was fed up with Jake's cons, swindles, and lies, and tied the knot with Joe Carlino (Joseph Barbara).

Amanda (Christine Tucci) saw two marriages crash and burn. The first, to Sam, didn't work out due to Amanda's affair with Evan Frame (son of villinous Janice Frame); the second, to Grant Harrison (Mark Pinter) due to Grant's infidelity with Lorna Devon (Robin Christopher). Matthew had developed a May-December romance with Donna Love, who had been very grateful that Matt helped get her savings back. Matt and Donna became a very popular couple and were broken up due to then-executive producer Jill Farren Phelps's insistence that Matt be paired up with someone his own age, and Donna likewise.

Rachel's mother, Ada Hobson, died in the summer of 1993 (veteran actress Constance Ford had died earlier that year), and she needed support more than ever; she found it in the unlikeliest source; a new love (and a new marriage) with Mac's former enemy, reformed villain Carl Hutchins (Charles Keating). Mac's daughter Iris didn't like this news one bit, and was prepared to startle the wedding crowd by firing blanks at Carl. Evan Frame (who had returned to town after a four-year absence) placed real bullets into Iris's gun, causing Iris to gravely wound Carl. She was convicted of the crime and sentenced to prison time, and she was never heard from again.

The show was renewed in 1993, but the ratings still weren't good. The odds weren't in the show's favor that it would be renewed again in 1999. Early in 1995, news at the top signaled a change in executive producer. Jill Farren Phelps, who had won Emmy awards for her work on Santa Barbara, was given the job. Veteran cast members were fired; both cast members over the age of 55 (Barbara Berjer and David Hedison) had their contracts terminated, in an attempt to move the show in a more youthful direction. Show matriarch Rachel Cory Hutchins was placed in a storyline involving an evil lookalike countess, Justine Duvalier, who was the ex-wife of Hedison's recently axed character, Spencer Harrison. The Justine storyline was panned by the press as being worthy of a Mystery Science Theater 3000 level of ridicule. While in a scuffle, Grant Harrison killed his brother Ryan (played by fan favorite Paul Michael Valley), causing Justine to be shoved in front of a train. Justine did not die, and she caused more terror before finally being finished by Carl Hutchins and his letter opener. Actress Victoria Wyndham was quoted as liking the storyline at first, but after it was played out, she stated that she wished she had never appeared in it. In June 1999, NBC did not renew Another World, but decided to cancel it.

Budget cuts caused Phelps to institute a serial killer storyline, culminating in the gruesome murder of another fan favorite, Frankie (Alice Barrett). The story had actually called for Donna to be offed, but massive fan protest caused Phelps to rewrite the episodes. Phelps decided to then kill off either Frankie or Paulina, and when a focus group responded lukewarm to Frankie but warmer to Paulina, Phelps gave the greenlight to axe Frankie. However, this caused another massive rampage of upset protest from loyal viewers of the show and fans of Frankie, and Phelps quickly asked then-head writer Margaret DePriest to re-write Frankie's exit so that the character would at least still live. DePriest, eager to satisfy her wish to see Cass return to his former rogue ways, vehemently refused and left Frankie's death as written.

Rachel gave birth to twins, even though she was well into her fifties. Although the believability of this story was debated by fans, it was a nod back to when her mother, Ada, gave birth to Rachel's sister Nancy late in life. Robert Kelker-Kelly was lured back to the show in a different role from Sam Fowler, in which Vicky falls for the man who was given Ryan's corneas in a transplant. The storyline became convoluted as the man's mystery identity was rewritten and his former wife came to town to reclaim him. Lila Roberts (Lisa Peluso) ended up bedding Matthew Cory and having his baby before falling in love with Cass. Cass and Lila were engaged, and got married in the final episode of the show; they were the last couple to wed in Bay City.

In 1999, NBC decided not to renew Another World. Many reasons abounded for Another World's cancellation, one of the more notable events occurring in the summer of 1998; the then-San Francisco NBC affiliate KRON, one of the highest-rated in the nation, dropped the show off its schedule altogether, knocking it out of two million homes. Rumors abounded that Days of our Lives might be the serial dropped, as renewal talks between NBC and Columbia Pictures Television (now Sony Pictures Television) were going poorly at the time. At the eleventh hour, Days of our Lives was renewed, and it was the fate of Another World that was sealed. Its final episodes aired the last full week in June, with Passions debuting the following Monday. However, NBC canceled Passions in 2007 after an 8-year run to make room for a fourth hour of Today. It was moved to the DirecTV-exclusive channel The 101, but was again canceled and concluded its run in August 2008.

The show's former studio is now home for As The World Turns (which moved from CBS Broadcast Center on January 3, 2000).

After a series of 35th anniversary episodes, Rachel reminisced with Carl, remarked, "All's well that ends well," and the show ended with a still frame shot of Mac Cory.

Ironically, Irna Phillips' original plan of crossovers with As The World Turns was finally realized -- after Another World was cancelled. Another World characters Lila (Lisa Peluso), Cass (Stephen Schnetzer), Vicky (Jensen Buchanan), Donna (Anna Stuart), and Jake (Tom Eplin) all moved into ATWT storylines. By 2002, Vicky and Jake had been killed off violently in separate incidents, and the crossover experiment had, for the most part, ended. Schnetzer continued to make occasional appearances, as his character of Cass was used as a "visiting lawyer" in As the World Turns trials.

The show was commemorated in print twice in 1999. Another World, the 35th Anniversary Celebration, by Julie Poll, was a coffee-table style book chronicling the show's history on- and off-screen. Another World was the last of all the long-running soap opera programs of the time to be preserved in this way. The other book was decidedly different; The Ultimate Another World Trivia Book, by Gerard J. Waggett, listed several juicy tidbits about the show's stars and what happened behind-the-scenes. Many fans have treated Poll's book as they would a high school yearbook, getting Another World performers to sign their autographs in the book along with messages of appreciation or thanks for the fans' continued support in watching the program.

From July 2003 to April 2007, SOAPnet, an ABC channel, started rerunning old Another World episodes that originally aired from July 1987 to May 1991. The contract was not renewed to continue airing Another World, so that SOAPnet could begin airing episodes of both One Tree Hill and The O.C.. A lackluster The Another World Reunion aired on the channel on October 24, 2003. Hosted by Linda Dano, the special program reunited fan favorites such as Stephen Schnetzer, Sandra Ferguson, John Aprea, Alicia Coppola, Kale Browne, and Ellen Wheeler. On the special, Dano interviewed the members of the assembled cast, one by one, interspersed with classic Another World clips. Before and after commercial breaks, Another World quiz questions were posed to the audience at home, and audience members told the viewers at home their favorite Another World moments, supplemented with clips from the actual episodes (for example, one viewer said her favorite Another World moment was from 1980, in which Rachel, on the stand for Mitch's murder, was forced to tell Mac that Matthew was not his child. Another viewer cited Ryan marrying Vicky while in Heaven). This special was nominated for a Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Special Class Special in 2004. The Another World Reunion was rerun in May 2004 to commemorate AW's 40th anniversary.

