Star Trek

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Posted by r2d2 02/27/2009 @ 04:01

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What should be in the 'Star Trek' sequel? (And what shouldn't) - Entertainment Weekly
Die-hard Star Trek fans seem to have accepted JJ Abrams' reboot with remarkably little grumbling, thanks to the time-travel-prompted alternate universe that keeps the canon they knew perfectly valid while allowing for new interpretations of the...
Real Live Astronauts are Watching 'Star Trek' in Outer Space ... - New York Times
By Rebecca Cathcart Right about now in outer space, three men are crouched in a node of the International Space Station, watching JJ Abrams' reboot of “Star Trek” on a laptop. They chose the node, said NASA spokeswoman Nicole Cloutier, because it was...
'Star Trek' and the impact of sci-fi style - Financial Times
By Peter Gutierrez The success of the new Star Trek film can in part be measured by the fact that no one leaves the cinema saying, “...Yes, yes – but did you see what were they wearing?” They're too busy discussing the return of Leonard Nimoy in a...
Will Star Trek Bedevil Angels & Demons? - E! Online
"[But] it's gonna be tighter than anybody thought because of the legs that Star Trek has." After its bigger-than-estimated opening weekend, Trek has sped to $100 million overall with fat midweek grosses. Heading into its second weekend, Trek is still...
Star Trek DAC for Xbox Live Arcade hands-on - CNET News
by Scott Stein Haven't had enough of your "Star Trek" fix now that the JJ Abrams reboot has sent America into a Trek frenzy? Has the week rolled around only to have you cry out in despair, "more, more?" Well, Paramount Digital Entertainment is there...
E-mail while you walk and the new Star Trek game: iPhone apps of ... - CNET News
by Jason Parker The new "Star Trek" movie hit theaters last weekend and by the time the numbers rolled in Monday, it's become clear that apparently being a Trekkie isn't as nerdy as we thought. Though I'm not a costume-wearing, conference-going "Star...
Smother Yourself In The Scent Of 'Star Trek' -
Now you have a ready-made response for anyone who tells you that JJ Abrams' “Star Trek” reboot stinks. As the film's tie-in marketing blitz continues to assault us from all angles, expect things to get a whole lot weirder. Take today's revelation that...
'Star Trek' opens big overseas - Variety
By DAVE MCNARY, PAMELA MCCLINTOCK Paramount's “Star Trek” opened to a solid $35.8 at the international box office over the May 8-10 frame, but it will need to keep phasers drawn in subsequent sessions if it's to become a galactic phenom....
'Star Trek' lands at the Franklin - Philadelphia Daily News
With its 12500-square feet of interactive displays, "Star Trek: The Exhibition" makes its east coast debut tomorrow at the the science museum on the Parkway, going boldly where no science fiction collection has gone before....
What If 'Star Trek' Is a Gift from God? - FOXNews
What if “Star Trek” is a gift from God? We know that “Star Trek,” the number one movie in the country right now, is a gift to Paramount Studios, but seriously, what if “Star Trek” is a gift from God? If all knowledge comes from God, as we are told in...

Star Trek

Prototype space shuttle Enterprise named after the fictional eponymous starship with Star Trek television cast members and creator Gene Roddenberry.

Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. The Star Trek fictional universe created by Gene Roddenberry is the setting of six television series including the original 1966 Star Trek, in addition to ten feature films with an eleventh in post-production to be released on May 8, 2009. The franchise also extends to dozens of computer and video games, hundreds of novels and instances of fan fiction, several fan-created video productions, as well as a themed attraction in Las Vegas. Beginning with the original TV series and continuing with the subsequent films and series, the franchise has created a cult phenomenon and has spawned many pop culture references.

As early as 1960, Gene Roddenberry had put together a proposal for the science fiction series which would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space, a so-called "Wagon Train to the stars", he privately told friends that he was actually modeling it on Swift's "Gulliver's Travels", intending each episode to act on two levels, first as a suspenseful adventure story, but also as a morality parable. In the Star Trek universe, humans developed faster-than-light space travel, using a form of propulsion referred to as "warp drive", following a nuclear war and a post-apocalyptic period in the mid-21st century. According to the story timeline, the first warp flight happened on 5 April 2063, and the Vulcans, an advanced alien race, made first contact with Earth on that day after detecting the warp drive signature. Partly as a result of the intervention and scientific teachings of the Vulcans, man largely overcame many Earth-bound frailties and vices by the middle of the 22nd century, creating a quasi-utopian society where the central role is played not by money, but rather by the need for exploration and knowledge. Later, mankind united with some of the other sentient species of the galaxy, including the Vulcans, to form the United Federation of Planets.

Star Trek originated as a television series in 1966, although it had been in the planning stages for at least six years prior to that. It was canceled after its third television season due to low ratings. It was, however, highly popular with science-fiction fans and engineering students, in spite of generally low Nielsen ratings. During its original run, it was nominated several times for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and won twice : for the two-parter "The Menagerie" and the Harlan Ellison-written episode "The City on the Edge of Forever". (See also Awards below.) It has served as the foundation for four additional live-action television series, one animated television series and ten theatrical films. An 11th film is expected to be released to theaters 8 May 2009. The six television series comprise a total of 716 episodes - 10 of which are feature-length - across 23 seasons (30 when counting seasons that aired concurrently). See Lengths of science fiction film and television series for more on comparative series lengths.

Star Trek (Also known as "TOS", The Original Series) debuted in the United States on NBC on September 8, 1966. The show tells the tale of the crew of the starship Enterprise and its crew's five-year mission "to boldly go where no man has gone before." The original 1966-1969 television series featured William Shatner as Captain James Tiberius Kirk, Leonard Nimoy as Spock, DeForest Kelley as Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, James Doohan as Montgomery Scott, Nichelle Nichols as Uhura, George Takei as Hikaru Sulu, and Walter Koenig as Pavel Chekov. In its first two seasons it was nominated for awards as Best Dramatic Series. After three seasons, however, the show was canceled and the last original episode aired on June 3, 1969. The series subsequently became popular in reruns and a cult following developed, complete with fan conventions. Originally presented under the title Star Trek, it has in recent years become known as Star Trek: The Original Series or as "Classic Star Trek" — retronyms that distinguish it from its sequels and the franchise as a whole. All subsequent films and television series, except the animated series of the 1970s and the earlier seasons of Enterprise, have had secondary titles included as part of their official names. A re-release of the series began in September 2006 with computer-generated imagery "enhancements" as a high-definition "Remastered" edition. The entire series has been remastered. The remastered episodes currently air in syndication while the originals appear on many countries' channels although these broadcasts are infrequent and irregular.

Star Trek: The Animated Series was produced by Filmation and ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the voices of their characters from The Original Series, and many of the original series' writers, such as D. C. Fontana, David Gerrold and Paul Schneider wrote for the series.

