System Administration

3.3698146513809 (1133)
Posted by motoman 03/10/2009 @ 10:07

Tags : system administration, software, technology

News headlines
Obama's NASA selection is a boost for manned spaceflight - Los Angeles Times
They say Bolden's view on specific projects, such as extending the shuttle program beyond the 2010 retirement date chosen by the Bush administration, are still emerging, but his knowledge of the space agency's inner mechanics make him a strong voice...
New FBI system brings terror operations out of the dark - Chicago Tribune
But some senior counterterrorism officials and Obama administration policymakers envision it as a centerpiece of the much broader national security framework laid out by the president Thursday that emphasizes the rule of law, or the principle that even...
President Obama is: - Washington Post
(a) A disappointing sellout to conservatives, someone who ran promising to reverse the Bush administration's excesses in the war on terrorism and has now embraced them. (b) A dangerous liberal whose naive views about playing nicely with terrorists...
University announces administration cuts - Columbia Daily Tribune
University of Missouri System President Gary Forsee has announced plans to eliminate 15 positions in a move intended to streamline system administration. These are in addition to seven positions eliminated in March. The jobs will be cut at every level...
The Test Ban Treaty - New York Times
We hope they, and any others who are skeptical or undecided, will withhold final judgment until the administration completes a review that aims to answer their doubts with updated data. Another Senate defeat would probably doom the treaty forever....
Feingold calls Obama Out on Indefinite Detention, Sets Hearings ... - Daily Kos
This respect for our constitutional system stands in strong contrast to the approach of the previous administration. In light of the principles you have put forth, I look forward to full and open discussions between your administration and Congress on...
Who Says Innovation Belongs to the Small? - New York Times
But the Obama administration is pushing environmental and energy conservation policy more in the direction of Europe and Japan. The change will bolster demand for more efficient and more environmentally friendly systems for managing commuter traffic,...
National Archives Loss Adds to List of Govt. Data Goofs - PC World
The external drive, stored at the US National Archives and Records Administration, held personal data from the Clinton era, including information about White House staff and visitors and electronic storage tapes from the Executive Office of the...
Obama Administration May Create “Preventative Detention” System ... - PoliGazette
If and when we determine that the United States must hold individuals to keep them from carrying out an act of war, we will do so within a system that involves judicial and congressional oversight. And so going forward, my administration will work with...
Legislation Could Define His Career, His Party - Washington Post
Democrats are rooting for the iconoclast who emerged this year as a newly reliable champion of the administration's ambitious agenda. Now 67, Baucus remains a Senate original in a chamber that has become increasingly homogeneous....

SUNY System Administration Building

SUNY System Administration Building is located in New York

The SUNY System Administration Building, also known as the Old D&H Railroad Building, is a public office building located at the intersection of Broadway and State Street in downtown Albany, New York. The State University of New York is centrally administered from this location. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972 as Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company Building.

According to the NRHP documents about the site, "Throughout the years, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company Building, because of its large scale, strategic location and irreplaceable detail, has often been mistaken for the New York State Capitol.".

The building itself has a varied history. The design was based upon a Flemish Clothweavers' Guildhall and was originally constructed by the D&H Railroad as their central headquarters in Albany. The southern part of the building housed The Albany Evening Journal newspaper. It later sat dormant for a few years before being purchased by the state and finally converted to office space for SUNY in the mid 1970's.

The central tower is thirteen stories high and is capped by an eight foot tall working weathervane that is a replica of Henry Hudson's Halve Maen. The southern tower's four top floors are the official residence of the Chancellor of SUNY.

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System administrator

A system administrator, systems administrator, or sysadmin, is a person employed to maintain and operate a computer system and/or network. System administrators may be members of an information technology department.

The duties of a system administrator are wide-ranging, and vary widely from one organization to another. Sysadmins are usually charged with installing, supporting, and maintaining servers or other computer systems, and planning for and responding to service outages and other problems. Other duties may include scripting or light programming, project management for systems-related projects, supervising or training computer operators, and being the consultant for computer problems beyond the knowledge of technical support staff. A System Administrator must demonstrate a blend of technical skills and responsibility.