In 2006, Procter & Gamble began making several of its soap operas available, a few episodes at a time, through America Online's AOL Video service, downloadable free of charge. Reruns of older Another World episodes began from August 1, 1980. As of November 2008, AOL Video is currently uploading the episodes from November 1981.

On July 29, 2008, episodes also became available on the video streaming website Hulu. The episodes begin with the May 10, 1991 episode - the last one that ran on SoapNet. There were 24 episodes made available initially, with the promise of 3 more each week.

For most of a 15-year period between 1965 and 1980, Another World was NBC's highest-rated soap opera. During that time, NBC ran a 90-minute drama block consisting of Days of our Lives, The Doctors and Another World, all of which enjoyed great ratings and critical success before declining at the end of the decade.

Another World did not take long to establish itself as NBC's highest-rating daytime drama, although it was still behind the then-dominant CBS lineup which would usually occupy the first six places on the ratings chart. Making its debut at 3 p.m. Eastern/2 Central, Another World slowly chipped away at ABC's General Hospital and CBS' daytime version of To Tell the Truth. Its efforts resulted in a swift rise to second place in 1967-1968; the show would remain in the upper end of the ratings chart until 1978. CBS later tried The Secret Storm, a soap that reputedly served as the model for Another World, against it, but to no avail.

On March 30, 1970, AW became the first daytime soap to produce a spinoff series, Somerset, which ran until 1976. For Somerset's first year, the two shows shared the same branding, with the mother show titled Another World in Bay City and the daughter show Another World in Somerset. NBC and P&G discontinued this after a year, and Another World dropped the reference to its location.

With the arrival of Harding Lemay, Another World would consolidate its place as not only the most popular and critically-acclaimed soap on NBC, but one of the highest-rated soaps of the decade. Between 1973 and 1978, it consistently attained second place in the ratings chart and tied with As The World Turns (its P&G sister) for first place twice--in 1973-74 and 1977-78. The earlier triumph was no mean feat when one considers that CBS put up its star game The Price is Right against it for two years.

When the one-hour 10th Anniversary special in spring 1974 proved a massive ratings success, NBC and Procter and Gamble made the decision to expand to 60 minutes permanently on January 6, 1975, replacing the original version of the game show Jeopardy, in a scheduling shuffle with the in-house-produced How to Survive a Marriage. Another World became the first serial to broadcast one hour daily, only some six years after the last two 15-minute soaps (CBS' Search for Tomorrow and Guiding Light, also P&G shows) finally doubled their daily lengths.

The show took over the entire 3-4 p.m./2-3 Central period, the latter part of which witnessed it beating back, to some degree, CBS' huge Match Game, then daytime's most popular program. However, starting in 1978, Another World began to experience an erosion in ratings caused mainly by the surge in popularity of General Hospital. Another World fell from a first-place tie in 1978 to eighth in 1979 (a drop from 8.6 to 7.5), but remained NBC's highest-rated daytime drama. Despite the fall in ratings, Another World became the first, and thus far only, soap to expand to 90 minutes, a move that proved unsuccessful--it remained in eighth place in 1979-80.

Although it is widely thought that Another World's expansion to 90 minutes was a cause of ratings erosion, the decision to expand the show was made at a time when its ratings (and that of NBC's other serials) were already in steady decline. It should be noted that even during the period when Another World ran daily for 90 minutes, it remained NBC's highest-rated soap opera, as it had been for a decade. In the second half of 1980, after the show returned to 60 minutes, Another World and fellow NBC serials Days of our Lives and, most dramatically, The Doctors, experienced a collapse in ratings from which NBC's daytime soap lineup never fully recovered. It would not be until 1984 that both Days and Another World would recover some of their lost ground.

It is possible that the 90-minute format was intended to be temporary, with the added time used to prepare a storyline for a spinoff, Texas in 1980. For upon its debut, the mother show contracted to 60 minutes again, this time moving to 2/1 Central, where it settled for the remaining 19 years of its run. Texas, starring the hugely popular Beverlee McKinsey and attempting to cash in on the Dallas craze, while itself not a success, may have caused further erosion of Another World's viewership, to the point that it was no longer NBC's highest-rated serial, losing that position to Days of our Lives (which itself, along with the rest of NBC's daytime lineup, was in serious ratings trouble). Another World fell from eighth to as low as 11th in the ratings chart, and by 1981-82 it sunk so low in the Nielsens as 4.7 (a drop of 3.9 points in four seasons). Much like General Hospital winning the 3/2 slot for ABC, One Life to Live came in strong at 2/1, with CBS attempting to get its new Capitol off the ground during that period.

After five years of sharply declining ratings, Another World experienced something of a mini-revival, and for the 1983-84 season, the show jumped to ninth place and 5.6 (compared with 10th place and 4.8 in 1982-83). The ratings increase was attributed to the emergence of supercouple Sally Frame (Mary Page Keller) and Catlin Ewing (Thomas Ian Griffith) and the return of actress Jacqueline Courtney (Alice Matthews Frame), who had been fired from the show nine years earlier despite being immensely popular with viewers. It remained in ninth place through the decade (occasionally moving up to eighth), pulling in generally stable numbers against One Life to Live and its Procter and Gamble sister As the World Turns.

In common with other daytime soaps, Another World experienced a gradual erosion of viewership but, amazingly enough given its turbulent history, held on to ninth place on the ratings chart until the end of its run. While it never showed signs of moving up through this period, it was for most part never in danger of falling to last place.

Between 1974 and 1999, Another World won the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series only once (in 1976), a stark contrast to 5 wins for The Young and the Restless and 6 wins for General Hospital.

The show spawned two spin-offs: Somerset (1970-1976) and Texas (1980-1982). (In 1970, the two shows were known as Another World: Bay City and Another World: Somerset before reverting to their unique names.) One primetime special aired in 1992: Another World: Summer Desire.

While individual NBC affiliates had the right to air any show whenever they wished, most of the affiliates (almost all of them, in the earlier days of television) aired the show when it would be transmitted to the network's direct affiliates. In the mid-to-late '90s, when AW was in its final ratings slump, many affiliates swapped AW's time slot with Days of our Lives, which usually aired an hour earlier.

Another World won fifteen Daytime Emmy Awards.

