Toyota Prius

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Posted by pompos 04/04/2009 @ 15:11

Tags : toyota prius, toyota, cars, leisure

News headlines
2010 Toyota Prius Available In Dealerships Next Week - NewsOXY
The 2010 Toyota Prius is set to roll out next week as the hybrid prepares for its release date. The new Prius offers government incentives and Toyota dealerships vow to provide availability. The 2010 Toyota Prius is getting near its release date and...
Toyota Unleashes New Prius Hybrid In Japan - NewsOXY
Toyota Prius is set to arrive in more than 80 countries around the world. The release date is different for other markets as demand increases. Toyota has more than 75000 orders for its new hybrid car. The hybrid vehicle is using new gains in fuel...
Toyota Prius units might be limited in US due to the high demand ... - AutoSpies.com
The third generation 2010 Toyota Prius became an instant sensation in Japan when it went on sale last week, resulting in a delay in the hybrid's availability in the markets of the US. There were 80000 advance orders for the 2010 Toyota Prius in Japan...
Problems With Prius - InjuryBoard.com
Seattle Weekly reports Toyota has not settled a single lawsuit based on “unintended acceleration”. Consumer Reports named the Toyota Prius Touring the best overall value among 300 cars this year. The Prius Touring provides the best overall value...
Jetta TDI Throws Down with the Prius - Gas2.0
I was in Miami recently and had the opportunity to rent a Toyota Prius. I've never driven a Prius before and once I actualy figured out how to drive it, it was quite fun. But as gas prices continue to climb in the wake of Memorial Day,...
2010 Toyota Prius Includes Newly-developed Technologies - NewsOXY
The 2010 Toyota Prius is the first true hybrid to offer 50 miles to the gallon based on extraordinary fuel economy achievements. The Prius is a third-generation hybrid vehicle and one of the first models to pioneer an automobile which uses a...
TrueDelta: Toyota Prius still the reliability champ - Examiner.com
In its quarterly study released last week, which examined the repair histories of over 10000 vehicles between March 2008 and March 2009, the 2008 Prius averaged five dealer trips per 100 vehicles and even 2004 models needed just 29....
Japan Stocks: Aderans, Fumakilla, Nikon, Showa Shell, Toyota - Bloomberg
Toyota Motor Corp. (7203 JT) rose 2.8 percent to 3700 yen. Toyota will resume overtime work next month at a plant in central Japan to boost the output of the Prius hybrid, public broadcaster NHK reported. Vantec Group Holdings Co....
Prius boasts more green initiatives - TheGreenCarWebsite.co.uk
If you thought the environmental achievements of the new Toyota Prius were limited to its fuel economy and low emissions then Toyota is determined to prove you wrong. The Japanese manufacturer has developed the world's first injection moulded material...
Kyocera To Supply Solar Modules for Toyota Prius - Reuters
By Renewable Energy World - Renewable Energy World Kyocera Corporation has announced that it will supply solar modules for the new Toyota Prius solar ventilation system, an optional feature for the hybrid car model introduced in Japan by Toyota Motor...

Toyota Prius

2nd-gen Toyota Prius (US)

The Toyota Prius (pronounced /ˈpɹiːəs/) is a hybrid electric mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation. It first went on sale in Japan in 1997, making it the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle. It was subsequently introduced worldwide in 2001. The Prius is sold in more than 40 countries and regions, with its largest markets being those of Japan and North America. As a top seller in the US market, the Toyota Prius made up more than half of the 1.2 million Prius sold worldwide by early 2009.

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, in 2007, the 2008 Prius is the most fuel efficient car sold in the U.S. The EPA and California Air Resources Board also rate the Prius as among the cleanest vehicles sold in the United States based on non-CO2 emissions. The UK Department for Transport also reported the Prius is tied as the sixth least CO2-emitting vehicle on sale in the UK.

The first Prius, model NHW10, went on sale in December 1997. It was sold only in Japan, though it has been imported privately to the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Many of these cars are now being exported as second-hand vehicles to New Zealand and other countries.

The 2001–2003 Prius for the United States market was powered by a 1.5-liter 4 cylinder gasoline engine, a permanent magnet AC electric motor, and a 274-volt nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery pack. The gasoline engine developed 70 hp (52 kW) and 82 ft·lbf (111 N·m) of torque. The electric motor generated a maximum of 44 hp (33 kW) and 258 ft·lbf (350 N·m) of torque. Japanese versions were less powerful.

The engine and motor power were increased over the previous model. Air conditioning and a continuously variable transmission were standard equipment.

In the United States, the NHW11 was the first Prius to be sold. The Prius was marketed between the smaller Echo and the larger Corolla. The published retail price of the car was US$19,995. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) classified the car as a Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV).

European sales began in September 2000.

The official launch of the Prius in Australia occurred in 2001 after the Sydney Motor Show, although sales were extremely poor until the NHW20 model arrived.

The Prius was completely redesigned into a mid-size liftback which is between the Corolla and the Camry in size, with redistributed mechanical and interior space that significantly increased the rear-seat legroom to exceed that of many larger automobiles. The new model is 6 inches (150 mm) longer than the previous version. Its more aerodynamic body resulted in a drag coefficient of 0.26 Cd.

It is classified as a SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) and is certified by California Air Resources Board as an "Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle" (AT-PZEV).

Among the Prius's options are Toyota's implementation of a Smart Key System (the feature can be user-deactivated), DVD navigation on the MFD, Vehicle Stability Control and Bluetooth for hands-free calling. A new Intelligent Parking Assist system was available in Japan and Europe since its launch.

Production of the Prius for the Chinese market began in December 2005 by Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor, a joint venture with First Automobile Works.

The 2006 model introduced some minor cosmetic changes, such as a higher-resolution liquid crystal display, as well as new optional features such as a rear-view camera, advanced airbags and an upgraded audio system with an auxiliary input. The 2007 Prius adds advanced and side-curtain airbags standard on all models. A Touring Edition was introduced that includes an elongated larger rear spoiler as well as larger, sharper-pointed 7-spoke 16" alloy wheels with plastic hub cap cover to protect it from scratches when parking against the curb. The Touring Edition also comes with a firmer European-style tuned suspension, standard high-intensity-discharge (HID) headlights and integrated (non-HID) fog lights.

NHTSA (United States) crash testing of the 2004 Prius yielded a five star driver and four star passenger rating in the frontal collision test (out of five stars). Side crash results were four out of five stars for both front and rear seats. The car scored four out of five stars in rollover testing.

IIHS crash tests score the Prius Good overall in frontal collisions and Good overall in side impact collisions in models equipped with side airbags. A Poor score is given to models without side airbags. Side airbags became standard on 2007 American models.

In 2004, EuroNCAP tested the Prius. It earned the following ratings: Adult Occupant: Child Occupant: Pedestrian: .

Toyota debuted the 2010 Prius at the 2009 North American International Auto Show, with sales to begin in May 2009. Its new body design is more aerodynamic, with a coefficient of drag reduced to 0.25 Cd, and its EPA estimated combined fuel economy cycle is 50 mpg (4.7 L per 100 km), a 4 mpg increase (0.59 L per 100 km decrease) over the previous generation.

The 1.8-liter gasoline engine (previously 1.5-liters) generates 98 hp and with the added power of the electric motor total horsepower is 134 hp (previously 110). The larger engine's displacement allows for increased torque reducing engine speeds (RPM) which helps improve fuel economy at highway speeds. With an electric water pump, the 1.8 liter Prius engine is the first Toyota engine that requires no belts which further improves fuel economy. Also, the battery pack is smaller and more efficient, as are the electric motors and other parts of the car.

Other options include LED headlamps and Safety Connect.

Toyota filed over one thousand patents during the development of the new Prius. Toyota's global goal is to sell about 400,000 units annually by 2010.

On January 10, 2009, Toyota Vice President of Environmental and External Affairs Irv Miller announced that Prius PHVs (plug-in hybrid vehicles) powered by lithium-ion batteries will be available for fleet buyers beginning late 2009.