The subject matter of systems administration includes computer systems and the ways people use them in an organization. This entails a knowledge of operating systems and applications, as well as hardware and software troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers.

However, perhaps the most important skill to a system administrator is problem solving -- frequently under various sorts of constraints and stress. The sysadmin is on call when a computer system goes down or malfunctions, and must be able to quickly and correctly diagnose what is wrong and how best to fix it.

System administrators are not software engineers or developers. It is not usually within their duties to design or write new applications software. However, sysadmins must understand the behavior of software in order to deploy it and to troubleshoot problems, and generally know several programming languages used for scripting or automation of routine tasks.

Particularly when dealing with Internet-facing or business-critical systems, a sysadmin must have a strong grasp of computer security. This includes not merely deploying software patches, but also preventing break-ins and other security problems with preventive measures. In some organizations, computer security administration is a separate role responsible for overall security and the upkeep of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, but all sysadmins are generally responsible for the security of the systems in their keep.

Many organizations staff other jobs related to systems administration. In a larger company, these may all be separate positions within a computer support or Information Services (IS) department. In a smaller group they may be shared by a few sysadmins, or even a single person.

In some organizations, a person may begin as a member of technical support staff or a computer operator, then gain experience on the job to be promoted to a sysadmin position.

Unlike many other professions, there is no single path to becoming a system administrator. Many system administrators have a degree in a related field: computer science, information technology, computer engineering, information system management, or even a trade school program. Other schools have offshoots of their Computer Science program specifically for systems administration.

Some schools have started offering undergraduate degrees in Systems Administration. The first, RIT started in 1992. Others such as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Marist College, and Drexel University have more recently offered degrees in Information Technology.

As of 2008, only four U.S. universities, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York City College of Technology,Tufts, and Michigan Tech have graduate programs in system administration. In Norway, there is a special English-taught MSc program organized by Oslo University College in cooperation with Oslo University, named "Masters programme in Network and System Administration." University of Amsterdam (UvA) offers a similar program, in cooperation with Hogeschool van Amsterdam (HvA). However, many other schools offer related graduate degrees in fields such as network systems and computer security.

One of the primary difficulties with teaching system administration as a formal university discipline, is that the industry and technology changes much faster than the typical textbook and coursework certification process. By the time a new textbook has spent years working through approvals and committees, the specific technology for which it is written may have changed significantly or is now obsolete.

In addition, because of the practical nature of systems administration and the easy availability of open-source server software, many systems administrators enter the field self-taught.

Generally, a prospective administrator will be required to have some experience with the computer system he or she is expected to manage. In some cases, candidates are expected to possess industry certifications such as the Microsoft MCSA, MCSE, Red Hat RHCE, Novell CNA, CNE, Cisco CCNA or CompTIA's A+ or Network+, Sun Certified SCNA, Linux Professional Institute among others.

Sometimes, almost exclusively in smaller sites, the role of system administrator may be given to a skilled user in addition to or in replacement of his or her duties. For instance, it is not unusual for a mathematics or computing teacher to serve as the system administrator of a secondary school.

In larger organizations, some tasks listed above may be divided among different system administrators or members of different organizational groups. For example, a dedicated individual(s) may apply all system upgrades, a Quality Assurance (QA) team may perform testing and validation, and one or more technical writers may be responsible for all technical documentation written for a company.

System administrators, in larger organizations, tend not to be system architects, system engineers, or system designers. However, like many roles in this field, demarcations between systems administration and other technical roles often are not well defined in smaller organizations. Even in larger organizations, senior systems administrators often have skills in these other areas as a result of their working experience.

In smaller organizations, IT/computing specialties are less often discerned in detail, and the term system administrator is used in a rather generic way — they are the people who know how the computer systems work and can respond when something fails.

The term system administrator may also be used to describe a privilege which a computer owner must obtain on his or her own computer to perform certain actions even if the computer is not part of a larger system.

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LISA (conference)

LISA is the Large Installation System Administration Conference, co-sponsored by the computing professional organizations USENIX and SAGE.