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Thai Lakorns of 2008

Lakorn (Thai: ละคร IPA:  ), while usually meaning play in the Thai language, is also the term for dramatic television serials (soap operas). Lakorns are usually shown every night at primetime on Thai television channels and start at 20:30. An episode of a prime-time drama is usually two hours long (including commercials). A lakorn usually is a finished story, unlike Western "cliffhanger" dramas, but rather like Hispanic telenovelas. A series will run for about three months. It may air two or three episodes a week, the pattern usually being Monday-Tuesday, Wednesday-Thursday or Friday-Sunday. A channel will air three lakorns simultaneously at any given time. Because they attract the most viewers, each channel competes for the most popular stars. While the "best" lakorns are shown at night right after the news, there are ones with smaller profiles (and shorter run time) in the evenings at around 5 to 6 pm. In some cases, primetime lakorns are also shown on re-runs a couple of years after their initial release, in the afternoon.

Lakorns have very distinctive characteristics. Though some stray from these set rules, most adhere to them, especially ones that are very popular among Thai viewers.

Because Lakorn present a melodramatic storyline featuring simple one-dimensional characterizations to capture the broadest viewership and commersial sponsorship, they generally do not foster critical insight, reasoning or problem-solving skills, nor a multi-perspective consideration of the human drama being viewed. They are simply an attempt to create dramatic tension and a "showdown" between the protagonist(s) and antagonist(s). Several Lakorn adhere to this simply format which, over an extended period, may cause some viewers to develop a skewed view of reality. At least one critic contends that the recent political problems in Thailand may be at least partially attributable to the negative influence of Lakorn, surmising that it is the disregard of common sense and common human wisdom that causes people to shy away from thinking critically, resultantly becoming prone to manipulation.

In year 2008 Thai Airways flight attendants urged the government to remove a prime-time TV drama ("Songkhram Nang Fah") because it showed stewardesses wearing short skirts and fighting while in uniform over a male pilot. They complain the soap opera portrays hostesses in a negative light.

Most lakorns portray the upper class of Thai society, usually through the male lead, but sometimes from both leads. He is rich, like Phak in Dao pra sook. Early on, the male leads were nobility, usually junior princes, such as a Mom Chao, because, back then, these were the rich people in Thai society. The rich male has since evolved into businessmen from influential families. This change mirrors the change in Thai society with the upper class now filled with business people and not so much from the royal and noble classes.

Most, if not all, lakorns are based upon novels. Romance abounds in Thai literature scenes and most have the perfect boy-meets-girl scenario. The ever famous, Dao pra sook, is also a novel While another 1994's Silamanee clearly inspired by the novel of the same name.

Not all of Lakorns are set in the mordern times.Many Lakorns are seem local in the old time as about Hundred or Thousands years ago for its period.Thai people always call this Lakorn Lakorn Boran (ละครไทยพื้นบ้าน), Means Classicplays.Most of Lakorn Boran are based upon Thai folk tales and tell about the adventure and fantasy events happened back to back,such as Nang Sib Song, Kaki and Thep Sarm Rudoo for example.

Actors and actresses, referred to in Thai language as dara (stars), are usually cast in the same roles over and over again. An actress who plays the lead female would assume the same role.

Suvanant Kongying from Dao pra sook still plays the female lead. The same goes for other roles, such as the friend of the main leads, the bad characters, the servant characters, the mother characters, etc. An "upgrade" or "downgrade" does occur, such as when a female lead assumes the role of the mother, but is quite rare. Num Sornram Theppitak still plays the leading male character. Kob Suvanant Kongying and Num Sornram Theppitak are now the highest paid lakorn actress and actor in Thailand. They have done many lakorns together ,also with other lakorn actors and actresses over the past years.

This trend causes a lot of problems for the daras in the leading roles as they age, especially for actresses. Thai audiences seems to like their leads young and beautiful and many past female daras have disappeared from the screen once they reach the age of 30 or so. A few defy this norm, such as Marsha Wattanapanich, and even then, she is gradually disappearing.Her latest lakorn was 2002's Baung Ban Ja Torn (The Enchanted Bed)which was the top rated.

This problem is not as bad for actors, as can be seen in the prolific career of veteran actor Chatchai Plengpanich. His wife, the once famous Sinjai Plengpanich, has all but disappeared, except for the few commercials seen in primetime.

Thailand has strict censorship laws on films containing nudity, sexual intercourse, smoking opium or which might offend religious sensibilities. There are no classifications to rate films for different ages so censors often obscure scenes by scratching the celluloid or smudging it with a translucent gel. When actors are playing cards in TV series, a sentence displays that playing cards with money is forbidden by the law.

On Thai TV, Chinese, Japanese, American and Indian films are broadcasted. No sex on Thai TV but often some bloody sequences.

Some Lakorn need to be rate.Most of BBTV Channel 7 always rated as G-18.

Thai TV soap operas start to be popular overseas in countries such as Cambodia and Laos.Several of Cambodia Television Channel were aired many Thai Lakorn instead of their local ones.Dao Pra Sook was the most popular Lakorn for khmer viewers.However,To release Lakorn had banned at the early of 2003 but released back in the same years.The Selling for Thai Lakorn still allow in Cambodia but the Television channel is ignore for air the Lakorn.

Lakorn also begin popular in Singapore and Malaysia as Nang Tard released well in those countries.

There are a excellent selling to found in Europe and United State's Market.

Each Lakorn clealy be told with different genre which the main story appear what it talking about.Like The Film genre, Some Lakorn specifics on love story but mixes with different type like Horror, Period or Comedy. Some Lakorn totally prefer the mixed genre which talking about several different thing in one lakorn. However, No lakorn dropped off the love story basing which is a most genre attract the audience.It seem that the romance title are usaully on screen every month.

Since the late of 1990s, Lakorn are often remakes of old Lakorn but with new actors and minor modifications in the scenario. To have new variations on the same themes, producers add supplementary sex, violence and vulgarity.The tradition of the remake in Thai lakorn Society begin with the famous lakorn. The introduction of remake refer to 1995 's Sai Lohit (Bloodline) with famous Sornram Teppitak and Suvanant Kongying which then followed by Prissana which produced in 2000. Doa Pra Sook also had a remake in 2002.

In addition, toward early of 2000, Horror genre lakorn became a well know with remaking which started by Tayat Asoon, a Witch and black magic lakorn starring Sinjai Plengpanich.

Another recent remake, Poot Pee Saward,Poot Mae Nam Khong and Susan Khon Pen ,the both love story among ghost story including Pob Pee Fa and Dome Tong remake are begin annonce.But the too much remake required by audience to disappoint in reason of its too much special effect and unbelievable if compares to original.

However, A 2008 remake from 1994's Lakorn, Silamanee, rather became a hit lakorn and received positive from audience in spite of the first disappointed of the horror lakorn remake. The attractive toward this remake reasonly with the new costume design and the actress main role was Suvanant Kongying.It then had been noted as the most beautiful lakorn of the year.