While the animated format allowed larger and more exotic alien landscapes and lifeforms, animation and soundtrack quality, the liberal reuse of shots pioneered by Jonnie 'Roy' White and musical cues as well as occasional animation errors has detracted from the reputation of the series. Although it was originally sanctioned by Paramount (who became the owners of the Star Trek franchise following its acquisition of Desilu in 1967), Roddenberry forced Paramount to stop considering the series canonical. Even so, elements of the animated series have been used by writers in later live-action series and movies. Kirk's middle name, Tiberius, first used in TAS episode "Bem", was made official in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, and elements of Spock's childhood from "Yesteryear" were mentioned in the TNG episode "Unification, Part 1". The holodeck also made its first appearance in TAS episode "The Practical Joker".

TAS won Star Trek's first Emmy Award on May 15, 1975. Star Trek TAS briefly returned to television in the mid-1980s when it was rebroadcast on the children's cable network Nickelodeon and in the early 1990s on the cable network Sci-Fi Channel. The complete TAS was also released on Laserdisc format during the 1980s. The complete series was first released in the USA on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22 episodes were released on DVD in 2006.

Star Trek: Phase II was set to air in June 1978 as the flagship series of a proposed Paramount Pictures television network, the Paramount Television Service, and 12 episode scripts were written before production was due to begin. The series would have put most of the original crew back aboard the Enterprise for a second five-year mission, except for Leonard Nimoy as Spock, who did not agree to return due to legal disputes with Paramount (detailed in his autobiography, I Am Not Spock). A younger, full-blooded Vulcan named Xon was planned as a replacement, although it was still hoped that Nimoy would make guest appearances. Sets were constructed and several minutes of test footage were filmed. However, the risks of launching a fourth network and the popularity of the then-recently released film Star Wars led Paramount to make a Star Trek film instead of a weekly television series. The first script of this aborted series (In Thy Image) formed the basis of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, while two others (The Child and Devil's Due) were eventually adapted as episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike.

Star Trek: The Next Generation (Also known as "TNG", The Next Generation) is set approximately 70 years after The Original Series. It features a new starship, the Enterprise-D, and a new crew led by Captain Jean-Luc Picard (Patrick Stewart) and Commander William Riker (Jonathan Frakes). The series introduced new alien races as crew members, including Deanna Troi, a half-Betazoid counselor played by Marina Sirtis, and Worf as the first Klingon officer in Starfleet, played by Michael Dorn. It also featured Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, LeVar Burton as chief engineer Geordi La Forge, the android Data portrayed by Brent Spiner. The show premiered on September 28, 1987 and ran for seven seasons, ending on May 23, 1994. Unlike the previous television outings, the program was syndicated instead of airing on network television. It had the highest ratings of any of the Star Trek series and was the #1 syndicated show during the last few years of its original run, allowing it to act as a springboard for ideas in other series. Many relationships and races introduced in TNG became the basis of episodes in DS9 and Voyager. It was nominated for an Emmy for Best Dramatic Series during its final season. It also received a Peabody Award for Outstanding Television Programming for the episode "The Big Goodbye".

Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (Also known as "DS9", Deep Space Nine) is set during the same time frame as The Next Generation and was in production for seven seasons, debuting in January 1993. Like Star Trek: The Next Generation, it aired in syndication in the United States and Canada. It is the only Star Trek series to take place primarily on a space station rather than aboard a starship. It is set on the Cardassian-built space station Deep Space Nine, located near the planet Bajor and a uniquely stable wormhole that provides immediate access to the distant Gamma Quadrant. The show chronicles the events of the station's crew, led by Commander (later Captain) Benjamin Sisko, played by Avery Brooks. Recurring plot elements include the repercussions of the lengthy and brutal Cardassian Occupation of Bajor, Sisko's unique spiritual role for the Bajorans as the Emissary of the Prophets and in later seasons a war with the Dominion. Deep Space Nine stands apart from earlier Trek series for its lengthy serialized storytelling, conflict within the crew, and religious themes — all of which were elements that Roddenberry had forbidden in earlier Trek programs. Nevertheless, he was made aware of plans to make DS9 before his death, so this was the last Star Trek series with which he was connected.

Star Trek: Voyager was produced for seven seasons from 1995 to 2001, launching a new Paramount-owned television network UPN. It features Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway, the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek series. Voyager takes place at about the same time as Deep Space Nine. The premiere episode has the USS Voyager and its crew pursue a Maquis ship (crewed by Starfleet rebels). Both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about 75,000 light years from Earth. Faced with a 75-year voyage to Earth, the crew must avoid conflict and defeat challenges on the long and perilous journey home. Like Deep Space Nine, early seasons of Voyager feature greater conflict between its crew than is seen in later shows, as a large contingent of the crew is made up of Maquis fugitives forced by circumstance to cooperate with Starfleet regulations instead of doing things the Maquis way. Eventually, though, they settle their differences, after which it becomes more reminiscent of The Original Series. Voyager is originally isolated from many of the familiar aspects and races of the Star Trek franchise, barring those few represented on the crew. This allowed for the creation of new races and original plot lines within the series. Later seasons, however, brought an influx of characters and races from prior shows, such as the Borg, Q, the Ferengi, Romulans, Klingons, Cardassians as well as cast members of The Next Generation.

Star Trek: Enterprise (originally titled Enterprise prior to the third season), produced from 2001 to 2005, is a prequel to the other Star Trek series, taking place in the 2150s, some 90 years after Zefram Cochrane developed the first warp-capable starship from a ballistic missile. The series shows how the first extraterrestrial contact with the Vulcans and subsequent guidance led to Earth's first warp-five capable starship, the Enterprise, commanded by Captain Jonathan Archer (Scott Bakula). For the first two seasons, Enterprise is mostly episodic, like the original series and The Next Generation. The third season's "Xindi mission" arc carried through the entire season. Season 4 was especially known for showing the origins of several common elements in the other series, due to the producers having recruited as writers Trek experts Mike Sussman and the writing team of Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. In addition, season 4 rectified and resolved some core continuity problems in the series (some of which were created in season 1 of Enterprise), most notably the decades-old issue of the drastic change in the appearance of the Klingons between TOS and other Trek series. The fourth season's story arcs are often spread to two or three episodes. Ratings for Enterprise started strong but declined rapidly, although longtime viewers were pleased by the final season's many homages to other Trek series.

As the show's viewer ratings dwindled, J. Michael Straczynski and Bryce Zabel proposed rebooting the franchise with the crew of the original series. They proposed a two-hour pilot where Kirk and Bones meet Spock and start the five year mission. Each season would chronicle a year on the Enterprise, as the crew embark on finding the common ancestor of every intelligent lifeform, with some stand-alone episodes in addition to "four or five episodes" building to a season finale. To further differentiate the show from past incarnations, they wanted to delete the holodeck, completely reinvent the technology, make the tribbles vicious, or even make Scotty a woman (though they made clear that example was a joke). They also suggested hiring famous novelists (Michael Crichton and Stephen King were some of their suggestions) to write episodes just as the original show made use of the likes of Richard Matheson. Straczynski explained Paramount ignored the proposal as they were not "even willing to talk about Star Trek".