In 1994, Toyota executive Takeshi Uchiyamada was given the task of creating a new car which would be both fuel efficient and environmentally friendly. After reviewing over 100 hybrid designs, the engineering team settled on a hybrid engine design based on a 1974 TRW patent, but many technical and engineering problems had to be solved within the three years that the team was given to bring the car to the Japanese market, a goal they barely achieved as the first Prius went on sale in December 1997. A main problem was the longevity of the battery, which needed to last between 7 and 10 years. The solution the engineers came up with was to keep the battery pack between 60% and 40% charged, proving to be the "sweet spot" for extending the battery life to roughly that of the other car components.

The car was a modest success in Japan and after gathering several years of test data from the Japanese early adopters, the company felt it was safe to put it on sale in the U.S. and European markets in 2001. Sales were limited and customer waiting lists of up to 6 months were common during the first few years. In 2004, a complete redesign, increased production, and soaring fuel prices led to significant increases in sales.

Prius is not a verb but a Latin comparative adjective or adverb, the neuter nominative singular form of the adjective whose corresponding masculine and feminine nominative singular forms are prior (see also Latin declension - Irregular adverbs and their comparative and superlative forms) with meanings "ahead, in front, leading; previous, earlier, preceding, prior; former; basic".

Some enthusiasts enjoy using Prii as the plural, which would be correct if prius were a regular second declension Latin noun. The actual Latin plural of the adjective is priora (Reference is slightly in error here). All of these forms are nominative case and there are several other forms for the other cases. As for the plural of Prius in English, Toyota has said that it is simply Prius and also that owners are welcome to use whatever they like.

Toyota announced on June 7, 2007 that it had sold 1 million hybrid vehicles globally, and that of those 757,600 were Prius. Nearly 345,000 of the first 1 million hybrid cars made by Toyota were sold in Japan. In May 2008, Toyota announced that its worldwide cumulative sales of the Prius had passed the 1 million mark. The Prius, which is sold in more than 40 countries and regions, has its largest markets in Japan and North America. Nearly 60% of all Prius sales have been in North America, where 183,800 vehicles were sold in 2007. That sales pace has accelerated in early 2008, with 66,100 vehicles sold in North America in the first four months, a rate that would result in nearly 200,000 sales if continued through the entire year. In fact, Toyota sold 21,757 Prius hybrids in the United States in April, setting a record for April sales and making the Prius the third most popular vehicle in the Toyota line, trailing the Corolla and the Camry.

U.S. sales of the Prius began in August 2000. By 2001 sales there totaled 15,556, and by 2002 had reached 20,119. In 2004 sales there were 53,991, and doubled in 2005 to 107,897, about 60% of the world total of 180,000. By June 7, 2007, 266,212 Prius had been sold in the U.S., and accounted for 40% of the hybrid market there in 2006. As of November 2007 Toyota has sold 510,325 Prius in the US since its initial launch in 2000. Prius gas-electric hybrid mid-size sedan reported sales of 14,212 units for a best-ever December and best-ever year-end sales of 181,221 units, up 68.9 percent over 2006. By February 2009 the Prius sales in the US made up more than half of the 1.2 million Prius sold worldwide.

The computer program used in the Prius shuts off the engine when the car is stopped, is reversing, or is descending hills, thereby dramatically decreasing fuel consumption in city driving . The HSD's on-board computer program determines when and how to use the engine, motor, or both to power the car and recharge the battery so as to maximize efficiency. Typically, a gasoline engine runs inefficiently at half-throttle, creating a choking condition called pumping loss, a major reason for the inefficiency of gasoline engines compared to diesels. The Prius minimizes pumping loss by using a high torque range as much as possible with the throttle fully open. Drive-by-wire throttle control technology and Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive (a torque combiner, electric drive, and computer control) are essential to this engine control. In addition to the immediate benefit of reducing fuel consumption and emissions, stopping the gasoline engine also improves the performance of the catalytic converter, as the exhaust gases from an idling engine tend to cool the catalyst below its optimal temperature.

Typical gasoline- or diesel-engined vehicles consume fuel when the vehicle is stopped, as is common in city driving. The Prius typically shuts down the gasoline engine and runs solely off the battery pack at low speeds and when stopped. A non-hybrid car also gets worse fuel consumption in city driving because its engine is continually used to accelerate the car to driving speed and then this energy is lost to friction brakes during stop-and-go driving. The Prius recaptures some of this energy by using regenerative braking to charge its battery pack while slowing down with its motor-generators in generator mode. For acceptable acceleration the IC engine on a "standard" car typically is much larger than needed for constant-speed travel, and is a relatively high power to rate weight ratio Otto cycle engine. By using both an Atkinson cycle gasoline engine, which whilst more efficient, has a much poorer power to weight ratio and an electric motors for acceleration the Prius engine can nevertheless be a smaller size and still provide acceptable acceleration . This means such a hybrid are can have high fuel efficiency when cruising on the Atkinson cycle engine, and in city driving, though factors including driving style, air conditioning use, and short trips may offset some of this advantage. The frequent starting and stopping of the Prius engine does not cause noticeable additional wear and tear or emission problems because the electric drive motors have enough power to quickly spin the engine to optimal speed (around 1,000 rpm) before fuel is admitted.

For any car, aerodynamic losses, which vary roughly as the velocity squared due to air drag are much greater on the highway than in low speed city driving. The Prius hybrid has less of an advantage in higher speed open road driving, typical of intercity driving. Nevertheless, the Prius still obtains improved fuel consumption under these circumstances since it can use a smaller and more efficient engine than would otherwise be required. The electric motor(s), powered by the battery pack, can provide the extra peak power needed for acceleration, passing and limited hill climbing. The lower weight, cross sectional area and lowest drag coefficient of a production car in the U.S. market make the Prius a very efficient highway traveler, getting 45 miles per US gallon (5.2 L/100 km; 54 mpg-imp) on the highway according to the U.S. EPA.

The environmental impact of the car's batteries has been questioned. To encourage battery recycling, dealers are paid a $200 fee for return of the car's batteries. Toyota has laboratory reports that some Prius battery packs have lasted the equivalent of 180,000 miles (290,000 km). As the cars start to age, early reports have shown that in at least some cases the batteries can last in excess of 250,000 miles (400,000 km). Individual battery longevity will vary depending upon the treatment and use history of the battery pack. A degraded battery pack will reduce performance and fuel economy, but not leave the car inoperable.

Fuel consumption, or fuel-efficiency in cars is generally measured as distance travelled per unit volume of fuel, as in miles per gallon (mpg), or as the volume of fuel required to cover a given distance, as in litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 km). Diesel fuel does have about an 11% higher energy density than gasoline (petrol), so that needs to be taken into account in pure energy-efficiency calculations and comparisons. Fuel-price-efficiency calculations will vary between various parts of the world, with diesel fuel pump prices being higher than gasoline prices in some countries, whilst in others it is less expensive than gasoline.

The Prius is the most efficient car available in the U.S. in 2008, based on the official rating.

The official fuel consumption data, provided by the Department for Transport, rates the Prius as: 56.5 miles per imperial gallon (5.00 L/100 km; 47.0 mpg-US) urban, 67.3 miles per imperial gallon (4.20 L/100 km; 56.0 mpg-US) extra urban and 65.7 miles per imperial gallon (4.30 L/100 km; 54.7 mpg-US) combined. Eleven diesel-powered cars, some of them smaller, have a better fuel-efficiency (by fuel volume) than the Prius for combined use.

According to the Department for Transport, the Prius is tied with the MINI Cooper D as the third least CO2-emitting vehicles at 104 g/km, behind the tied Volkswagen Polo 1.4 TDI and SEAT Ibiza 1.4 TDI at 99 g/km - it is the least CO2-emitting petrol-powered car, the Polo and the Ibiza being diesel (being these city cars).

Several organizations have tested the fuel economy of the Prius and compared it directly with other cars.