All lakorn don't seem to have another season but followed by sequel. The Thai hit lakorn, Girl in The Glass lamp, based on india legend Aladdin, had a sequel but with different casting.This lakorn found as only sequel lakorn till 2000's hit lakorn, Angkor, released its sequel in the late of 2006.Meanwhile, a remake of Poot Mae Nam Khong are hasing a planning to produce a sequel after the question for audience appeared on its ending.The highest rating lakorn of all time, Kom Faek now annonced its sequel as well.

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MyNetworkTV telenovelas

My Network TV widescreen logo used during telenovelas

The MyNetworkTV telenovelas were Fox Television's attempt to create a successful low-cost programming franchise by adapting Spanish-language telenovelas for U.S. viewers. While originally planned for syndication, the format became the original lineup of MyNetworkTV in 2006. Six limited-run serials were produced, each running about 65 episodes, and at least three others were halted in development.

New episodes aired from Monday to Friday – and weekend clip shows recapped the shows' storylines. Producers planned continuous cycles of thirteen-week serials with no repeats. Once one series ended, another unrelated melodrama would begin the following week. In total, MyNetworkTV planned to air 600 hours of original dramatic programming in HDTV every year.

The telenovela format was unsuccessful and ratings were unexpectedly low. An average of about 781,000 people tuned in to watch the telenovelas, according to Nielsen Media Research. Parent company News Corp. said MyNetworkTV lost two million dollars per week with the all-telenovela lineup.

Under new network president Greg Meidel, production and development stopped in early 2007. "Trying to get people to watch serialized dramas every night on MyNetworkTV was asking the impossible," he remarked. The novelas premiered on September 5, 2006 and last aired on July 18, 2007.

Paul Buccieri, Twentieth Television's programming chief, became fascinated by telenovelas in the 1990s, inspired by his Latina mother-in-law's devotion to such shows. He said that the nightly soap concept would work in the U.S. if given sufficient time. Along with colleagues Stephen Brown and Jack Abernathy, he started discussing the telenovela format in 2005.

Before it announced MyNetworkTV, Fox offered the telenovelas in syndication under as an anthology titled Desire, which would one hour each weeknight starting in the fall of 2006. It originally planned to air three serials per season. They were originally intended to air as late night time programming. In December 2005, Bucceri said the company had already bought enough novela formats to air original shows for five years.

Fox then added a second hour and planned to use two umbrella titles: Desire and Secret Obsessions. After receiving lukewarm response from stations not owned by Fox, Twentieth Television decided to pitch the show for June 2006. It argued that teenagers are out of school and planted in front of their TV sets, while reruns dominate network schedules. The telenovelas were also briefly considered for placement on The CW.

Fox Television Stations Chairman Roger Ailes greenlit the format as a contingency plan for Fox-owned UPN stations. Then MyNetworkTV was introduced to advertisers on February 22, 2006, as a reaction to the demise of UPN and The WB. The telenovelas became the new network's weeknight lineup, along with clip shows on Saturdays.

MyNetworkTV targeted the telenovelas at the "Adults 18-49" demographic, which is a general audience. While the novelas had a few takers for a planned summer syndication run, Twentieth made those stations surrender the shows, thanks to a contract clause that let Fox take away the show if it is carried by a network.

As MyNetworkTV's debut grew closer, Fox dropped the idea of using two umbrella titles for its telenovelas. Desire became the title of the first series aired. The two umbrella titles reappeared in 2007, showing up during opening credits and on the network's Web site.

Jack Abernethy, chief executive of Fox Television Stations, said before launch that MyNetworkTV's six-day-per-week format was the wave of the future because a traditional schedule costs too much. Each episode was said to cost about one-tenth the budget of traditional prime-time shows and even less than the typical daytime soap. Another estimate said the serials cost $200,000 to $500,000, compared to the $2 million to $3 million cost of a mainstream primetime drama.

Unfortunately, ad revenue was not sufficient for the format to succeed. At the 2006 upfront season, MyNetworkTV secured less than $50 million in ad deals, compared to $640 million for the new CW network. National advertising spots sold for between $20,000 and $35,000 for a 30-second spot as of September 2006.

At first, MyNetworkTV called its soap writers "translators" since the projects were adaptations of existing Spanish telenovelas. These people were also non-union, which soon led to a labor dispute. The eventual settlement with the Writers Guild of America led to higher-than-expected programming costs.

The shows were shot at Stu Segall Studios in San Diego. The facility, built by a former porn producer, specializes in low-budget productions. Since Segall rented part of the lot to the U.S. government, the telenovelas were shot near a mock Iraqi village used to train military personnel.

As a cost-saving measure, producers tend to hire performers with limited acting experience. The same sets were reused in multiple shows. Producers built 53 shared living-room sets, which were repurposed by changing colors and camera angles to give the them a different look. Also, scripts were finished before taping started, so that all scenes on the same set were filmed at the same time, out of episode order. Up to three shows were filmed at once.

The production model resembled that of movies more than normal US television series. Each complete series — equivalent to three seasons of conventional dramas — was filmed in about four months, as nine crews worked simultaneously, For example, Desire used three directors, 50 cast members, 200 bit players, 2,000 extras and 2,800 script pages (compared to 120 pages for features and 45 for dramas).

Two main groups worked on the novelas, one for the Desire brand and one for Secret Obsessions serials. The Desire shows, such as Watch Over Me, were more action-oriented to attract more male viewers. All of the telenovelas used the same narrators, actor Ray Van Ness III for the Secret Obsessions, and an uncredited female actor for the Desire brand.

The telenovelas are broadcast in high definition where available – and in letterbox format on standard definition broadcasts. During the all-novela period, MyNetworkTV promoted itself as "the first all HDTV network." In addition, early shows carried a SAP signal carrying a Spanish audio track, but an alternate closed captioning channel with Spanish translation was not used.

MyNetworkTV’s telenovelas were much shorter than the originals: about 65 episodes, rather than 120 to 180 hours.Each show was scripted, filmed and completed as a whole. The network could not shorten or lengthen shows.

In familiar telenovela form, shows often began with the tag “MyNetworkTV Presents.” Yet the beginnings of shows featured long flashbacks intended to refresh viewers. The first two rotations also added titles to each episode.

The daily format also featured the “Story” episode. These were clip shows that outlined the development of a major character. They were used in lieu of reruns. In addition, MyNetworkTV's shows featured white, black and Hispanic actors in prominent roles and often showed interracial couples, along with gay subplots.

These English novelas also toned down the high pitched emotionalism of conventional telenovelas. The producers said they needed to account for the cultural differences with Latin countries. So while these serials were said to add campiness, cat-fights and gay sensibility, they also lacked the cultural depth and raw passion of the Spanish originals.

Camilo Cano, the VP of Caracol Television International, which sold two telenovela formats to MyNetworkTV, said he was satisfied with the English versions. “The basic elements of the novela were respected,” he said, “which is what concerns us the most.” He said Caracol worked to ensure the adaptations were faithful to the original serials.