Paramount Pictures has produced ten Star Trek feature films, with an eleventh film currently in post-production, set for release on May 8, 2009. The first six films continue the adventures of the The Original Series cast; the seventh was designed as a transition from that cast to The Next Generation; the most recent three were exclusively Next Generation. Although North American and UK releases of the films were no longer numbered following the sixth film, European releases continued numbering the films. The eleventh film is a semi-prequel set primarily following Captain Kirk's graduation from Starfleet Academy and promotion to the rank of Captain. It is about his first mission as Captain of the Enterprise and its crew, though according to writer Roberto Orci, the film is not set entirely within the original Star Trek canon and features an alternate timeline created through the actions of the main villain.

The first three feature films introduced a widespread upgrade to the technology and starship designs in the Star Trek universe, making for a dramatic visual departure from The Original Series. Most notable was the Starship Enterprise having been "refitted" with a modernized exterior design, and extensive changes to the interiors sets. Many of the set elements created for the aborted "Phase II" television series were further enhanced and adapted for use in the first feature film. Several concepts, designs, sets and props were used in the remaining feature films, as well as the subsequent television spin off series'.

In terms of plot, each film mostly stands alone, though the second, third, and fourth films loosely form a trilogy, with the later plots building on elements of the earlier ones. The third film picks up within several days of the conclusion of the second, the fourth a few weeks after the third. The fifth film also seems to start shortly after the fourth, although the plot of the fifth is otherwise unrelated to the prior trilogy. The fourth film has much more light-hearted comic relief than others. The sixth film is intended as a send-off for the original crew, and both it and the seventh film acts as a bridge between the original series and Star Trek: The Next Generation. The sixth film explained how peace was established between the Federation and the Klingons, and introduced a character who was the grandfather of Next Generation's Worf (both played by Michael Dorn). The seventh film spanned different time-eras and had characters from both the original series and Next Generation.

The first film is often criticized for being essentially a synthesis of the plots of the original episodes "The Changeling" and "The Doomsday Machine", and for its generally slow pace. Both the second and eighth film were sequels to specific episodes of a Star Trek television series. Although the tenth film is a Next Generation film, it does contain a cameo by Captain Janeway from Star Trek: Voyager. Initial plans were for the Voyager crew to feature in at least one theatrical release, but these plans were scuttled due to the poor box office receipts of Nemesis.

Some fans consider the even-numbered Star Trek films to be superior to the odd-numbered Star Trek films (the so-called "Star Trek movie curse"); the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth films are considered fan favorites, whereas the first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth are often considered the weaker films.

This fan impression roughly corresponds to the critics' reviews of the films. According to Rotten Tomatoes website, the best of the Star Trek films are: The Wrath of Khan (92% fresh), First Contact (91% fresh), The Voyage Home (86% fresh), and The Undiscovered Country (84% fresh). The worst films are The Final Frontier (18% rotten) and Nemesis (36% rotten), which is the even-numbered 10th film. The Search for Spock received generally favourable reviews (77% fresh). Critics were almost evenly divided on the remaining 3 films (The Motion Picture, Generations, and Insurrection).

The Star Trek franchise is a multi-billion dollar industry, currently owned by CBS. Gene Roddenberry sold Star Trek to NBC as a classic adventure drama; he pitched the show as "Wagon Train to the stars" and as Horatio Hornblower in space. The opening line, "to boldly go where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a US White House booklet on space produced after the Sputnik flight in 1957. The central trio of Kirk, Spock, and McCoy was modeled on classical mythological storytelling.

Roddenberry implicitly intended the show to have a progressive, almost radical political agenda reflective of the emerging sexualized counter-culture of the youth movement. However, his efforts were largely thwarted by the network's concerns over marketability. Star Trek showed mankind what it might develop into, if only it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example are the Vulcans, who had a very violent past but learned to control their emotions.

Star Trek and its spin-offs have proved highly popular in television repeats and are currently shown on TV stations worldwide. The show’s cultural impact goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. Star Trek conventions have become popular, though now are often merged with conventions of other genres and series, and fans have coined the term "Trekkie" to describe themselves. Others, however, prefer the term "Trekkers". Fans of Deep Space Nine are better known as "Niners". An entire subculture has grown up around the show which was documented in the film Trekkies.

During the late 1990s and 2000s, Star Trek, in the words of Jeff Jensen of Entertainment Weekly, "devolved into a near-irrelevant cultural joke, likely to inspire giggles and unprintable curses from even its most ardent supporters." Leonard Nimoy remarked the franchise "had run its course". Director J. J. Abrams argued "people even understand what Star Trek means anymore", and joked a parody like Galaxy Quest "spoils" the show. Even on set, Abrams felt nervous "with all these tattooed faces and pointy ears, bizarre weaponry and Romulan linguists, with dialogue about 'Neutral Zones' and 'Starfleet'". In covering the relaunch film, Jensen remarked the series' optimistic nature ran counter to an increasingly cynical culture, and that the film had been delayed from December 2008 to May 2009 to "rehab" the series' image.

The Star Trek franchise is believed to have influenced the design of many current technologies, including the Tablet PC, the PDA, mobile phones, and the MRI (based on Dr. McCoy's diagnostic table). It has also brought to popular attention the concept of teleportation with its depiction of "matter-energy transport." Phrases such as "Beam me up, Scotty" have entered the public vernacular. In 1976, following a letter-writing campaign, NASA named its prototype space shuttle Enterprise, after the fictional starship.

Riverside, Iowa has proclaimed itself the future birthplace of Captain James T. Kirk. Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, asserts in the book "The Making of Star Trek" by Stephen Whitfield, that the character of Kirk had been born in the state of Iowa. In March 1985, when the town was looking for a theme for its annual town festival, Steve Miller, a member of the Riverside City Council who had read Roddenberry's book, suggested to the council that Riverside should proclaim itself to be the future birthplace of Kirk. Miller's motion passed unanimously. The council later wrote to Roddenberry for his permission to be designated as the official birthplace of Kirk, and Roddenberry agreed.

The city of Garland, Texas is the first city known to have an official place name based on the TV series: "Star Trek Lane," located off of Apollo Road and east of North Jupiter Road. The city of Birmingham, Alabama also boasts a "Star Trek Lane," and "Star Trek Circle," in the Sunrise East subdivision of its Roebuck neighborhood.