The word "large" was dropped from the title of the 6th conference in 1992 (though retaining the "LISA" name). The full acronym was restored in the title of the 2003 conference and remains in use today. The definition of "large" was originally understood to mean sites with over 100 users or over 100 megabytes of storage.

The LISA conference were first held in 1986. The USENIX web site lists proceedings as far back as 1987, though only those proceedings from 1993 onward are available online. Attendance has recently been in the 1000-2000 range.

The conference is typically held in the fall in a conference center hotel somewhere in the United States. Between 1987 and 2008, roughly half of them were somewhere in California. It generally runs six days: six days of full-day and half-day tutorial training sessions, three days of technical sessions, and a two-day vendor exhibition. The technical sessions usually include multiple tracks, including a peer reviewed refereed paper track, invited talks, and a "Guru-Is-In" Q&A track.

The conference often ends with a LISA Quiz Show trivia contest.

The refereed papers are published in a proceedings volume. Many important topics in system administration were first disseminated publicly via LISA papers.

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University of Houston System

University of Houston System seal.png

The University of Houston System (often referred to as UH System or UHS) is a state system of higher education which oversees and funds four independent, self-governing universities and two multi-institution teaching centers (MITCs, pronounced "mit-sees"). It also administers a radio station, KUHF, and a television station, KUHT.

The flagship and oldest school of the system, the University of Houston, was founded in 1927. The other universities in the system began as part of the flagship campus, but each became their own separate institutions in the 1970s and 1980s. The last addition to the system was the founding of the multi-institution teaching center, University of Houston System at Cinco Ranch in 2001. Recently, the system proposed the University of Houston Health Science Center—a health science institution to include a medical school located in the Texas Medical Center.

The University of Houston System is the fourth-largest university system in the U.S. state of Texas. With more than 59,000 students and 4,000 faculties total from four universities, it is the largest metropolitan public system of higher education in Texas. As of 1997, the University of Houston System administration is located in the Ezekiel W. Cullen building on the University of Houston campus. The current Chancellor is Renu Khator, and the current Chairman of the Board of Regents is Welcome Wilson, Sr.

The University of Houston System was established by the Texas Legislature in 1977 as the University of Houston celebrated its 50th anniversary. Philip G. Hoffman became the first chancellor after serving as president for the University of Houston from 1961 to 1977. The original University of Houston System consisted of simply the University of Houston and its branch campuses. The branches, consisting of the University of Houston at Clear Lake City, University of Houston Downtown College, and University of Houston Victoria Center, were all part of the University of Houston as the same institution. In 1979, the University of Houston Downtown College became its own individual university, and changed its name to the University of Houston-Downtown. In 1983, the University of Houston at Clear Lake City and the University of Houston Victoria Center both also became autonomous institutions from UH as the University of Houston-Clear Lake and the University of Houston-Victoria respectively, and also joined the system.

In 1997, the UH System and the University of Houston administrations merged. That same year, Arthur K. Smith became the first person to be both UH System chancellor and University of Houston president at the same time. Smith oversaw the successful merger of the UH System and UH administrations, the launching of the “Learning. Leading.” image campaign, the planning and construction of a number of major buildings at all four UH System universities, a dramatic growth in external funding for research, and an increase in student enrollment.

In 2007, the University of Houston System sought to purchase additional property in the northwest Houston. Prairie View A&M University objected to this purchase, saying that it would lead to competition for students in the area. The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board approved the deal, but under stringent conditions. Subsequently, UH withdrew from the land purchase deal.

In November 2007, Renu Khator was selected as the eighth chancellor of the University of Houston System and thirteenth president of the University of Houston. Khator became the first female to hold the chancellorship position and took office two months thereafter in January 2008. In addition, she is the third person to hold the dual position of UH System chancellor and UH president.

The University of Houston System is governed by the UH System Board of Regents. The board consists of a chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, and six other members. Every two years, the Governor of the State of Texas, subject to the confirmation of the Texas Senate, appoints three members to the Board of Regents. Each member serves a six-year term. Responsibilities for members are specifically listed in the bylaws of the Board of Regents.