Had the daily format continued, Friends with Benefits and Rules of Deception would have debuted on June 5, 2007. Crossed Loves would likely have begun the second season in early September. It could have been joined in the Fall lineup by Friends & Enemies, which was announced in the 2006 pre-season upfront presentation (in the third-quarter slot taken by Friends with Benefits).

The MyNetworkTV serial lineup was broadcast in Australia as FOXTELENOVELA on the W. Channel.

In addition, Toronto's CKXT showed Desire and Fashion House, airing them in the afternoon time slot traditionally held by daytime soap operas. However, the station elected not to air any of the other telenovelas after the first cycle.

MyNetwork promoted its telenovelas as trashy melodramas, resembling prime time soap operas like Dallas and Dynasty. Paul Buccieri called them "guilty pleasures" and compared them to beach novels. While these shows attempted to adhere to the telenovela format and tone, the network's executives and producers developed their own campy interpretation of the genre. They added characters and situations that differed from the Latin American originals. As telenovelas are inherently implausible and cartoonish, both Hispanic and non-Hispanic audiences scorned the new adaptations.

Paul Buccieri said that English-speaking audiences needed time to understand the genre. "We're sticking with it—we believe in this product," he said. Roger Ailes brought up MyNetworkTV in a Financial Times interview. "You should have seen us at Fox News Channel one year into it," he said. "I've had this job for a year and it takes a little time to get these things off the runway." Also, an executive of another television network told TV Week magazine that the existence of MNTV was "a miracle" because it went from concept to reality in only six months' time.

MyNetworkTV's debut was far from successful. Desire scored a 1.1 household rating/2 share; Fashion House went up to 1.3/2. Fox had sold about half of its projections of $50 million in advance commercial sales.

The first two telenovelas averaged a 0.5 rating and a 2 share in the key 18-49 demographic. It averaged just over one million total viewers. The numbers dropped each night, according to Nielsen Media Research. These numbers were significantly lower than he programming that aired a year before, mostly UPN and WB programming. The telenovelas showed more hopeful ratings in markets like Miami, with large Hispanic populations.

The second set of telenovelas premiered to even lower numbers than the first pair. Wicked Wicked Games premiered to a 0.8 rating/1 share overnight rating during its first three nights, while Watch Over Me pulled a 0.7 rating/1 share. Both shows dropped by a 0.1 rating during the Monday-Wednesday period of their second week. The network sought better debuts for the shows since they premiered in December, while the major networks usually air reruns and the viewer presumably would sample programming on other networks.

MyNetworkTV's 200 affiliates struggled to promote the new format -- and ratings dropped in some markets as much as 90 percent. Even Los Angeles was an under-performing market. One success story was Miami, where ratings more than doubled MyNetwork's national average.

Reports surfaced in December 2006, about a coming shift in MyNetworkTV's programming strategy. Greg Meidel became the network's first president in January; he explained the low ratings as a result of viewers' difficulty to commit to the same program every night, especially with higher-rated serialized programming on other networks. Another issue was that the typical MyNetworkTV telenovela viewer was 44 years old.

On February 3, 2007, the Saturday night clip shows vanished and were replaced by feature films. Then on March 1, MyNetworkTV announced that it quit developing scripted content altogether, putting an end to its slate of telenovelas. The network had at least three more serials in development, Friends with Benefits, Rules of Deception, and Crossed Loves. It tentatively planned to cut their schedule to one night a week by fall before announcing that all such projects were scrapped.

Under the revised schedule, two hour installments of American Heiress and Saints & Sinners aired on Tuesday and Wednesday evenings through March and April. MyNetworkTV switched to one hour of each on Wednesdays for sweeps and never switched back. Meidel, the new network president, decided that the mixed martial arts IFC Battleground broadcasts on Monday would not deliver an audience to telenovelas the next night. In addition, the last set of telenovelas were preempted several times for reality specials and other programming before being dropped altogether.

MyNetworkTV's new Fall 2007 lineup did not fare substantially better than the cancelled telenovelas, however. The mix of reality shows and movies averaged a .7 household rating during September. In addition, Paul Buccieri, the executive who championed the all-telenovela format, left Fox and became president and chief executive of Granada America in December, 2007.

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The Young and the Restless

2007-2008 The Young and the Restless cast photo. Top row (l-r): Ted Shackelford, Tammy Lauren, Bryton, Christel Khalil Second row: Greg Rikaart, Judith Chapman, Kate Linder, Amelia Heinle, Thad Luckinbill, Vincent Irizarry, Eyal Podell, Daniel Goddard, Tammin Sursok Third row: Nia Peeples, Kristoff St. John, Jeanne Cooper, Eric Braeden, Melody Thomas Scott, Jess Walton, Emily O'Brien Bottom row: Doug Davidson, Vail Bloom, Christian LeBlanc, Tracey E. Bregman, Joshua Morrow, Adrienne Frantz, Michelle Stafford, Michael Graziadei, Sharon Case, Peter Bergman, Hunter Allan, Don Diamont, Darcy Rose Byrnes

The Young and the Restless is an American television soap opera, first broadcast on CBS on March 26, 1973. It was created by William J. Bell and Lee Phillip Bell, who set their show in a fictional version of Genoa City, Wisconsin, a town near their annual vacation home in Lake Geneva.

The soap opera is one of the very few TV shows to successfully write out their original cast, and to replace them with new ones. When it debuted, The Young and the Restless originally focused on the personal and professional lives of two core families in Genoa City: the wealthy Brooks family and the poor Foster family. After a series of recasts and departures in the early 1980s, most of the original characters were written out and the show shifted to the rivalry between the Abbotts and the Newmans. Other families such as the Williams, the Winters, and the Fisher/Baldwins were also introduced through the years. However, one basic plot that has run throughout almost all of the show's history is the feud between Jill Foster Abbott and Katherine Chancellor, one of the longest rivalries on any American soap opera.

The series was originally broadcast as half-hour episodes, five times a week. It was expanded to one-hour episodes on February 4, 1980. The Young and the Restless is currently the highest-rated daytime drama on American television. As of 2008, it has appeared at the top of the weekly Nielsen Ratings in that category for more than 1000 weeks since 1988.

The Young and the Restless has won seven Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Drama Series.

The show was groundbreaking for daytime serials in its lush production values. When it premiered, in 1973 The Young and the Restless stood out from other soaps on the air for its visual darkness. Soap operas at the time tended to be comparatively brightly-lit in tone. The show lighted primarily the actors and not the background settings, so as to focus the attention of the viewer on the emotions of the actors. Also, its glamorous sets utilizing fresh cut flowers, and wardrobe and hairstyles were a huge contrast to existing soap operas, which often set the action in a simple living room or kitchen set, where characters would discuss their world over a cup of coffee. It should also be noted that The Young and the Restless is one of the few soaps that used an actual orchestra for the background music (its sister soap Days of our Lives also used, and pioneered the use of in American soap operas, an orchestra for background music), a lavish expense for a soap in the '70s.