An unincorporated area near the Las Vegas Strip contains a residential street named "Roddenberry Avenue." While the mailing address lists the avenue as being located in Las Vegas, Nevada, the physical address is an unincorporated township called "Enterprise". There is no indication that the township's name has any connection with the Star Trek series, and it is unknown whether or not the street name is a deliberate tribute to the Star Trek creator.

A limited number of Famous Players theatres in Canada house large replicas of the USS Enterprise NCC-1701-A. One such theatre can be found in the town of Thunder Bay, Ontario, another in Windsor, Ontario, another at the 'Colliseum' theatre in Ottawa, Ontario another in Richmond, British Columbia as well as one in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In the Greater Toronto Area, replicas can be seen in the Yorkdale Shopping Centre, Toronto, and in the SilverCity in Richmond Hill, Ontario. In addition, a replica of the Sovereign-class USS Enterprise NCC-1701-E can be found in Laser Planet in Oakville, Ontario.

The first television series to be considered a serious competitor to Star Trek was the 1990s series Babylon 5. When pitching the series, the producer J. Michael Straczynski had hoped that television executives would think Trek had opened up the market for science-fiction on TV. However, he was told that Star Trek only created a market for more Star Trek and that the prospects for non-Trek related science-fiction was considered dismal. Eventually, Babylon 5 was greenlighted. Three script writers who had worked for Trek's original series in the 1960s were on the writing staff of Babylon 5 including D.C. Fontana who had written for three different Trek series. Furthermore, the plot premise bore a strong resemblance to Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. These and the casting of Walter Koenig invited comparison to Star Trek. In addition, Babylon 5 was the first television series since Star Trek to get nominated for or win the coveted Hugo award for best science-fiction drama, which had only nominated or awarded feature films since Star Trek. Gene Roddenberry's widow and Star Trek actress, Majel Barrett Roddenberry, publicly stated that her decision to do a guest star appearance on Babylon 5 was to stop the feuding and bickering between hardline fans of Star Trek and those of Babylon 5 which occurred now and then at science-fiction conventions.

The character of Xander on Buffy the Vampire Slayer is a stated Star Trek fan, and so multiple episodes have Trek references. In particular, the Season 5 episode The Replacement in which there are two Xanders is a simultaneous tribute to three episodes of the original series in which there are two Captain Kirks.

Similarly, the sitcom Frasier has a recurring character, Noel, who is a Star Trek fan. This plays a role in several episodes including one in which he deceives Frasier into believing a speech is written in Hebrew when it is really in the Klingon language.

The television series Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis mention Star Trek on many occasions. Colonel Jack O'Neill makes unsuccessful pitches to name new space vessels after the Enterprise. Another character gives the Vulcan salute in tribute to Trek. The absence of Trek's 'beaming' technology is bemoaned. There are many other nods to Trek in the combined 15 seasons of Stargate. In addition to this, over a dozen actors from various Star Trek series have made guest appearances on one or the other of the Stargate series; though to date, only one actor has made the jump from the Stargate franchise into Trek (Paul McGillion of Stargate Atlantis will be appearing in the 2009 Star Trek movie).

In the animated series Futurama, the character Philip J. Fry is a Star Trek fan. One entire episode entitled Where No Fan Has Gone Before revolves around this.

In the Cold War submarine film Crimson Tide, the USS Alabama executive officer played by Denzel Washington compares himself to Captain Kirk and the radioman to Scotty to emphasize the critical need for "more power", or in this case the need to restore radio communications.

Parodies of Star Trek include the internet-based cartoon series Stone Trek, the movie Star Wreck, the Star Wreck (novel series), the song Star Trekkin' by The Firm and the feature film Galaxy Quest.

Of the various science-fiction awards given for drama, only the Hugo award dates back as far as the original series. Although the Hugo is mainly given for print-media science-fiction, its "best drama" award is usually given to film or television presentations. The Hugo does not give out awards for best actor, director, or other aspects of film production. Prior to 2002, films and television shows competed for the same Hugo, before the split of the drama award into short drama and long drama. In 1968, all five nominees for a Hugo award were individual episodes of Star Trek, as were three of the five nominees in 1967 (the other two being the films Fahrenheit 451 and Fantastic Voyage). The only Star Trek series to not get even a Hugo nomination are the animated series and Voyager, though only the original series and Next Generation ever actually won the award. No Star Trek film has ever won a Hugo, though a few were nominated.

The prestigious science-fiction Saturn award did not exist during broadcasting of the original series. Unlike the Hugo, the Saturn award does give out prizes for best actor, special effects, music, etc. Also unlike the Hugo (until 2002) movies and television shows have never competed against each other for Saturns. The two Star Trek series to win multiple Saturn awards during their run were The Next Generation (twice winning for best television series) and Voyager (twice winning for best actress- Kate Mulgrew and Jeri Ryan). The original series retroactively won a Saturn award for best DVD release. Several Star Trek films have won Saturns including categories such as best actor, actress, director, costume design, and special effects. However, Star Trek has never won a Saturn for best make-up.

Star Trek has a multi-faceted and layered universe, and no single individual has helmed Star Trek through its many versions. As with many character and fantasy franchises, continuity problems have surfaced in the series, and fans are fond of discussing continuity difficulties in the series. Three entire books on Star Trek continuity glitches have been published, one for each of the first three canonical series. Many of these glitches affect only one TV series, but a few span multiple incarnations of Star Trek. In particular the first season of the sixth series Enterprise introduced a number of continuity problems with the original series which were addressed in its the former's final season. Noted problems include small issues such as the extent of money in the 24th century and the size of the Enterprise. The list is endless, but a few have received extremely wide discussion as they have been noticed by even casual fans, span across multiple versions of Star Trek (and over decades), and Paramount Studios has gone to some trouble to address them in response to feedback.

The issue of Klingon appearance is described on Paramount pictures' website as probably the "single most popular topic of conversation among Star Trek fans". It spans three TV series and the films.

The Klingons in the original series in the 1960s are humanoid looking, but appear more alien in the very first movie in 1979. As noted by the Paramount site, the real world explanation for this is the shift from the modest budget of television to a million-dollar budget of movies. However, this could not be written off as dramatic license (or a retcon) when a 1996 episode of Deep Space Nine involving Klingons and time-travel actually mentioned (and showed with old TOS footage) the difference. Not until the final season of Enterprise in 2005 do we learn that stolen material from illegal genetic engineering experiments by human scientists in efforts to breed a super-race contaminated many Klingons with human DNA.

When Star Trek was still working only with the original cast (and the Star Trek universe was much less detailed), the most popular film of the series was the second one. Much comment was generated by Khan's recognition of Chekov, who had not yet become a cast member in the episode of the original series ("Space Seed") in which Khan appeared. In the book Adaptations: From Text to Screen, Screen to Text by Deborah Cartmell, Imelda Whelehan calls this "the apparent gaffe notorious throughout Star Trek fandom" This issue was addressed both in the novelization of the film, in non-canonical novels, and in a comical way at many Star Trek conventions.