Consumer tests have shown that petrol-electric hybrid cars in general are a little more fuel-efficient (by fuel volume) than top of the range manual transmission diesels. However, diesel fuel has a significantly higher energy density than the gasoline used by the Prius, and in some countries diesel is less expensive than gasoline, so overall diesel with manual transmission may be competitive with hybrid technology in some cases.

While CO2 emission is theorized to cause climate change, it does not pose a threat to health or create smog. In the United States the EPA measures a vehicle's air-borne pollution based on hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and formaldehyde before assigning them a score. In most states the NHW20 Prius is rated Tier II Bin 3. CARB also does its own emission scoring, the NHW20 Prius meets AT-PZEV certification in California and states that adopted CARB emission rules.

In the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority, an independent body charged with policing the rules of the advertising industry, ruled that a television advert for the Toyota Prius should not be broadcast again in the same form, having breached rules concerning misleading advertising. The advert claimed the Prius "emits up to one tonne less CO2 per year," while on-screen text included: "1 tonne of CO2 less than an equivalent family vehicle with a diesel engine. Average calculated on 20,000 km a year." Points of contention were the vehicles chosen for comparison, whether "up to one tonne less" adequately communicated that reductions could be lower, and whether the distance used was appropriate: 20,000 km per year is around a U.S. car's average annual driving distance, while a UK car's is 13,440 km.

An earlier complaint to the New Zealand Advertising Standards Authority, decision 03/360 2003 was also upheld. It was ruled that Toyota was in breach of the New Zealand advertising standards code of ethics, by claiming "up to 89% fewer smog forming emissions”. The figure was based on comparison with Euro 3 standards, which most new cars also met comfortably at the time.

The British Government and British media have requested Toyota release detailed figures for the energy use and CO2 emissions resulting from the building and disposal of the Prius. The UK Government Car Service runs 130 Priuses. Toyota has not supplied the detailed data they requested to support claims that the lifetime energy usage of the Prius (including the increased environmental cost of manufacture and disposal of the nickel-metal hydride battery) are outweighed by lower lifetime fuel consumption. Toyota states that lifetime CO2 saving is 43 percent.

Prius owners for years have wondered about systematic higher costs for Prius repairs. While the cars are extremely reliable, owners end up paying more for repairs when they do have to be made. A study by Autadex (a company that automates processing for insurance claims) confirms this. Repairs on the Prius cost more than four cars of a similar size. To be precise, 8.4% more. The difference was most pronounced for earlier cars (2001-2006) and seems to have vanished almost completely for the two most recent model years (2007 and 2008).

Some conservatives promote use of the Toyota Prius. For example, Jim Road from What Would Jesus Drive? encouraged people to drive hybrid cars because of the damage that large SUVs can do to others.

The Prius's shape gives it a low 0.26 coefficient of drag.

In July 2007 the The New York Times published an article using data from CNW Marketing Research finding that 57% of Prius buyers said their main reason for buying was that "it makes a statement about me.", while just 36% cited fuel economy as a prime motivator. Shortly afterwards Washington Post columnist Robert Samuelson coined the term "Prius politics" to describe a situation where the driver's desire to "show off" is a stronger motivator than the desire to curb greenhouse gas emissions.

The Wall Street Journal reported in February 2007 on concerns that quiet cars like the Prius may pose a safety risk to those who rely on engine noise to sense the presence or location of moving vehicles. Blind pedestrians are a primary concern, and the National Federation of the Blind advocates audio emitters on hybrid vehicles, but increased risks may also affect sighted pedestrians or bicyclists who are accustomed to aural cues from vehicles. In July 2007, a spokesperson for Toyota said the company is aware of the issue and is studying options. Both State and Federal legislation have been proposed and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration held a public hearing. Different groups and companies are looking at solutions.

A number of governments have incentives that are intended to encourage hybrid car sales. In Belgium, the national government offers reductions in the purchase price of up to 15% for buying cars that have lower CO2 exhaust.

The federal government in Canada offers to those who buy or lease hybrid cars a rebate, however the rebate program expired on December 31, 2008. Some provincial governments also offer incentives such as in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec, Ontario, and Prince Edward Island.

In the United Kingdom, there are both fiscal and parking-related incentives. The fiscal incentives are general; road tax is just £15 a year. Businesses can now (from 1 April 2008) claim a 100% first year tax write-off for the Prius because the car has CO2 emissions of less than 110 grams per kilometre. The tax charge for a Prius that is provided as a company car is just 10% of its list price, rather than the heftier rates that can be up to 35% of a car's list price. Parking incentives exist in Richmond upon Thames (south west London), Westminster (Central London) for resident parking permits, Winchester (now discontinued), Manchester, and Brighton has similar plans. Drivers can pay £10 to register for an annual exemption from the £8 daily London congestion charge Some of the incentives in the United Kingdom have been criticized in the press given that non-hybrid cars, some of which may have better fuel economy in some circumstances, are not afforded the same incentives.

In the Netherlands, the government has lowered the tax for company-cars with CO2 emissions below a certain level (such as the Prius) to 14%. The tax on all other class company-cars has been raised from 22 to 25%. As a result, in the month January alone, more than 1800 cars have been sold. The importer has already indicated that he can no longer meet the demand for the year 2008. Privately owned cars with low CO2 emissions benefit from lower road taxes.

In Sweden, private purchasers of the Prius (or any other vehicle in the environmentally less destructive class) are awarded SEK 10,000 (roughly USD 1700, €1100) after six months of ownership, in order to stimulate sales and use of such vehicles. The subsidy program has been very successful.

Several U.S. companies offer employees incentives. Bank of America will reimburse $3000 on the purchase of new hybrid vehicles to full- and part-time associates working more than 20 hours per week. Google, software company Hyperion Solutions, and organic food and drink producer Clif Bar & Co offer employees a $5000 credit toward their purchase of certain hybrid vehicles including the Prius. Integrated Archive Systems, a Palo Alto IT company, offers a $10,000 subsidy toward the purchase of hybrid vehicles to full-time employees employed more than one year. Clothing companies Timberland and Patagonia, law firm DLA Piper, non-profit American Jewish Committee, software publisher Topics Entertainment, Logistics Giant Exel Contract Logistics, and research firm ABR, Inc. are among companies offering eligible employees significant discounts on certain hybrid vehicles including the Prius.

Travelers Companies, a large insurance company, offers hybrid owners a 10% discount on auto insurance in most states. The Farmers Insurance Group offers a similar discount of up to 10% in most states.

When the vehicle is turned-on with the "start" button, it is ready to drive immediately with the electric motor, while electric pumps warm the engine with previously saved hot engine coolant, before the internal combustion engine is started. The delay between starting the car and starting the internal combustion engine is approximately seven seconds. The Asian and European versions of this vehicle provide a button labeled "EV" that maintains Electric Vehicle mode after start up, under most low-load driving conditions. This permits driving with low noise and no fuel consumption, and is advertised as a "quiet" option for short journeys, for example in residential areas at night, in the Asia manual. The car automatically reverts to normal mode if the battery becomes exhausted. Prior to the 2010 model, the North American model did not have the "EV" button, although the "EV" mode is still supported internally by the Prius Hybrid Vehicle management computer.

Plug-in hybrids use a larger electric vehicle battery pack that is recharged from external sources in order to further reduce fuel consumption. The NiMH batteries in a production PHEV will be built to handle deeper discharge cycles without loss of lifespan such as the NiMH battery pack in the Toyota RAV4 EV. Operation of the vehicle will be very similar to a normal hybrid, except that the electric operation will be more prevalent. In the case of a Prius PHEV, on the highway, the gasoline engine will operate as before, leaving the car with the same ability to accelerate and use freeways. Current converted Prius also operate in a high speed blended mode which can reduce but not eliminate fuel consumption on the freeway. When driving in slower conditions or with light loads, the batteries will be used first in a charge-depleting mode, allowing moderate commutes at low speeds (particularly under 41 mph/65 km/h) to be driven entirely on electricity. Once the batteries have been sufficiently discharged the car will automatically revert back to the charge-sustaining mode of the current stock Prius.