When the show began as 30 minutes in 1973, it was shot in what is referred to as "Live To Tape", meaning it was basically like a stage play that was filmed, with actors freezing in place during the "Black Space" where commercials would later be inserted by the network and affiliates. Later, after the show went to 60 minutes in February 1980, the taping style changed, and it was shot scene by scene, and edited, with which the format stands to this day.

In 2001, The Young and the Restless became the first - and, so far, only - daytime soap opera to be broadcast in high-definition. The April 2, 2008 episode of The Young and the Restless was the first and only episode aired in a film look.

For the most part, the writers and producers of the show have stayed unchanged since the 1980s. Throughout most of the show's history since its inception, creator William J. Bell served as both the Executive Producer and head writer for the show. He also had a number of executive producers over the years including John Conboy, H. Wesley Kenney, Edward J. Scott, David Shaughnessy and John F. Smith. Starting in the mid-80s, Bell was credited as "Senior Executive Producer".

As the show continued to reach new, record heights in 1987, co-executive producer H. Wesley Kenney defected to network television's #1 mainstay in the soap ratings, General Hospital. This was rather ironic, since the following year it was The Young and the Restless that surpassed the longtime champ for the Nielsen ratings top spot, with Kenney not being able to be a part of his former show's ultimate success. However, Kenney did keep GH near the top of the pack during his two-year tenure as executive producer there.

Kay Alden took over as head writer after Bell stepped down in 1998. After Bell died in April 2005, Smith served as the sole executive producer. In late February 2006, Lynn Marie Latham was promoted to head writer, while Alden and Smith served as co-head writers. In late August 2006, Latham was announced as the new executive producer (in addition to her writing role) by CBS Daytime Senior Vice President Barbara Bloom. More behind-the-scenes shakeups continued into September 2006 when Smith's contract as co-head writer wasn't renewed. Kathryn Foster, a long time producer and director since the 1980s, resigned in October 2006.

Alden quit the show in November 2006 and was hired by ABC Daytime in December 2006 to consult on All My Children and One Life to Live. After her consulting contract ended, Alden joined The Bold and the Beautiful as an Associate Head Writer. Lynn Marie Latham, the show's former creative consultant, was named its new executive producer shortly after the departure of Smith. In June 2007, former supervising producer Edward J. Scott was chosen by Sony Pictures Television to join Days of our Lives. Anthony Morina, episode director and husband of former series writer/story consultant Sally Sussman Morina, was named as producer shortly after Scott's departure (and later promoted to supervising producer).

The show had been known in the industry for its close-knit team that rarely changed; however, with Latham's ascension, many crew members that had been with the show since the '80s were fired or quit: Joshua S. McCaffrey, Marnie Saitta, Trent Jones, Mike Denney, Janice Ferri Esser, Sally Sussman Morina, Jim Houghton, Marc Hertz, Sara A. Bibel (Denney and Esser have since returned). New crew members were hired: Neil Landau, Darin Goldberg, Brett Steanart, Valerie Ahern, Shelley Meals, Phideaux Xavier, Karen Rea, Cherie Bennett, Jeff Gottesfeld, Bernard Lechowick, Scott Hamner, Christian McLaughlin, Lynsey DuFour, Vincent Lechowick, James Stanley, Jenelle Lindsay, Tom Casiello, Paula Cwikly, Rick Draughon and Chris Abbott.

By 2007, only four writers from the pre-Latham era: Sandra Weintraub, Eric Freiwald, Linda Schreiber and Natalie Minardi Slater, remained with the serial. Josh Griffith took over the executive producing duties after Latham was fired, but his tenure ended in September when it was announced that he would be replaced by Maria Arena Bell and Paul Rauch as co-executive producers. Bell and Rauch's episodes began airing on October 3, 2008.

With Maria Arena Bell at the helm, The Young and the Restless has seen the return of several long-time writers and directors; most notably Mike Denney, who was part of the directing team for nearly 20 years before Lynn Marie Latham had him relieved, as well as writer Janice Ferri Esser who was also relieved of her duties by Latham.

The original March 1973 cast consisted of a mixture of veterans and young, relative unknowns. The most notable cast member was Robert Colbert, star of the 1960s TV series The Time Tunnel, as Stuart Brooks. Dorothy Green, a frequent guest star in numerous 1950s-60s TV programs, was cast as Stuart's wife Jennifer, while veteran actress Julianna McCarthy played Liz Foster.

Among the current cast members, longtime veteran actress Jeanne Cooper, who plays Katherine Chancellor, has been on contract with The Young and the Restless since Autumn 1973. The other current senior cast members who joined the show in the 1970s are Doug Davidson (Paul Williams, 1978) and Melody Thomas Scott (Nikki Newman, 1979). Eric Braeden joined The Young and the Restless as Victor Newman in 1980 after becoming notable for his roles in The Rat Patrol and Colossus: The Forbin Project, as well as a variety of guest starring roles in numerous primetime TV shows during the 1970s.

The only original character remaining since the program's debut in 1973 is Jill Foster Abbott, who has been played by Jess Walton since 1987. Katherine Chancellor, played by Jeanne Cooper debuted on-screen in November 1973. Cooper is the show's longest-serving actor.

When The Young and the Restless premiered in 1973, the show revolved around the dramas which befell two families: the wealthy Brooks and the poor Fosters. Patriarch Stuart Brooks was an upper class newspaper publisher while matriarch Liz Foster was a single parent struggling to pay the bills.

The rivalry between Liz's daughter Jill and socialite Katherine "Kay" Chancellor became one of the show's first and longest-lasting storylines. Kay was a boozy matron trapped in a loveless marriage to Phillip Chancellor II. After Jill went to work as Kay's paid companion, she and Phillip fell in love. After he returned from obtaining a divorce in the Dominican Republic, Kay picked him up at the airport, and in an attempt to kill both Phillip and herself, drove the car off a cliff. On his deathbed, Phillip married Jill and bequeathed her and their love child his fortune. Kay ended up getting a judge to declare that Jill and Phillip's marriage was illegal since Kay was drunk when signing her divorce papers. After the ruling, the rivalry between the two ladies spiraled out of control, each blaming the other for Phillip's death.

After a series of recasts and departures in the late 1970s-early 1980s, the Brookses and the Fosters were phased out, and two new core families were introduced: the Abbott and the Williams families, and later the Newmans. The Abbott–Newman family rivalry also extended to the corporate warfare between their respective companies, Jabot Cosmetics and Newman Enterprises. Core African American characters, the Barbers and the Winters, were later introduced in the 1990s. The latest family to be introduced in the early 2000s were the Fisher/Baldwin Family.