It is the official position of Paramount Pictures that all Star Trek novels and comic books are non-canonical and are not considered to have taken place in the main Star Trek universe. This has allowed the television series to forego all efforts to maintain continuity with the novels.

The history of the release of Star Trek on DVD does not follow the overall history of Star Trek. Most of the films were released on DVD prior to any of the television series, starting with the 8th one. Following that ST:TOS came out in a series of separate discs with two episodes per disc.

In 2001 there was an enormously successful release of a re-edited director's cut of the first film along with remastered CGI special effects. It's success motivated Paramount to release special editions of all the other films in two disc sets.

Subsequently, boxed sets of complete seasons of Star Trek, with the first to be released in this format being ST:TNG followed by ST:DS9 and Voyager the last of which coincided with a season boxed set of ST:TOS. Extended special features were included for the first time on the subsequent release of Enterprise. The last series to be released on DVD was The Animated Series.

In the late 1990s, there was a series of boxed videotape sets presenting episodes following a particular theme or story arc. In 2003, similar but much larger compilations of thematically-related episodes from multiple Star Trek series were released on DVD, initially only in Region 2. For example, the DVD set Star Trek: Klingon contains Klingon-themed episodes from all five of the non-animated series. A DVD collection of all two-part episodes of ST:TNG has only been released in Region 2.

Interest has been generated with the project to remaster ST:TOS, with slightly modernized CGI special effects that retain the basic look-and-feel of the original series' effects but with a smoother look to them. These new versions have been broadcast in some television markets and all three seasons are out on DVD. The remastered episodes of the series will be released on Blu Ray disc in 2009.

All of Star Trek before 2001 was released on VHS videotape, though late seasons of Voyager were issued by a different distributor when interest in VHS lagged. However, the last three out of four seasons of Enterprise were never on videotape at all.

A new movie, a prequel to the original series simply titled Star Trek, is scheduled for release on May 8, 2009. Paramount is negotiating for director J. J. Abrams, writers Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman, and producers Damon Lindelof and Bryan Burk, to return for a sequel. The film's major cast members have signed on for two sequels, which is standard practice.

An MMORPG based on Star Trek called Star Trek Online will launch later this year. It is being developed by Cryptic Studios.

In 2006, it was announced that there was a pitch in the works for a new animated series that would, if produced, be released as several 6-minute episodes, available online (similar to The Animatrix and Star Wars: Clone Wars). The series is to be set 150 years after the Star Trek: The Next Generation time line, during an era of upheaval and strife in the Federation. The Romulans have used several "Omega Particle" explosions to render much of Federation space impassable by traditional Federation vessels. Many Federation worlds have been isolated and some races, including the Vulcans, have withdrawn from the Federation altogether. The series is, as yet, untitled and there has been no full confirmation.

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Star Trek (comics)

Almost continuously since 1967, a number of companies have published comic book series based on Star Trek and its spin off series, including Gold Key Comics, Marvel Comics, DC Comics, Malibu Comics, Wildstorm, and currently IDW Publishing, with varying degrees of success. As of 2007, Star Trek: Enterprise remains the only Trek series that has yet to be adapted in comic book form.

The first Star Trek comics were published by Gold Key between 1967 and 1978. Originally they were illustrated by Alberto Giolitti, an Italian artist who had never seen the series and only had publicity photos to use as references. These comics were highly stylized and diverged wildly from the TV series continuity. Nonetheless they are fondly remembered by fans and a series of reprints ("The Key Collection") of these original titles began to appear in 2004, published by Checker. The original issues, most of which featured photographic covers showing images from the series, are highly collectable. Writers included George Kashdan, Arnold Drake and Len Wein.

Most storylines used in the Gold Key series featured original characters and concepts, although later issues did include sequels to the TOS episodes "The City on the Edge of Forever", "Metamorphosis" and "I, Mudd".

Marvel's series of Star Trek comics began in 1979 with an adaptation of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, and continued for another two years, its tales presumably taking place during the apocryphal second five-year mission of Kirk and the Enterprise that would have been featured in the never-produced Star Trek: Phase II TV series. Marvel's license from Paramount prohibited them from utilizing concepts introduced in the original series, being restricted to only using the characters and concepts as they appeared in Star Trek: The Motion Picture. The series lasted a total of 18 issues, ending in 1981.

From 1969 to 1973, a series of weekly Star Trek comic strips ran in the British comic magazines Joe 90: Top Secret, TV21 & Joe 90 and Valiant and TV21. A total of 258 issues were produced, as well as hardcovers annuals of Joe 90 and TV21, and a softcover Valiant summer special. All were original stories. Two more annuals, under the Mighty TV Comic banner, also produced original Trek materials. In addition, the weekly TV Comic reprinted serialized versions of the U.S. Gold Key comics.

From 1979 to 1983, the Los Angeles Times Mirror Syndicate produced a daily comic strip based upon Star Trek. The strip debuted on December 2, 1979 and ran until December 3, 1983. The storylines were written and illustrated by Thomas Warkentin, Sharman DiVono, Ron Harris, Larry Niven, Martin Pasko, Padraic Shigetani, Bob Meyers, Ernie Colon, Gerry Conway and Dick Kulpa.

The first DC series picked up immediately after Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, beginning in 1984 but after eight issues started to place stories after Star Trek III: The Search for Spock. In these later issues, Kirk, after a multi-issue showdown with the Mirror Universe, is given command of the Excelsior, while Spock, mentally restored after mind-melding with his mirror self, is given the command of the USS Surak. However, with Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home taking place right after III left off, the series quickly wiped the slate clean by having Kirk lose command of the Excelsior and Spock return to the state he was at the end of III. After the release of The Voyage Home, the series continued with Kirk commanding the Enterprise-A. These later issues also re-introduced the characters of Arex and M'Ress from Star Trek: The Animated Series. In 1988, the series ended when Paramount required all tie-in licenses to be renegotiated.

After a year's hiatus, DC's second Star Trek series began with an adaptation of Star Trek V and took place in the large gap between Star Trek V and Star Trek VI, but did not continue on from the previous series, so storylines from that series were either ignored or rewritten. (One storyline was continued by Peter David in an original Star Trek: The Next Generation novel, Strike Zone.) Although more limited in scope than the first series, due to restrictions from Paramount (a prohibition on creating non-series-related ongoing characters resulted in R.J. Blaise - a popular character and love interest for Kirk - disappearing from the comic without explanation), the series lasted 80 issues and fleshed out some of the changes between V and VI, such as Sulu's promotion to captain of the Excelsior. As part of Paramount's increased restrictions on storytelling, planned appearances from Arex and M'Ress were shelved, with some formative artwork showing M'Ress (that appeared in a preview) re-drawn. The series was mainly written by Peter David and Howard Weinstein, who are also Star Trek novelists.