A Raleigh, North Carolina firm, Advanced Vehicle Research Center, converts the Prius by adding a second battery, improving its fuel efficiency by increasing the distance it runs on electricity alone.

The PRIUS+ Project run by CalCars made the first conversion of a Toyota Prius to plug-in, and also offers conversion instructions for do-it-yourselfers.

Toyota has received government approval to run on public roads for tests. Researchers at the Advanced Power and Energy Program at the University of California, Irvine and the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Berkeley will begin testing two specially made Prius and analyze driver behavior, study air quality and energy use. However, electric-only driving range remains limited to around seven miles (eleven kilometers) per charge in all-electric mode at up to 100 kilometers per hour (62 miles per hour).

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Toyota

Toyota headquarters in Toyota City, Japan

Toyota Motor Corporation (トヨタ自動車株式会社 , Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently the world's largest automaker. Toyota employs approximately 316,000 people around the world.

In 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product Type A engine and in 1936 its first passenger car the Toyota AA. The company was eventually founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Toyota currently owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in Daihatsu Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy Industries, Isuzu Motors, and Yamaha Motors. The company includes 522 subsidiaries.

Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City and Nagoya (both in Aichi), and in Tokyo. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its division Toyota Financial Services and also creates robots. Toyota Industries and Finance divisions form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.

Toyota was affected by the 2008-2009 financial crisis and requested a loan from the Japanese government. Other large car manufacturers like GM, Honda, Mazda, and Chrysler also requested loans from their home governments.

Vehicles were originally sold under the name "Toyoda" (トヨダ), from the family name of the company's founder, Kiichiro Toyoda. In September 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo. Out of 27,000 entries the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana letters for "Toyoda" in a circle. But Risaburo Toyoda, who had married into the family and was not born with that name, preferred "Toyota" (トヨタ) because it took eight brush strokes (a fortuitous number) to write in Japanese, was visually simpler (leaving off two ticks at the end) and with a voiceless consonant instead of a voiced one (voiced consonant is considered "murky" or "muddy" sound compared to the voiceless consonant, which is "clear"). Since "Toyoda" literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also helped to distance the company from associations with old fashioned farming. The newly formed word was trademarked and the company was registered in August 1937 as the "Toyota Motor Company".

In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using traditional Chinese characters (eg Hong Kong, Taiwan), Toyota is known as '豊田'. In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using simplified Chinese characters (eg China), Toyota is known as '丰田' (pronounced as 'Fēngtián' in the Mandarin Chinese dialect). These are the same characters as the founding family's name "Toyoda" in Japanese, which translate to "fertile rice paddies" in the Chinese language as well.

From September 1947, Toyota's small-sized vehicles were sold under the name "Toyopet" (トヨペット). The first vehicle sold under this name was the Toyopet SA but it also included vehicles such as the Toyopet SB light truck, Toyopet Stout light truck, Toyopet Crown and the Toyopet Corona. However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in 1957 with the Crown, the name was not well received due to connotations of Toys and pets. The name was soon dropped for the American market but continued in other markets until the mid 1960's.

Toyota started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda. It's first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent and separate company in 1937.

The Toyota Motor Company was awarded its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start 1980s and began participating in a wide variety of Motorsports. Due to the 1973 oil crisis consumers in the lucrative U.S. market began turning to small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an "entry level" product, and their small vehicles were made to a low level of quality in order to keep the price low. Japanese customers, however, had a long-standing tradition of demanding small fuel-efficient cars that were manufactured to a high level of quality. Because of this, companies like Toyota, Honda, and Nissan established a growing presence in North America in the 1970s.

In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation. Two years later, Toyota entered into a joint venture with GM called NUMMI, the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc, operating an automobile manufacturing plant in Fremont, California. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the 1980s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in 1989.

In the 1990s Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full sized pickup, the T100 (and later the Tundra), several lines of SUVs, a sport version of the Camry, known as the Camry Solara, and the Scion brand, a group of several affordable, yet sporty, automobiles targeted specifically to young adults. Toyota also began production of the world's best selling hybrid car, the Prius, in 1997.

With a major presence with Europe, due to the success of Toyota Team Europe, the corporation decided to set up TMME, Toyota Motor Europe Marketing & Engineering, to help market vehicles in the continent. Two years later, Toyota set up a base in the United Kingdom, TMUK, as the company's cars had become very popular among British drivers. Bases in Indiana, Virginia and Tianjin were also set up. In 1999, the company decided to list itself on the New York and London Stock Exchange.

In 2001, Toyota's Toyo Trust and Banking merged to form the UFJ, United Financials of Japan, which was accused of corruption by the Japan's government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections. The UFJ was listed among Fortune Magazine's largest money-losing corporations in the world, with Toyota's chairman serving as a director. At the time, the UFJ was one of the largest shareholders of Toyota. As a result of Japan's banking crisis, the UFJ was merged again to become Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.

In 2002, Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroën and Peugeot, a year after Toyota started producing cars in France.

Toyota ranked eight on Forbes 2000 list of worlds leading companies for the year 2005. The company was number one in global automobile sales for the first quarter of 2008.

On December 7, 2004, a U.S. press release was issued stating that Toyota would be offering Sirius Satellite Radios. However, as late as Jan. 27, 2007, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite radio kits were not available for Toyota factory radios. While the press release enumerated nine models, only limited availability existed at the dealer level in the U.S. As of 2008, all Toyota and Scion models have either standard or available XM radio kits. Major Lexus dealerships have been offering satellite radio kits for Lexus vehicles since 2005, in addition to factory-equipped satellite radio models.

In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full size truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. "Motor Trend" named the Tundra "Truck of the Year," and the 2007 Toyota Camry "Car of the Year" for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models - the Corolla and Yaris - as gas prices have risen rapidly in the last few years.

The Toyota Way incorporates the Toyota Production System.

Toyota has grown to a large multinational corporation from where it started and expanded to different worldwide markets and countries by becoming the largest seller of cars in the beginning of 2007, the most profitable automaker ($11 billion in 2006) along with increasing sales in, among other countries, the United States. The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. Toyota also owns majority stakes in Daihatsu, and 8.7% of Fuji Heavy Industries, which manufactures Subaru vehicles. They also acquired 5.9% of Isuzu Motors Ltd. on November 7, 2006 and will be introducing Isuzu diesel technology into their products.

Toyota has introduced new technologies including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gas-electric vehicles, of which it says it has sold 1 million globally (2007-06-07), Advanced Parking Guidance System (automatic parking), a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission. Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J.D. Power and Consumer Reports.

In 2005, Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company, produced 8.54 million vehicles, about 500,000 fewer than the number produced by GM that year. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. Its also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.

According to the 2008 Fortune Global 500, Toyota Motor is the fifth largest company in the world. Since the recession of 2001, it has gained market share in the United States. Toyota's market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has three tenths of one percent market share, compared to nearly two percent market share as the U.S. luxury segment leader.

In the first three months of 2007, Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2.348 million units. Toyota's brand sales had risen 9.2% largely on demand for Corolla and Camry sedans. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. In November 2006, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas added a facility in San Antonio. Toyota has experienced quality problems and was reprimanded by the government in Japan for its recall practices. Toyota currently maintains over 16% of the US market share and is listed second only to GM in terms of volume. Toyota Century is the official state car of the Japanese imperial family, namely for the Emperor of Japan Akihito.

In January 2009 it announced the closure of all of its Japanese plants for 11 days to reduce output and stocks of unsold vehicles.

Early in 2009, although company spokespersons declined confirmation, media sources reported that Akio Toyoda, grandson of the founder, will be promoted in June from vice-president to the position of President, replacing Katsuaki Watanabe.