Show creator William J. Bell resigned as head writer in 1998, and since 2002, The Young and the Restless has suffered audience erosion. Despite remaining the most watched daytime drama on American television since 1988, later head writers such as John F. Smith and Lynn Marie Latham began to rely on several highly publicized, retcon storylines to attract more viewers. Notable retcons introduced in the 2000s include revealing that Kay is Jill's actual birth mother, and Phillip II and Jill's baby was switched at birth.

In spring 1973, CBS decided to discontinue production on two of its four in-house serials; one of these was the controversial Where the Heart Is, a show reminiscent of Peyton Place's sex-driven intrigue that focused on multiple-married characters and incestuous themes. In its place, the network sought a youth-oriented, Los Angeles-based (most soaps at the time still recorded in New York City), socially relevant show, and Screen Gems/Columbia, which had considerable success with NBC's Days of our Lives, got the job as packager. CBS (successfully) insisted that the show be taped at CBS Television City and not at Columbia's Hollywood Studios (which Columbia was in the process of closing down at the time, after it bought majority control of Warner Brothers' Burbank studios). The Bell family wanted to tape The Young and the Resltess at Warner Brothers/The Burbank Studios (which neighbors NBC Burbank, where Days was moved to after the closedown and sale of the Columbia Hollywood studios), but Screen Gems and CBS declined their request.

The Young and the Restless began on March 26 at noon Eastern Time/11 am Central with the handicap of inheriting the affiliate clearance problems attained by WtHI, especially in conservative small-to-medium-sized markets. It also faced a long-standing audience favorite, with which, ironically, it is now co-owned (via Sony): NBC's Jeopardy!, which had for years been daytime's number-two game.

The Young and the Restless's ascent was slow, but got major boosts from missteps made by the rival networks. First, NBC sent Jeopardy! to a mid-morning slot in January 1974, with the briefly-popular Jackpot! taking its place, only to eventually lose much of the old audience. Next, Password on ABC made the bad decision to convert to an all-celebrity format in November of that year, a move that would lead to its cancellation the following June. More importantly, though, was the fact that Jackpot! had appealed strongly to a demographic of young housewives and mothers, a group whose shift in viewing allegiances would be crucial for The Young and the Restless's continued audience growth.

By summer 1975, ABC and NBC changed up their shows at Noon/11, offering two lightweight games that audiences shied away from, thereby enabling The Young and the Restless to enter the Nielsen serial top three. For its part, NBC would enter into a string of low-rated disasters at that timeslot for the next several years (among them an attempt to revive Jeopardy! in 1978-79), while ABC similarly struggled until it moved The $20,000 Pyramid there in January 1978. However, Pyramid's time was running out, and the former hit game wrapped up six years on the network in June 1980. The only parts of the country where The Young and the Restless experienced some trouble were those Eastern time zone markets where affiliates plugged the show into the network's half-hour access break at 1 p.m./Noon (in order to free the Noon hour for local newscasts); there, ABC's All My Children would somewhat hinder The Young and the Restless's progress, especially when the former show expanded to an hour in April 1977.

However, the show's progress in the ratings was steady, and when the long-running soap Love of Life was canceled on February 1, 1980, CBS rewarded The Young and the Restless's performance with an expansion to a full hour the following Monday. In so doing, it opted to counter AMC and The Young and the Restless's sister show Days of our Lives (on NBC) head-to-head directly at the 1-2/Noon-1 time frame, marking the first time in nearly a quarter-century that the network placed a full-length show in the 1-1:30/Noon-12:30 slot. To those stations that carried the feed directly, namely the Eastern time zone affiliates again, it experienced at best mixed results, while Central time zone stations often tape-delayed the feed one day in order to keep the show in its original slot of 11 a.m., which meant that ABC's Family Feud, then daytime's highest-rated game, gave the soap considerable opposition.

With the less-than-impressive results, CBS reinstated the affiliate break to its traditional time network-wide and, taking into account the local stations' desire for scheduling flexibility, gave them the option of running The Young and the Restless at either noon/11 (the preference of most) or 12:30/11:30 (mostly in the Eastern time zone), on different feeds. Beginning on June 8, 1981, the arrangement proved highly popular with fans all over the U.S., and the show has stayed put ever since. The wisdom of CBS' decision was confirmed by the continued downfall of NBC's ratings at midday and the eroding popularity of Feud, which by this time aired also as a five-day-per-week syndicated strip on local stations in the early-evening Access slots, something which likely brought the Richard Dawson-hosted game overexposure and consequent audience backlash. Also, another family-and-youth-oriented serial, ABC's Ryan's Hope, had never performed to network expectations in its 12:30/11:30 slot and proved no threat to The Young and the Restless at all.

All this propelled the soap to the top among CBS' serials, and, after General Hospital spent most of the 1980s on the top of the Nielsens, in 1988, after 15 years on the air, The Young and the Restless knocked General Hospital off the throne to gain the crown; it has held it ever since. However, the triumph has been mitigated considerably by negative developments: The Young and the Restless's ratings have declined steadily since that time. From 1988 to 2006, the show lost a significant share of its audience, from eight million viewers to about six million, despite only attracting nominal competition from the two other traditional networks. This has occurred because of the explosion of viewing alternatives available to cable television viewers, which increased choices dramatically. Further, the steady increase in percentage of women working outside the home has cut the show off from a large segment of its historic audience (and the formerly preferred demographic of advertisers such as food and household products). The Young and the Restless has not been the sole victim of these trends, nor even the main one; all U.S. daytime network serials have witnessed similar declines in their ratings. The pace of the decline was sped up considerably by the events on and following the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001, with all-news cable news networks swelling their audiences with around-the-clock coverage of the pursuit of Al-Qaeda and the Iraq War.

Probably in an effort to maximize audience potential (such as students and people home from early work shifts), a few CBS affiliates show The Young and the Restless at 4 p.m. local time, finding it to be a viable lead-in to their 5 p.m. local newscasts. These include KMOV in St. Louis, WAFB in Baton Rouge, La., WLKY in Louisville, Ky,, and WRAL-TV in Raleigh/Durham, N.C. WKYT in Lexington, KY airs The Young and the Restless at 9:00 am on a one day delay due to airing a one hour noon newscast and Oprah at 4:00 pm.

Only six Central, Mountain and Pacific time zone stations presently air The Young and the Restless on the 11:30 a.m. feed: KCBS-TV in Los Angeles, WBBM-TV in Chicago, KTVT in Dallas-Fort Worth (all owned and operated by CBS), KOLR in Springfield, Mo.,WHBF in Quad Cities, IA/IL and WTVF in Nashville, Tenn. Illinois viewers in the Central time zone see The Young and the Restless at 11:30 a.m. due to WTHI-TV in Terre Haute, Indiana broadcasting the show at 12:30/11:30 a.m. The Terre Haute DMA serves both Eastern and Central time zone viewers.