DC also published two Star Trek: The Next Generation comic series. The first, a six-issue limited series taking place during the first season, was published in 1988. An ongoing monthly series was launched from October 1989, covering from season two to just before Generations. The series was mainly written by Star Trek: The Next Generation novelist Michael Jan Friedman. The series would run until 1996.

At the same time DC was publishing its comics, Malibu Comics published a Deep Space Nine series during the first three seasons, and DC and Malibu joined forces to publish a TNG/DS9 limited series. DC also published one of the first crossovers between the TOS and TNG eras in another limited series.

Beginning in 1993, Malibu published an ongoing series based upon Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and, as noted above, also joined forces with DC to publish a cross-over story with that company's TNG series. In addition, Malibu published a standalone issue focusing on the Romulans, and two issues of a "celebrity series" of stories written by Star Trek actors Mark Lenard and Aron Eisenberg.

In 1996, Malibu also announced plans to publish a Voyager comic, and art from this comic appeared in some comic industry periodicals, including Wizard. However, Malibu was bought out by Marvel Comics, and Paramount Pictures (owners of the Trek franchise) signed a deal with Marvel to publish comics based upon Star Trek and Mission: Impossible under the new Paramount Comics banner.

Marvel Comics obtained the Star Trek license from 1996. Marvel (under the "Marvel/Paramount comics" imprint) published various one-shots and the quarterly Star Trek Unlimited series, which covered TOS and TNG. Marvel published monthly comics based upon Deep Space Nine and Voyager.

They also introduced two new series, Star Trek: Early Voyages which dealt with Christopher Pike's adventures as captain of the Enterprise (as depicted in the rejected TOS pilot "The Cage") and Star Trek: Starfleet Academy which dealt with a group of cadets, including Deep Space Nine's Ferengi, Nog.

Fan acceptance of these comics got off to a shaky start when Marvel's inaugural publication of its new Star Trek line turned out to be a crossover between TOS and Marvel's popular superhero team, the X-Men. (This was later followed by a subsequent X-Men/TNG crossover, as well as a novel entitled Planet X based on this premise published by Pocket Books). However, the different series turned out to be relatively popular, with Starfleet Academy and Early Voyages registering strong sales.

After about 18 months, however, Marvel's management reevaluated the relatively high cost of the Star Trek license agreement with Paramount resulting in all titles being abruptly cancelled, even though Early Voyages was in the middle of a story arc at the time.

Eventually the license drifted back to DC, more specifically its Wildstorm imprint. Wildstorm decided to not do an ongoing series, but instead a series of limited series and trade paperback graphic novels from 1999 onwards. Writers included Nathan Archer, Kristine Kathryn Rusch and Dean Wesley Smith,, Keith R.A. DeCandido., Scott Ciencin, Kevin J. Anderson, K. W. Jeter, John Ordover and David Mack.

Their TNG publications mainly dealt with the movie era, between Insurrection and Nemesis; their Deep Space Nine stories were based on the post-Season 7 novel continuity, and their Voyager series took place during the series. Wildstorm also published an issue based on the novel series New Frontier (written by series creator Peter David) and the video game Elite Force.

Their license expired in 2002.

For several years, no comic book company held the rights to publish Trek-based comics. However, in October 2004, Tokyopop announced plans to publish an anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of Japanese manga.

No firm publication date was ever announced, but two projects by Tokyopop, based upon the original series, were released instead. The new comic anthologies, produced by Joshua Ortega, were released annually in September 2006 (Shinsei Shinsei) and 2007 (Kakan ni Shinkou). Five artists and writer teams presented five new stories, per volume, based on the original series.

On November 9, 2006, IDW Publishing announced that they had secured the publishing rights to Star Trek from CBS Consumer Products.

IDW's first title, Star Trek: The Next Generation: The Space Between, is a six-issue limited series launched January 2007. The Space Between is written by David Tischman and drawn by Casey Maloney. This storyline was collected in trade paperback form in September 2007.

The second series Star Trek: Klingons: Blood Will Tell, launched in April, focusing on the Klingons' point of view on various episodes from the original series - the first four issues based around "Errand of Mercy", "The Trouble with Tribbles", "A Private Little War" and "Day of the Dove", respectively, and features a framing story based around the events of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country.

A third series started in July 2007, called Star Trek: Year Four, continuing the five-year mission of Kirk's Enterprise after the end of Star Trek: The Original Series. A fourth series, Alien Spotlight launched in September 2007, focusing on various alien races.

2008 saw the publication of the "Mirror Images" series, which tell the stories of Mirror Universe Kirk's overthrow of Captain Christopher Pike, and of the alternates of the Enterprise-D crew.

2008 also saw the publication of Star Trek : Assignment Earth. This mini series features the adventures of Gary Seven from the Star Trek TOS episode Assignment: Earth.

In 2009, IDW published a prequel to the 2009 reboot/prequel film Star Trek, entitled Star Trek: Countdown.

This is a list of all ongoing Star Trek comic book series.

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Star Trek spin-off fiction

The Star Trek franchise has produced a large number of novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which are generally considered non-canon.

A 22-episode set of animated adventures of the Enterprise crew aired originally on NBC from 1973–1974. In addition to reuniting the regular cast of the original series, it also featured the reappearance of popular guest characters, including Harry Mudd and Cyrano Jones. With the exception of one episode – "Yesteryear" (considered canon only because it serves as a sequel to "The City on the Edge of Forever") – this series is no longer officially recognized as canon by Paramount, at the request of creator Gene Roddenberry.

Some Star Trek novels and comics have utilized characters that were only ever seen in the animated series, most notably Arex and M'Ress. It has been suggested by fans that these stories took place during the fourth and fifth year of Kirk's original "five-year mission." Arguably the most-debated element of TAS is the introduction of Robert April as the first captain of the USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), which has yet to be made officially canon by Paramount.

Star Trek spin-off fiction frequently fills in "gaps" within the televised show, often making use of backstage information or popular fan belief. Although officially licensed spin-off material will often maintain continuity within itself (particularly within books by the same authors), elements often contradict each other irreconcilably. For example, the end of Kirk's five-year mission has been depicted in a number of different incompatible ways.

Much fiction is set in a second five-year mission of Kirk's Enterprise, which the Okuda chronology dates after Star Trek: The Motion Picture (although novels often placed it before). Backstories and fates of characters are often elaborated on, an example being Leonard McCoy's divorced status, and his daughter, Joanna, originally intended to appear in what became the TOS episode "The Way to Eden".