Toyota has factories all over the world, manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets, including the Corolla. Toyota has manufacturing or assembly plants in Japan, Australia, India, Canada, Indonesia, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Colombia, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Brazil, Portugal, and more recently Pakistan, Argentina, Czech Republic, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand, Egypt, China, Vietnam, Venezuela, the Philippines, and Russia.

In 2002, Toyota initiated the "Innovative International Multi-purpose vehicle" project (IMV) to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than 140 countries worldwide. IMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia and manual transmissions in the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. For vehicle assembly, Toyota would use plants in Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina and South Africa. These four main IMV production and export bases supply Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Latin America and the Middle East with three IMV vehicles: The Toyota Hilux (Vigo), the Fortuner, and the Toyota Innova.

Toyota has invested considerably into cleaner-burning vehicles such as the Prius, based on technology such as the Hybrid Synergy Drive. In 2002, Toyota successfully road-tested a new version of the RAV4 which ran on a Hydrogen fuel cell. Scientific American called the company its Business Brainwave of the Year in 2003 for commercializing an affordable hybrid car.

Toyota Motor North America headquarters is located in New York City and operates at a holding company level in North America. Its manufacturing headquarters is located in Hebron, Kentucky, and is known as Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, or TEMA.

Toyota Canada Inc. has been in production in Canada since 1983 with an aluminum wheel plant in Delta, British Columbia which currently employs a workforce of roughly 260. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario since 1988, now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles and Lexus RX 350 luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4,300 workers. Its second assembly operation in Woodstock, Ontario began manufacturing the RAV4 late in 2008. In 2006, Toyota's subsidiary Hino Motors opened a heavy duty truck plant, also in Woodstock, employing 45 people and producing 2000 trucks annually.

Toyota has a large presence in the United States with five major assembly plants in Huntsville, Alabama; Georgetown, Kentucky; Princeton, Indiana; San Antonio, Texas; Buffalo, West Virginia. A new plant slated to be built in Blue Springs, Mississippi has been put on hold owing to the financial crisis that erupted in late 2008. Toyota also has a joint-venture operation with General Motors at New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI), in Fremont, California, which began in 1984, and with Subaru at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. (SIA), in Lafayette, Indiana, which started in 2006. Production on a new manufacturing plant in Tupelo, Mississippi is scheduled for completion in 2010. North America is a major automobile market for Toyota. In these assembly plants, the Camry and the Tundra are manufactured, among others.

Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the U.S. are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. Toyota uses a number of slogans in its American TV commercials such as It's time to move forward, Smart way to keep moving forward, or Moving forward. It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Toyota is also pushing hybrid vehicles in the US such as the Prius, Camry Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid, and various Lexus products.

Toyota has sold more hybrid vehicles in the country than any other manufacturer. Toyota is a public corporation and the company's shares are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange. Toyota also sponsors Club Deportivo Guadalajara.

The Prius has become the top selling hybrid car in America. Toyota, as a brand, now has three hybrid vehicles in its lineup: the Prius, Highlander, and Camry. The popular minivan Toyota Sienna is scheduled to join the hybrid lineup by 2010, and by 2030 Toyota plans to offer its entire lineup of cars, trucks, and SUVs with a Hybrid Synergy Drive option.

The Hybrid Synergy drive is the most widely rolled-out environment-friendly system in the automotive industry to date. More than 1,000,000 units have been sold. Toyota's CEO has committed to eventually making every car of the company a hybrid vehicle. .

Lexus also has their own hybrid lineup, consisting of the GS 450h, RX 400h, and launched in 2007, the LS 600h/LS 600h L.

Toyota has said it plans to make a hybrid-electric system available on every vehicle it sells worldwide sometime in the 2010s.

Toyota and Honda have already said they've halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future (even without incentives) .

After General Motors announced it would produce the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, Toyota announced that it, too, would make one. Toyota is currently testing its "Toyota Plug-in HV" in Japan, the United States, and Europe. Like GM's Volt, it uses a lithium-ion battery pack. The PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) could have a lower environmental impact than existing hybrids.

On June 5, 2008, A123Systems announced that its Hymotion plug-in hybrid conversion kits for the Prius would be installed by six dealers, including four Toyota dealerships: Westboro Toyota in Boston, Fitzgerald Toyota in Washington D.C., Toyota of Hollywood in Los Angeles, and the Minneapolis-based Denny Hecker Automotive Group, which sells multiple brands.

Toyota is speeding up the development of vehicles that run only on electricity with the aim of mass-producing them in the early part of next decade. Road tests for the current prototype, called "e-com", had ended in 2006.

Toyota might create a separate brand for Prius hybrids and is considering adding larger and smaller Prius models. Such Prius brand would be similar to Scion. Toyota is not planning separate dealerships for Prius.

The Tundra is a full-size pickup truck sold by Toyota that originally went into production in 1999 (as a 2000 model year model), Currently, the Tundra has been on the market for more than half a decade, and has captured 17 percent of the full-size half-ton market.

The all new Tundra is assembled in two different locations, both inside the United States. The Standard and Double Cabs are assembled in "Truck Country" San Antonio, Texas, while the Crew Max is assembled in Mooreland, Indiana. Toyota Motor Corporation assembled around 150,000 Standard and Double Cabs, and only 70,000 Crew Max's in 2007. As of November 2008 the San Antonio Plant will be the only one producing Tundra Trucks.

In addition to the Tundra, Toyota also produces the Tacoma, with a smaller body and smaller engine than its bigger brother.

Toyota is active in the motorsports and sponsors such events through their cars among others.

Toyota is a minority share holder in Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, having invested US$67.2 million in the new venture which will produce the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, slated for first deliveries in 2013. Toyota has also studied participation in the general aviation market, and contracted with Scaled Composites to produce a proof-of-concept aircraft, the TAA-1 in 2002.

Toyota is supporter of the Toyota Family Literacy Programme along with National Center for Family Literacy, helping low-income community members for education, United Negro College Fund (40 annual scholarships), National Underground Railroad Freedom Center ($1 million) among others. Toyota created the Toyota USA Foundation.

Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in 1981, as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful. Toyota Technological Institute founded the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago in 2003. Toyota is supporter of the "Toyota Driving Expectations Program," "Toyota Youth for Understanding Summer Exchange Scholarship Program," "Toyota International Teacher Program," "Toyota TAPESTRY," "Toyota Community Scholars" (scholarship for high school students), "United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Internship Program," and "Toyota Funded Scholarship." It has contributed to a number of local education and scholarship programs for the University of Kentucky, Indiana, and others.

Toyota has been developing multitask robots destined for elderly care, manufacturing, and entertainment.

Toyota Financial Services Corporation provides financing to Toyota customers.

Hybrids are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future vehicle market.

Toyota Racing Development was brought about to help develop true high performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles. TRD has often had much success with their after market tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in all forms of racing.

Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999.

As reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 540 consolidated subsidiaries and 226 affiliates.

Toyota is now the world’s largest automaker in terms of sales, net worth, revenue, and profits. According to Stephen Spier, Toyota has been an industry leader since the 1960s and has consistently been more productive than its competitors. The company has been widely recognized for the quality of its products and production systems.

Since October 2006, Toyota's new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator. The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed. When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel lights up. Individual results vary depending on traffic issues, starting and stopping the vehicle, and total distance traveled, but the Eco Drive Indicator may improve fuel efficiency by as much as 4%. Along with Toyota's eco-friendly objectives on production and use, the company plans to donate $1 million and five vehicles to the Everglades National Park. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park. This donation is part of a program which provides $5 million and 23 vehicles for five national parks and the National Parks Foundation.

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Toyota Camry

2007 Toyota Camry Sportivo (Australia)

The Toyota Camry is a mid-size car, formerly a compact car manufactured by Toyota since 1980. The name "Camry" comes from a phonetic transcription of the Japanese word kanmuri (冠, かんむり), which means "crown", a tradition started with the Toyota Crown in the 1950s, and continued with the Corolla and Corona, which are also Latin words for "crown". It is an anagram for "my car".