In Honolulu, CBS affiliate KGMB airs The Young and the Restless at 1 pm local time, rather than at 11:30 am.

In Colorado Springs, Co., CBS affiliate KKTV aired The Young and the Restless at 2pm local time for many years. Since the start of 2009, however, The Young and the Restless has aired at 11am local time.

Those unable to view The Young and the Restless on CBS Daytime may watch it instead on the all-soap cable channel SOAPnet, which airs that day's episode at 7 p.m. ET, repeating that airing at 6 a.m. ET and Midnight ET Also, a block of the entire previous week's episodes airs Saturday evenings between 7 p.m. and Midnight. The network picked up The Young and the Restless in April 2006, its first CBS serial.

In late June, 2007, The Young and the Restless became available for viewing full episode on CBS online Audience Network. Episodes are placed online the day of being broadcast usually between 5 and 6 p.m. EST and are removed after one week.

All of the above mentioned services, however, are only available within the United States.

Beginning in 2008, full episodes of "Young and the Restless" can be viewed one day after broadcast in the United States on CBS's official channel. Several episodes from the years 1973 to 2002 are available in Minisode format on Crackle.

Botkin wrote a rearranged version of the piece specifically for The Young and the Restless's debut, which has basically remained unchanged, save for a three-year stint in the early 2000s, when an alternate, more jazzy arrangement of that tune was used. The closing stinger of that arrangement has been used as a mid-show bumper since around 2004.

All background music for the show has been composed by first, Don McGinnis, Jerry Winn, and Bob Todd, with Jack Alloco and Jez Davidson assuming the duties in the 80's. During the 1980s, the show employed a mixture of the original score and new pieces composed by Alloco and Davidson. However, Alloco and Davidson kept all background music within a classical theme, to provide continuity. Two soundtrack albums were released, one in 1974 by Pickwick International Records, and another in 1998 by Paradigm Records. The 1974 release contained many pieces from the original score by Winn, McGinnis, and Todd, while the 1998 release was made up entirely of compositions by Alloco and Davidson. The music composed by Alloco and Davidson makes up 90 percent of the show's score today, supplemented by occasional music from other sources. Music from Winn, McGinnis, and Todd is also still used occasionally. Other background pieces were also utilized from the film soundtrack "Bless The Beasts And The Children", an insturmental version of the movie's title tune was used often in the show's early years, last being used in February, 2001. A song titled "Universal Mind" from the Mystic Moods album "Awakening"(Also composed by Winn, McGinnis, and Todd) was used frequently in the first ten years of the show.

The opening title sequence has also become well-known. For many years since the show's debut, it showcased the characters, drawn by an artist, on a white background. For the first year, the character's portraits were seen behind the The Young and the Restless title. For the remaining years until 1984, the characters' headshots were seen to the right of the show's title.

Starting in 1984, the sequence both began and ended with an interlocking Y and R painted on the white canvas in a sweeping brush motion. The logo (and in the earlier years, the drawings) were done by artist Sandy Dvore. The drawings were now sketched with a lighter shade of gray than the previous sketches. The drawings were replaced with live-action shots of the characters in formal or semi-formal wear, still on a white background, in 1988.

Beginning on December 24, 1999, in an unprecedented move for a main title sequence of a daytime soap opera, the names of the principal cast members were mentioned (whereas previously the main title only showed the cast members' faces). The 1999 version also included live-action shots of the characters, but featured in front of a wind blowing satin red curtain as the background.

For over 25 years, the announcer for the show's opening and closing credits was Bern Bennett, who would tell viewers to "Join us again for The Young and the Restless." In 2003, Bennett retired and CBS hired former casting assistant Marnie Saitta for the job of announcer. In 2006 Marnie Saitta was replaced by cast members announcing for the show.

As of 2008, The Young and the Restless has managed 1000 consecutive weeks in the #1 spot and 20 consecutive years. Despite this, the show reached a record low of 4,380,000 viewers on Friday, June 13, 2008. The previous lows were 4,392,000 viewers on Friday, October 17, 2008, 4,487,000 viewers on Friday, September 19, 2008, 4,491,000 viewers on Friday, May 9, 2008, 4,548,000 on Thursday, October 16, 2008, 4,563,000 viewers on Friday, October 3, 2008, and 4,805,000 viewers on Friday, August 31, 2007.

When introduced during the 1972–73 season, the show was at the bottom of the ratings, but rose rapidly: ninth by 1974–75 and third by 1975–76. It remained a strong and increasingly important part of CBS daytime's lineup and by 1988-1989 had dethroned long-time leader General Hospital as the top-rated soap, a position it has held ever since.

In Mid December, The Young and The Restless celebrated 20 consecutive years, every single week at #1 in the daytime ratings, with no sign of letting up.

The Young and the Restless has been referenced in several movies and TV shows. For example, many TV programs use a variation of the The Young and the Restless name in some of their episode titles, including "The Jung and the Restless" from Charmed and "The Young & The Tactless" from Will & Grace. In the 1976 film Taxi Driver, Travis Bickle (Robert De Niro) kicks his TV while watching a scene from The Young and the Restless between Jill Foster and Brock Reynolds.

In The Simpsons' episode "Pygmoelian", the opening sequence of the soap opera It Never Ends parodies that of The Young and the Restless. The titles have also been parodied on the Australian sitcom Kath and Kim.

In Weird Al Yankovic's film UHF one of the shows on the U62 line-up is "The Young and the Dyslexic", an obvious parody of the Young and the Restless.

The Young and the Restless is also parodied in the 1983 film Mr. Mom. After unemployed automotive engineer Jack Butler (Michael Keaton) becomes a regular viewer, watching actual footage featuring the characters of Victor Newman, Nikki Reed, Kevin Bancroft. Eventually he and his newfound friend Joan (Ann Jillian) engage in a spoof of soap operas in general with music from The Young and the Restless playing in the background. The parody gradually includes Jack's wife Carolyn (Teri Garr), who shoots him, his former supervisor Jinx (Jeffrey Tambor), who was going to give him his old job back, and Carolyn's boss Ron (Martin Mull), who leaves with her.

The set of The Young and the Restless and the show was used in Entourage for the character of Mrs. Ari to show her as a possible return to acting as she used to be a regular on the show in her early acting career.

On the game show The Price Is Right, which airs before The Young and the Restless, if a contestant spun the Big Wheel hard enough to go around several times before stopping, host Bob Barker would often quip that CBS would have to "cut into The Young and Restless." The show itself was also the theme of a 1992 showcase to celebrate its 5,000th episode.

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Source : Wikipedia