Several original series characters are established as still being alive in the TNG era, including McCoy, Spock, and Scotty. In the books written by William Shatner, these are joined by a revived Captain Kirk. Several novels depict the careers of the younger members of the Enterprise crew after Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Captain Sulu and his daughter Demora Sulu appear in Peter David's novel The Captain's Daughter. In the novel The Sundered, Chekov serves as Sulu's first officer on the USS Excelsior. The novel Federation has Chekov eventually becoming an admiral. Uhura is shown, in the novel Catalyst of Sorrows, to be Chief of Starfleet Intelligence in 2360. The 2006 novel Vulcan's Soul: Exiles has an Admiral Pavel Chekov, and Uhura is still serving as head of Starfleet Intelligence in 2377, at the age of 138. Peter David's novel Imzadi explores the backstory between Riker and Troi, and its sequel Triangle: Imzadi II covers the cooling of the Worf/Troi relationship, which was left unexplained on screen.

Spin-off fiction will often use re-use characters who appeared only once or twice in the actual show. Dr. Selar has appeared in more TNG novels than television episodes, and she and Elizabeth Shelby, who appeared in the two-part episode "The Best of Both Worlds" are major characters in the Star Trek: New Frontier series. The cast of the Starfleet Corps of Engineers series largely comes from such guest parts. Similarly, the IKS Gorkon series features Klingon characters drawn from a variety of TNG and DS9 episodes.

The spin-off fiction has also engaged in world building. Novels in the 1980s by Diane Duane and John M. Ford established a complex backstory and culture for the Romulans (Rihannsu) and Klingons respectively, which were later not taken up by TNG.

A large range of fictional reference books have been produced over the years. More recent books of this sort have been by production staff and, whilst not binding on the series, nonetheless reflect the thinking of the production office, and are used as sourcebooks by writers.

Similar material has also been published in the Star Trek Fact Files and the Star Trek Magazine.

Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television and movie adaptations have been published. The very first original Star Trek novel to be published was Mission to Horatius by Mack Reynolds, which was published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968. Geared for younger readers, the novel became a collectible and in the 1990s, Pocket Books issued a facsimile edition.

The first publisher of Star Trek fiction aimed at adult readers was Bantam Books, which initially produced a bestselling series of novelizations of the original 79 episodes by James Blish that began in 1967. Later adaptations were done by Blish's wife, J. A. Lawrence, under Blish's name. In 1970, Blish wrote the first original novel published by Bantam, Spock Must Die!, although subsequent novels did not appear until 1976.

From 1974, Ballantine Books published a 10-volume series of novelizations based upon episodes of Star Trek: The Animated Series, all written by Alan Dean Foster. Bantam also published a number of fotonovels based on episodes. In the late 1970s, Bantam published a number of original Star Trek novels, including two written by noted science fiction author Joe Haldeman, and one by original series scriptwriter David Gerrold.

Pocket Books began publishing Star Trek fiction in 1979, starting with a novelization of Star Trek: The Motion Picture by Gene Roddenberry himself, although the company's second Trek novel did not appear until 1981 due to Bantam being allowed to complete its publishing contract first. Eventually, Pocket Books would publish novels based upon every Trek series.

From around 1987 and with the debut of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Paramount took a closer role in supervising the books, disallowing story elements that were said to conflict with Gene Roddenberry's idea of Star Trek. In particular, recurring characters between books were discouraged, as was the use of concepts introduced in The Animated Series. This era saw disputes between authors and the Star Trek production office, culminating in the novel Probe being disowned by its credited author, Margaret Wander Bonanno.

A change of personnel at the Star Trek offices in the early 1990s led to a relaxation of policy, under editor John J. Ordover. Bonanno returned as a Star Trek novelist in the 2000s after encouragement from fans, the then-editor Marco Palmieri being unaware of any blacklist of authors.

Prolific Star Trek novelists include Peter David, Diane Carey, Keith R.A. DeCandido, J.M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors and writers from the television series have written books: William Shatner has written a series with the Reeves-Stevenses featuring a revived Captain Kirk in the 24th century, and John de Lancie, Andrew J. Robinson, J. G. Hertzler, and Armin Shimerman have written or co-written books featuring their respective characters. Voyager producer Jeri Taylor wrote two novels featuring backstory for Voyager characters, and screen authors David Gerrold, D. C. Fontana, and Melinda Snodgrass have also penned books. The Reeves-Stevenses were later hired as writers for Enterprise.

None of the Star Trek novels are considered "canon", meaning that producers of the television series feel free to contradict events and facts from the novels (although Pocket Books coordinates with the Star Trek offices to minimise the chances of this happening). Paula Block, director of CBS Consumer Products, is quoted in Voyages of the Imagination as saying, "Jeri Taylor's books were considered quasi-canon for a while because our licensees really wanted some sort of background structure".

Starting from the mid-1990s, several ranges of books were created based upon original continuing characters and situations set in the Star Trek universe. The first of these, Star Trek: New Frontier by Peter David, focuses on the crew of the starship Excalibur. Some characters in this series were guest stars from episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation, while others were from previous Star Trek titles by the same author, and still others were created originally for the series. New Frontier takes place in Sector 221-G, where the Excalibur is dispatched to help with the chaos created by the crumbling Thallonian Empire.

Michael Jan Friedman's Stargazer series features the adventures of Captain Picard on the Stargazer, and reuses characters he established in his 1992 TNG novel Reunion.

Another series, Star Trek: Challenger, created by Pocket editor John J. Ordover and writer Diane Carey, was planned as a continuation of the six-book storyline Star Trek: New Earth. Thus far only one book in the series has been published, Chainmail, part of the Gateways crossover series.

The Starfleet Corps of Engineers series is an expanding series of eBooks by various authors, set in the same general time frame as the Next Generation series. This series features a group of highly-trained engineers stationed aboard the USS da Vinci (NCC-81623) and their adventures on various planets. The eBooks are eventually released in paperback collections.

In 2005, a Star Trek: Vanguard series launched, set on Starbase 47, known as "Vanguard". It is set during The Original Series, and attempts to flesh out that particular period of fictional Star Trek history.

I.K.S. Gorkon is a series of novels by Keith R. A. DeCandido, the first Star Trek novel series to feature the Klingons instead of Starfleet. This series tells of the adventures of an all-new Chancellor-class war cruiser, on a mission to conquer new planets for the Klingon Empire. The series has grown from DeCandido's Ambassador Worf novel Diplomatic Implausibility.

Pocket Books has also depicted events after the end of TV series, allowing greater freedom in storytelling.

The Deep Space Nine relaunch takes place after the end of the series. New characters have been added to compensate for the loss of those who left at the end of the show. (Some books published after the end of the series, but before the official relaunch stories began, have been retroactively added to the relaunch, including the anthology The Lives of Dax and the novel A Stitch in Time).

The Star Trek: Voyager relaunch series, written by Christie Golden, is set after the end of the Voyager series. In the final episode of the show, "Endgame", the characters return home, and the books deal with their homecoming and further adventures.