For the East and Southeast Asian markets, high specification Camry models are seen as executive cars. Since the sixth generation XV30 model, the Camrys sold in these markets have sported revised front- and rear-end treatment. For the seventh generation XV40 series, the same was done, although the Australian-designed Toyota Aurion which is based on the seventh generation Camry was the donor model. The Aurion features revised front- and rear-end treatment and changes to the interior, but is fitted with the same powertrains. An up-branded luxury version of the Camry was sold in Japan as the Toyota Windom until 2006; the related Lexus ES shares major chassis and drivetrain components with the Camry.

In the United States, the Camry has been the best selling car for nine of the last ten years starting in 1997, with the only exception being 2001. The Camry also sells very well in Australia, Canada, and a number of Asian markets—in particular Cambodia where the vast majority of cars are Camrys. Despite its success, it has been criticized for less sporty handling, due to comfort-tuned suspensions in most models. It has not sold as well in Europe, where sales ended in 2004, and the Toyota Avensis became the flagship model in 2002.

Originally launched as the Toyota Celica Camry in January 1980 for the Japanese home market, this model was essentially a second-generation Toyota Carina with updated body-styling and a front-end that resembled a 1978 Toyota Celica XX, known as the Celica Supra in export markets.

The car was based on the rear-wheel drive Celica and was powered by either a 1.6 litre 12T-U engine producing 65 kilowatts (88 hp) JIS and 128 newton metres (94 lb·ft) or a 1.8 litre 13T-U engine producing 70 kilowatts JIS (94 hp) and 147 newton metres (108 lb·ft). Towards the end of its model lifecycle, Toyota introduced a sports version of the Celica Camry equipped with the 16-valve double overhead camshaft 2.0 litre engine from the Celica producing 72 kilowatts JIS (96 hp). This is the most sought-after version of the Celica Camry in the secondhand market today.

Although it has an identical 2500 millimetre (98.4 in) wheelbase to the Celica, the Corona, and the Carina, it is longer than the Carina but shorter than both the Corona and Celica. During its model cycle, over 100,000 units were sold in Japan. The Celica Camry was also exported to a number of markets using the Carina's name, and it replaced the second-generation Carina in these markets.

In 1982, the Camry became an independent model line, and was sold as a compact four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. There were limited exports, predominantly to right-hand-drive markets. At this point, Camry was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other mid-sized models made by Toyota. A twin was announced at this point: the Toyota Vista.

The design of the first generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a compact sedan, with a solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts.

In North America, the Camry was available with a 68 kilowatt SAE (92 hp) 2.0 litre 2S-ELC engine, 1.8 litre 1C-TLC or a 55 kilowatt (74 hp) 2.0 litre 2C-TLC turbodiesel engine. Either a four-door sedan or five-door hatchback body style could be specified, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed A140E automatic. In contrast to the rear-wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front-wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform. In Australia, only the petrol-fueled hatchback was sold. The United Kingdom, and much of Continental Europe got the sedan and hatchback versions: these were available in 1.8 litre GLi or 2.0 litre GLi trim levels. A 2.0 litre GLD turbodiesel was also offered, but this is rare nowadays.

The second generation model debuted in 1986, this time including a station wagon while dropping the hatchback body style. At this point, it was still regarded as a compact car. In 1988, an all-wheel drive system dubbed All-Trac was introduced and a 2.5 litre 118 kilowatt JIS (160 hp) V6 engine were added as options for the first time. The V6 was fuel-injected with 24 valves, and dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 96 kilowatt JIS (130 hp) four-cylinder engine. In Japan there was a GT model using the older 3S-GE engine as used on the Celica. This particular model also had a factory strut brace similar to an AE92 Corolla and rode on the V6 model's 15 inch alloy wheels. This particular model also had an electronic instrument cluster.

In 1987, Toyota Australia began producing these second generation Camrys in Altona, Victoria, Australia. In fact, it was the first Camry ever made outside of Japan. A 1.8 litre four-cylinder engine rated at 64 kilowatts (86 hp) was standard on the base model, while a 2.0 litre four-cylinder rated 88 kilowatts (116 hp) was available on all others. In 1988, a 2.5 litre V6 was introduced. The V6 sat the very top of the range, and was the only model to be imported from Japan. Due to its positioning in the line-up, and the high import duty it attracted, it was very expensive, and only sold in small numbers. In 1989, the 1.8 litre engine was dropped, and was replaced with a carburetted 2.0 litre engine, producing 82 kilowatts (110 hp).

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, the first wholly-owned U.S. Toyota plant, began producing Camrys in 1988, where three trim levels of the second generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. The 2.5 litre engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop. In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and station wagon models. These second generation models were extremely popular in the United States and it is not at all uncommon to see examples on American roads, even to this day more than two decades after production.

The third generation V30 Camry was introduced exclusively to the Japanese market in July 1990. A widened version of this model was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Scepter. The Scepter incorporated unique front- and rear-end styling, with the side doors and many other sheet metal and mechanical components interchangeable between the two cars. Outside of Japan, the Scepter was known as the Camry XV10. These generation classification are for the Japanese market Camry. The third generation US Camry was introduced from 1992-1996 while the fourth generation was introduced from 1997-2001, the fifth generation camry was from 2002-2006, and lastly the sixth and current generation in the US is from 2007-present. The U.S. Camry is presently in its six generation while the Japanese market version is in its seventh generation.

For the 1991 model year, a four wheel steering version of the JDM Camry was sold with a 2.0 L V6 engine, with the name Toyota Camry V6 PROMINENT 4WS, and chassis code E-VZV31.

An updated model appeared in July 1992. The scope of changes ranged from a new, larger grille and a revised air conditioning unit. At the same time the ZX touring package appeared in place of GT.

A two-door Camry Coupé was added to compete with the Honda Accord Coupé. However, the Camry Coupé was never popular and was dropped in 1997. A two-door Camry would not be reintroduced until 1999, with the Toyota Camry Solara.

There is also a convertible derivative version of the Camry called the Solara from 1994-1997 and later spun off into its own line as the Camry Solara when reintroduced in 1999. However, the Solara development lags behind the sedan by a couple years and the production is scheduled to end in 2008.

The Camry V40 appeared in July 1994 exclusively for the Japanese market. Engines for the V40 comprised of a 1.8 litre (4S-FE type) and 2.0 litre (3S-FE type), and a 2.2 litre turbodiesel (3C-T type). At launch only the 2.0 litre model was available in all-wheel drive mode, although afterwards the 2.2 litre turbodiesel could be optioned with this system.

Toyota updated the V40 in June 1996. In the update anti-lock brakes and dual air bags became standard equipment. After 1998, the Japanese market Camry and international Camry became in-line with each other, with the Toyota Vista taking over the V30 and V40 Camry roles.

The fifth generation Camry was launched in Japan in December 1996. It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. This generation was launched in the U.S. for the 1997 model year.

An equivalent model was launched as the Daihatsu Altis (Japanese: ダイハツ・アルティス), it was only sold in Japan, and its production started from this generation. The Altis was introduced March 2000 as a flagship sedan for Daihatsu as a replacement for the Daihatsu Applause. Not very many Altis are sold in Japan because the typical Daihatsu is priced in the entry level pricing range, and the Altis is priced very similar to the comparable model JDM Toyota Camry. Tha Altis is available with the Toyota 5S-FE 2.2 L 4 cylinder engine. Unlike the Camry, which is available as a sedan or wagon in Japan, the Altis is a sedan only. The name "Altis" is a variation of the word "altitude", implying a "high elevation" status as the top level car for Daihatsu.

In 2000, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1997 to 1999 models. The Japanese Scepter ceased to exist as the Japanese Camrys adopted the 1,795 mm (70.7 in) wide platform.

The Vista began departing from the Camry, remaining 1,700 mm (66.9 in) wide and eventually forming the basis of the growing Corolla. In addition, the Vista's sheetmetal resembled a tall, formal sedan, while the Camry became sleeker. This "split" continues today.