The current Chairman of the Board of Regents is Welcome W. Wilson, Sr. who is a 1949 alumnus of the University of Houston. Wilson, a Texas-based real estate developer, also serves as Chairman of GSL Welcome Group. He was appointed in 2006, and will serve through August 31, 2011.

Also overseeing the University of Houston System is the UHS Chancellor. The chancellor, appointed by the UHS Board of Regents, has certain authorities that are specified in the regent bylaws. The chancellor has the option to delegate responsibilities to others such as the vice-chancellor, university presidents, and university athletic directors. Such delegations are subject to the board of regents bylaws and UHS policies.

Since 1997, University of Houston System and University of Houston administration has been a single entity. Thus, the UHS Chancellor holds a dual role as the President of the University of Houston. As of 2008, the chancellor of UH System and president of the University of Houston is Renu Khator.

The administration of the system is located on the campus of the University of Houston in the Ezekiel W. Cullen building. The Chancellor's official residence is known as the "Wortham House". The house was designed by Alfred C. Finn, and built by Frank P. Sterling in 1925 as the "Sterling House". In 1948, the house was donated to the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, and later sold to Gus and Lyndall Wortham in 1951. Upon her death in July 1980, Lyndall Wortham donated the property to the University of Houston. The house, located in the Houston neighborhood of Southampton, serves as a facility for small functions or gatherings of UH and UHS.

There are four universities within the University of Houston System. These universities are independent of each other, not campuses of one another.

Founded in 1927, the University serves more than 36,000 students in 12 academic colleges and in the interdisciplinary Honors College on a 560-acre (2.3 km2) campus southeast of Downtown Houston. UH offers 109 bachelor's, 131 master's, 51 doctoral, and three professional degree programs. It currently is the third-largest university in Texas and twenty-third largest university in the United States by enrollment, awarding more than 6,600 degrees annually.

The University of Houston is the largest and only nationally recognized doctoral degree-granting institution in the UH System. The University of Houston is the system's flagship university. During the 1980s, the University of Houston changed its name to "University of Houston-University Park" to distinguish itself from the rest of the universities in the system. However since 1988, the institution has officially been known as simply the "University of Houston". Each other system university was, at one point in each of their histories, part of this institution.

The University of Houston–Clear Lake, often shortened to simply "UH–Clear Lake" or "UHCL", is an upper-level university located on a 524-acre (2.12 km2) campus with an enrollment of over 7,600 students. The university was founded in 1971 as the "University of Houston at Clear Lake City".

Like UHV, UHCL does not offer lower-level courses, and many of the student body attend area community colleges to complete their basic curriculum requirements. Each students is admitted to a specific degree program at the University of Houston–Clear Lake after he or she has obtained 54 semester hours of college credit with a minimum grade of C or if he or she has earned an associate's degree.

The University of Houston–Downtown, often simply called "UH–Downtown" or "UHD", is a four-year college in Downtown Houston, Texas, United States. With an enrollment of more than 12,000 students, UHD is the second-largest institution of the University of Houston System.

The institution was founded in 1974 when assets of the private South Texas Junior College were acquired and transferred to the University of Houston. UH–Downtown opened as a branch campus of UH and by 1979, it had separated from UH as the Texas Legislature approved the new institution as a freestanding university within the UH System.

The University of Houston–Victoria, often referred to as "UH–Victoria" or "UHV", is a public university located in Victoria, Texas. It was founded as an upper-level institution in 1973 as the University of Houston Victoria Center and became a permanent part of the University of Houston System in 1983. UHV is the smallest university by enrollment in the system.

The university shares facilities and some services with Victoria College and also works with Coastal Bend College, Wharton County Junior College and Houston Community College System. The student population has now grown to over 3,100 students, and has conferred 4,200 bachelor's and master's degrees.

There are two multi-institution teaching centers serving all four UH System institutions: UHS at Cinco Ranch and UHS at Sugar Land.