After the release of the movie Star Trek Nemesis, which sees William Riker about to take command of a new ship, the USS Titan, the Star Trek: Titan series was launched, depicting these adventures. As of 2008, several books have been set post-Nemesis, including several books dealing with The Borg.

The Enterprise series was also relaunched, starting with the novel The Good That Men Do. The Enterprise novel Last Full Measure retcons the death of Trip, recounted in "These are the Voyages...". Trip's death is shown in a holodeck program in the time frame of the TNG episode "The Pegasus", and The Good That Men Do establishes that the historical record has been altered.

Nine Star Trek novels, in the form of three thematic trilogies, have been written by William Shatner with Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. These novels, starting with the second book, feature a Captain Kirk revived after Star Trek Generations. A fourth Shatner/Reeves-Stevens trilogy, focusing on Kirk's time at Starfleet Academy and based on an idea pitched to Paramount for a TV series was launched in October 2007.

The Star Trek book ranges have since the mid-1990s featured various crossover events, with books published in multiple series. The first of these was the Invasion! series, published in 1996, featuring entries from The Original Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine and Voyager series.

1997's event was the Day of Honor, with novels in all four series. In a rare example of a novel concept being adopted into the TV series, the Voyager episode "Day of Honor" tied into this.

1998 saw six books published in the Star Trek: The Captain's Table crossover, including the four regular series, as well as one from Star Trek: New Frontier and another based on Captain Pike, the captain from the original Star Trek pilot episode, "The Cage". An anthology, entitled Tales from the Captain's Table, was published in 2005 following up the concept, with tales from new captains.

1999's Double Helix was a six-book series, nominally part of the numbered TNG book range, featuring characters from TNG, DS9, TOS, Voyager, New Frontier, and Stargazer.

The Star Trek: Gateways crossover was published in 2001, featuring entries from TOS, Challenger, TNG, DS9, Voyager, and New Frontier. These stories all end in a single finale volume, What Lay Beyond. 2001's Star Trek: Section 31 was a thematic crossover, with each of the four books (TOS, TNG, DS9, and Voyager) featuring Section 31.

In 2003 and 2004, six books were published as Star Trek: The Lost Era, exploring the underutilised part of the Star Trek timeline between Kirk's death in Star Trek Generations and the start of Star Trek: The Next Generation. This spawned the Star Trek: Excelsior series of books.

Various collections of Star Trek short stories have been published by Pocket Books. The Strange New Worlds competition, open to entries from the public, runs annually, and results in the publication of an anthology featuring the winning short stories.

Some fans consider the novels to be fan fiction, although, being publications authorized by Paramount Pictures, they do not fit the general definition. A number of novels have been written or co-written by series actors, such as John de Lancie, J.G. Hertzler, Andrew J. Robinson, William Shatner, and Armin Shimerman. There have also been many unlicensed, privately published works which do fit the definition of fan fiction, such as The Doctor and the Enterprise by Jean Airey which merged the universes of Star Trek and Doctor Who.

Almost continuously since 1967, a number of companies have published comic book series based on Star Trek and its spin off series.

The initial publisher was Gold Key, who published Star Trek comic books from 1967 to 1978. A weekly strip ran in the United Kingdom from 1969 to 1973.

In 1979, with the launch of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Marvel started publishing Star Trek comics, starting with an adaptation of that movie. The series lasted a total of 18 issues, ending in 1981. A newspaper strip ran from 1979 to 1983, syndicated by the Los Angeles Times Mirror Syndicate.

After the release of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, DC Comics became the Star Trek comic licensee, publishing stories from 1984 set in the movie era (see Star Trek DC comics). In 1988, the series ended when Paramount withdrew its license. After a year's hiatus DC's second Star Trek series began with an adaptation of Star Trek V. Original stories took place in the large gap between Star Trek V and Star Trek VI, but did not continue on from the previous series, so storylines from that series were either ignored or rewritten. Although more limited in scope than the first series due to restrictions from Paramount (which included a prohibition on creating non-series-related ongoing characters), the series lasted 80 issues and fleshed out some of the changes between V and VI, such as Sulu's promotion to captain of the Excelsior. The series was mainly written by Peter David and Howard Weinstein, who are also Star Trek novelists.

DC also published Star Trek: The Next Generation comics, starting with a mini-series in 1988. An ongoing monthly series was launched from October 1989, and was mainly written by Star Trek: The Next Generation novelist Michael Jan Friedman. The series would run until 1996.

Beginning in 1993, Malibu Comics published an ongoing series based upon Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Malibu joined forces with DC to print a DS9/TNG crossover comic.

Marvel obtained the Star Trek license from 1996. The quarterly Star Trek Unlimited series covered TOS and TNG. Marvel published monthly comics based upon Deep Space Nine and Voyager. They also introduced two new series, Star Trek: Early Voyages which dealt with Captain Pike's adventures as captain of the Enterprise (as depicted in the rejected TOS pilot "The Cage") and Star Trek: Starfleet Academy which dealt with a group of cadets, including Deep Space Nine's Ferengi, Nog. The series were terminated in 1998, with Early Voyages leaving an unresolved story.

Wildstorm were the next licensee. Wildstorm decided to not do an ongoing series, but instead a series of miniseries and trade paperback graphic novels from 1999 onwards. Writers included Nathan Archer, Kristine Kathryn Rusch and Dean Wesley Smith, Keith R.A. DeCandido. Scott Ciencin, Kevin J. Anderson, K. W. Jeter, John Ordover and David Mack. Their license expired in 2002.

In October 2004, Tokyopop announced plans to publish an anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of Japanese manga. No publication date has been announced as of October 2005. Another project by Tokyopop, based upon the original series, has also been announced. The new comic, produced by Joshua Ortega, has a release date of September 5, 2006. Five manga artists and five manga writers team up to present five new stories based on the original series.

On November 9, 2006, IDW Publishing announced that they had secured the publishing rights to Star Trek from CBS Consumer Products.

IDW's first title was the six-issue miniseries, The Space Between, written by David Tischman and drawn by Casey Maloney. IDW followed up with the series Star Trek: Klingons: Blood Will Tell, along with other mini-series and one-shots, and is still regularly publishing new Star Trek-based material.

Developed over the last two decades and more as an expansive development of the background as supplied in the Original Series as well as in The Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual, the Star Fleet Universe introduces a range of new races and storylines (such as the Interstellar Concordium and the General War) as well as drawing from the Animated Series for inspiration - a modified version of the Kzinti are a major part of the SFU, for example - unlike the Paramount universe.

This universe lives and thrives in the range of works from Amarillo Design Bureau Inc. and (formerly) Task Force Games, as well as providing a fount for the unique merging of Star Trek continuities seen in the Star Fleet Command series of PC games.

Great American Adventure Amusement Park, Santa Clara near San Jose, Calif.

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Source : Wikipedia