The Lexus ES 300 was again built from the Windom, which uses the Camry chassis.

A coupe was added in 1999, and then a convertible form in 2000. In contrast to the coupe from the third generation Camrys, the new two-door cars were given a separate nameplate Camry Solara, or simply Solara. They were also a significant styling departure from the sedan. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trims, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims.

In the United States, the Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1997 model year. Both the LE(Limited Edition) and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous generation. All trim levels were available with either the 2.2 L I4 or the 3.0 L V6 engine except the Solara SLE, which was only available with the V6. The LE-based Collector Edition was new for 2001 model year.

Power was increased slightly to 133 hp SAE (99 kW) for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 194 hp SAE (145 kW) for the 1MZ-FE V6. Manual transmissions (model: S51) were only available on the CE trim level, LE V6, and any Solara model.

For the General Export Market, the Camry was offered as 2.2 GLX and 3.0 V6 Grande. This was the first Camry to be sold as a Daihatsu; the Daihatsu Altis was identical to the export version of the Camry.

The Camry V6 was again on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1997.

A more upmarket version of Camry Gracia wagon was sold in Japan as Mark II Qualis. It had no relation to Mark II sedan besides front and rear optics, which simulated those of Mark II X100. Mark II Qualis was also available in 3.0G version, with 1MZ-FE V6 engine, not available in JDM Camrys.

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety gave the Camry a Good overall score in their frontal offset crash test. Front seat-mounted side torso airbags were optional beginning on 1999 models. The Camry equipped with side airbags received a four out of five star () safety rating in Euro NCAP's test.

In Australia, unlike the previous generation, the Camry name was also applied to the V6 variants, while the Vienta V6 range was revised as the "upmarket" models. The line-up of 4-cylinder Camry models consisted of the CSI, Conquest and CSX models (automatic transmission only); all three variants were available in sedan or wagon. The Camry V6 models consisted of CSI and Conquest, with the wagon models only available in automatic transmission. The Camry V6 Touring Series sedan model was launched in March 1999. The Vienta line up consisted of VXI and Grande sedan models and the VXI wagon. The VXI model was basically a V6-powered version of the 4-cylinder Camry CSX model.

In September 2000, the revised Camry was launched. The Vienta V6 range was discontinued due to the launch of the Avalon sedan in July 2000 and two new models were added to the Camry range: the top-of-the-range Azura V6 sedan and the Touring Series V6 wagon, both of which were available with an automatic transmission only. Towards the end of the model run, the limited edition Intrigue and Advantage sedans were launched.

In Middle East, the Camry was offered in three different trims, the low end XLI plus the better equipped GLI that both carry a four cylinder engine, the third is the V6 Grande trim which carries the 1MZ-FE engine plus a lot of other options. The Middle Eastern Camry also was offered as a wagon, with the GLI trim only.

1999-2000 Toyota Conquest V6 station wagon (Australia).

1997-2000 Toyota Camry Conquest V6 sedan (Australia).

2000-2001 Toyota Camry (United States).

2000-2002 Toyota Camry GX 2.2 (Malaysia).

1998 Toyota Vienta VXI (Australia).

In September 2001, the 2002 model year Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla, and Solara) only, but without a station wagon for the first time. Due to station wagons losing popularity to minivans and crossover SUVs, the Camry wagon was replaced by the Toyota Sienna minivan (in North America only) and the Toyota Highlander SUV, both vehicles utilizing the Camry's platform.

The front end of the car was relatively short, leaving a great deal of the length to the cabin, a technique adopted by compact cars. In contrast to the fairly squat fifth generation Camry, the sixth generation was a decidedly tall vehicle. It was 2.5 in (64 mm) taller and had a 2 in (51 mm) longer wheelbase than the previous model. The coefficient of drag had been reduced to 0.28 Cd.

In the United States, the basic CE model was dropped and the SE sport model was reintroduced. Both the LE and SE models were available with a manual transmission when equipped with the four-cylinder engine. Two engines were available an all-new 2.4-liter 2AZ-FE VVT-i I4 engine and a carry over 3.0-liter 1MZ-FE V6 engine. Both engines in the United States were ULEV certified. Any model could be equipped with a V6 or a 4-speed automatic transmission, although the manual transmission was not available on V6 models. The Camry's front suspension used MacPherson struts mounted to a front sub-frame while the rear suspension used a dual link setup also mounted to its own rear sub-frame.

For safety ABS, Vehicle Stability Control, front and rear head side curtain airbags, and front seat-mounted torso side airbags were optional. The IIHS rated the Camry Good overall in their frontal offset crash test. In their side impact test a Good overall rating was given to models equipped with side airbags, while models without side airbags were given a Poor overall rating.

For 2005 models, Toyota introduced its refreshed Camry with new upgrades such as a chrome grille (though the SE had a sportier grille), new headlight and taillight designs, redesigned front bumper, and new wheels. A new base trim level was again added, which was priced lower than the Camry LE. Interior upgrades to the Camry included a rear center head restraint, a storage bin in the door, Optitron electroluminescent gauges, steering wheel-mounted audio controls standard for all trim levels, and standard leather seating on V6-powered XLE trims. V6 engines were revised with the 3.0-liter 1MZ-FE now equipped with VVT-i and in SE models a 3.3-liter 3MZ-FE V6 replaced the smaller 1MZ-FE. A 5-speed automatic transmission also replaced the previous 4-speed automatic and ABS became standard on all trims.

Until the 2003 model year, the Camry Solara remained on the sixth generation chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. However, the Solara did receive the same 2.4-liter 2AZ-FE I4 engine that was available on the Camry sedan.

The second generation Camry Solara was introduced in 2003 as a 2004 model. Again, styling from the Camry was radically different, taking design cues from the Lexus SC430.

Daihatsu continued with its twin Altis model for the Japanese market. The second generation Altis was introduced September 2001, and was available with the 2AZ-FE 2.4 L 4 cylinder engine. Visually, the Altis is very similar to the JDM Toyota Camry with the 4 cylinder engine.

In Australia and New Zealand, the 2002 to 2006 Camry is available in five different trims: the Altise, Ateva, Sportivo, Grande (2004 onwards), and Azura. The Altise, Ateva, and Sportivo are available with either the 2.4 L four cylinder or the 3.0 L V6 engine, whilst the Grande and Azura were only available with the V6. Only the Altise and Sportivo models could be fitted with a manual transmission — all other models are equipped with a four-speed automatic transmission. In 2003, the V6-powered Altise Sport model was introduced, which is basically the Altise model with the sports suspension that was fitted on the Sportivo and Azura models and was available in manual and automatic trasmission. The Australian and New Zealand Camry Sportivo corresponds roughly to the American Camry SE.

The Australian and New Zealand models were significantly different from the other Camry models around the world and had around 77% locally developed components to suit Australian and New Zealand roads and driving conditions. The brakes, body panels (which would only fit on the Australian made body and chassis), headlights, seats, radio antenna and suspension were all locally developed after 10,000 km of extensive testing in New Zealand under the supervision of Toyota engineers. Power output on the Altise Sport, V6 Sportivo and Azura models was 145 kW (194 hp) compared with the 141 kW (189 hp) of the standard V6 models due to a high-flow rear muffler.

When the revised range was launched in Australia and New Zealand in September 2004, the Grande model was reintroduced which, together with the Azura model, were the top-of-the-range models. The Grande however was fitted with the standard suspension rather than the sports suspension as fitted on the Azura model. The Grande and Azura models have Satellite Navigation (GPS) as standard equipment, and were the first Toyota models in Australia to be fitted with the new Toyota Link system. The Toyota Link system is a state-of-the-art satellite and mobile SMS GSM communications system that gives the driver access to roadside assistance and emergency help via the electrochromatic rear view mirror. In August 2005 the Altise Sport model was reintroduced (V6 auto only) together with Altise Limited (four-cylinder and V6) that has additional features. The Ateva model had an interior upgrade to leather trim and rear passenger air conditioning vents. The Altise was repositioned as a fleet model and manual transmission was no longer available on V6 Sportivo models from January 2006 production. Automatic Camrys in Australia still used the dated four-speed rather than the new five-speed introduced in the US across the range. The new 3.3-liter engine that replaced the 3.0 in the American V6 also did not come to Australia.