The University of Houston System at Cinco Ranch was founded in 1980 as the "West Houston Institute" as a part of the University of Houston. In 2001, it was reorganized as a higher education teaching center of the University of Houston System located in northern Fort Bend County, Texas near the city of Katy.

The University of Houston System at Sugar Land, often referred to as "UHS at Sugar Land" or "UHSSL", was founded in 1996 as a higher education teaching center of the UH System located in Sugar Land, Texas. It was originally named the "Fort Bend Institute," and later the "University of Houston System at Fort Bend" prior to its current name.

Although not part of the UH System, two UH System universities (UH and UHD) offer distance education classes at the Lone Star College–University Center—a satellite distance education center of the Lone Star College System. LSC–University Center also works in conjunction with other Texas public universities to offer distance education courses and programs.

The University of Houston Health Science Center is a proposed health institution that will be located at the Texas Medical Center in south-central Houston. The proposed institution plans to offer the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) program and will be the third medical school in Houston.

The University of Houston System at Texas Medical Center has been proposed to be the third multi-institution teaching center of the UH System. The center plans to offer degree programs such as healthcare administration and nursing.

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System console

Knoppix system console showing the boot process

The system console, root console or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger. It is a physical device consisting of a keyboard and a screen.

On traditional minicomputers, the console was a serial console, an RS-232 serial link to a terminal such as a DEC VT100. This terminal was usually kept in a secured room since it could be used for certain privileged functions such as halting the system or selecting which media to boot from. Large midrange systems, e.g. those from Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard and IBM, still use serial consoles. In larger installations, the console ports are attached to multiplexers or network-connected multiport serial servers that let an operator connect his terminal to any of the attached servers.

On PCs and workstations, the computer's attached keyboard and monitor have the equivalent function. Since the monitor cable carries video signals, it cannot be extended very far. Often, installations with many servers therefore use keyboard/video multiplexers (KVM switches) and possibly video amplifiers to centralize console access. In recent years, KVM/IP devices have become available that allow a remote computer to view the video output and send keyboard input via any TCP/IP network and therefore the Internet.

Some PC BIOSes, especially in servers, also support serial consoles, giving access to the BIOS through a serial port so that the simpler and cheaper serial console infrastructure can be used. Even where BIOS support is lacking, some operating systems, e.g. FreeBSD and Linux, can be configured for serial console operation either during bootup, or after startup.

It is usually possible to log in from the console. Depending on configuration, the operating system may treat a login session from the console as being more trustworthy than a login session from other sources.

Routers and Managed Switches (as well as other networking and telecoms equipment) may also have console ports in particular Cisco Systems routers and switches that use Cisco IOS are normally configured via their console ports.

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GPASS, General Practice Administration System for Scotland, originally developed by a Scottish General Medical Practitioner and Software developer, Dr. Ferguson, currently owned by the Scottish Executive and developed and supported by the NHS Common Services Agency of Scotland.

Widely used (85% of all Scottish general medical practices) clinical record and practice administration software in Scottish General medical Practices. Originally BASIC based, Gpass was redeveloped in UNIX and then moved in the mid 1990's as NewGPASS onto a Windows platform. It is currently at version 5.7. An additional interface, GPASS Clinical, is in active development.

Its development has often been criticised as sluggish and lagging behind other more sophisticated systems like EMIS and Vision. Many of its supporters though cite its public ownership as a positivum.

In Spring 2006 a decision was reached by the Scottish GP representatives (the British Medical Association's Scottish LMC conference) to call for immediate abandonement of any further development as the software was hopelessly out of date and "not fit for purpose". The Scottish Executive dismissed in a report to parliament some of these complaints as secondary to inadequate hardware rather than inherent problems within the software.

In November 2006 a report to the Scottish Executive from Deloitte on General Practice Information Technology Options recommended a move to commercial alternatives. However, the report noted that currently available commercial systems were no more suitable for purpose than GPASS. Further, it was noted that no single supplier of clinical database systems is likely to be able to meet the requirements of the Scottish Executive as at the time of the report's publication.

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Source : Wikipedia