A number of milestones were achieved with this generation's Camry in Australia. The one millionth Camry (Black Azura) built in Australia and 10 millionth Camry worldwide rolled off the production line at Altona in September 2004. In May 2006 Toyota Australia exported the 500,000th Camry to New Zealand, in recognition of the relationship between Toyota Australia and Toyota New Zealand. More than 90% of Australian Camry exports are left-hand drive vehicles to Middle East countries including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. The overseas demand for the Australian-made Camry is still running at record levels, despite the release of an all-new model in August 2006. The current Australian-made Camry remains one of the top-selling passenger vehicles in Saudi Arabia. In the Middle East, the fifth generation Camry is available in 4 trim levels: XLi, GLi, Touring, and Grande V6.

A high performance concept of the Toyota Camry, named the Toyota Camry TS-01 was shown at the 2005 Melbourne International Motor Show. This concept vehicle had significant performance and visual upgrades from the production Toyota Camry and was one of the concept vehicles designed what is now TRD Australia.

The Camry in Taiwan and Malaysia of this generation looked very similar to other versions, but the front end had a "thicker" grille and larger, all-white, differently shaped headlights. The reverse lights were moved onto the trunk and were somewhat similar to the lights on a second generation Avalon's trunk. The older models from 2002-2003 had tail lights with a white streak across them, while models 2004 and later did not.

In the Philippines, the fifth generation Camry was initially introduced with 2.0 and 2.4-liter engines, with four-speed automatics and no manual option. Compared to the US version, this had a different front end design (grille and headlights), as well as inner taillight garnishes. The facelifted version saw off the 2.0 and introduced the 3.0-liter V6 with five-speed automatic along with new colors and wheel design.

The seventh generation Camry was introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show alongside a hybrid version and went on sale in March 2006 as a 2007 model. Toyota normally begins selling the Camry in September but Toyota cut the previous model's lifespan to 4.5 years instead of 5 years. The 2007 Camry was redesigned and featured a 2-inch longer wheelbase. Overall length and passenger volume remained equal to the predecessor, while trunk space decreased by about 1.5 cu-ft.

Power came from a choice of four- and six-cylinder engines. The 2.4 L 2AZ-FE I4 engine was carried over from the past generation and produced 158 horsepower (118 kW) and 161 ft·lb. It came with a five-speed manual or five-speed automatic. The 3.5 L 2GF-FE V6 in contrast came with a new six-speed automatic and produced 268 horsepower (200 kW) and 248 ft·lb.Both engines are ULEV-II compliant, in some markets certain 4 cylinder engines are PZEV rated to confirm with CARB laws.

Styling-wise the Camry takes a sleeker shape. The coefficient of drag figure for the non-hybrid Camry was 0.28 Cd and 0.27 Cd for the hybrid.

For more responsive handling Toyota offers the SE Camry. The SE's chassis offers 15-percent-higher spring rates, special dampers/shocks, a stiffer front anti-roll bar, stiffer bushings on the rear suspension, and 17 inch summer tires. To create a more rigid structure an underfloor brace, a V-brace behind the rear seat (prevents rear seat fold-down) and thicker body-side brackets are added. For increased handling performance TRD offers stiffer lowering springs.

Sales in the United States, the primary market for the Camry, significantly increased in the year following release. Quarterly sales totaled a record 46,630 vehicles for second quarter of the American 2007 model year. In April 2007, Toyota began producing additional Camrys at a Subaru plant in Lafayette, Indiana.

Consumer Reports 2007 Annual Car Reliability Survey gave the V6 version of the Toyota Camry a "below average" rating, thus removing the V6 Camry from Consumer Reports' "Recommended" list. This rating does not apply to the four cylinder and hybrid versions, which continued to be recommended. However, these problems have been corrected, and the V6 version has improved to "average".

Consumers of Reviewcars.com awarded 2007 Toyota Camry with "Car of the Year" distinction.

Toyota revealed the refreshed seventh-generation 2010 Camry at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. Visual changes include an updated front fascia unique to each grade, larger headlamp lenses, LED tail lamps (previously hybrids only), and new wheel/wheel cover designs. Audio systems with USB connectivity are offered. Two newly designed 2.5 L 2AR-FE I4 engines replace the previous 2AZ-FE I4 in non-hybrid models, which are now mated to either a 6-speed automatic or 6-speed manual transmission. The more powerful 179 horsepower (133 kW) version is exclusive to the Camry SE. Toyota's Vehicle Stability Control system becomes standard on all Camry grades for the 2010 model year.

The 2010 Camry goes on sale in March 2009.

The Camry comes factory-equipped with dual frontal airbags, front and rear row side curtain airbags, front row torso side airbags, and a driver's knee airbag. Other standard safety include a tire-pressure monitoring system, ABS, Brake Assist, and EBD. For the 2010 model year Toyota made Vehicle Stability Control (VDC) standard.

Toyota also improved the Camry's safety by applying ultra-high-strength steel, which must be hot-stamped to the Camry's roof, front and center pillars, and rocker structures.

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) awarded the Camry sedan an overall rating of Good in both frontal offset and side impact crash tests. Both tests also receive the Good rating in all 14 measured categories.

The seventh generation model Toyota Camry received a four-star safety rating as a result of Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) testing. The Australia Camry does not offer a driver's knee airbag.

The seventh-generation Toyota Camry is the first generation in which the Camry has been available as a gasoline/electric hybrid. The Camry Hybrid utilizes Toyota’s second generation Hybrid Synergy Drive and a 4-cylinder engine with 147 horsepower (110 kW) in conjunction with a 40 hp (30 kW) electric motor for a combined output of 187 horsepower (139 kW). The Camry became the third Toyota model to be offered as a hybrid after the Toyota Prius and the Toyota Highlander.

Camry Hybrids were initially built solely in Japan, though the majority of production has since shifted to Toyota’s Georgetown, Kentucky plant, which is projected to produce 45,000 of the vehicles per year. In June 2008, Toyota Motor Corporation has announced that the Camry Hybrid will also be built in a Thailand plant in 2009 and in Melbourne in 2010 with an annual production capacity of 9,000 and 10,000 respectively.

United States Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy estimates for the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid are 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp) (City) and 34 mpg-US (6.9 L/100 km; 41 mpg-imp) (Highway). EPA’s revised method of estimating fuel economy for 2008 and subsequent model years, which now considers the effects of air conditioning, rapid acceleration and cold temperatures, estimates 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp) (City) and 34 mpg-US (6.9 L/100 km; 41 mpg-imp) (Highway).

At the 2008 LA Auto Show, Toyota unveiled its CNG (compressed natural gas) powered hybrid. While this vehicle is a concept, Toyota had sold a 4 cylinder CNG Camry to California fleet customers previously in 1999.

Toyota Camrys are produced at Georgetown, Kentucky, USA, Aichi, Japan, Melbourne, Australia, St. Petersburg, Russia, and in China (for the Chinese market only). The Camry sold in China shares the front and rear design used for the Australian 6-cylinder 'Aurion'.

On April 20, 2007, Camry manufacturing began at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. in Lafayette, Indiana USA, with intended production of about 100,000 units per year.

A Camry manufactured in Japan is denoted with a VIN starting with "J", as well as a small hatch on the passenger's side of the front bumper containing equipment that is compatible with Japanese towing systems; US-made models are denoted with a VIN starting with "4".

Daihatsu continued with its twin Altis model for the Japanese market. The third generation Altis was introduced January 2006, and continued to be available with the 2AZ-FE 2.4 L 4 cylinder engine. Visually, the Altis is very similar to the JDM Toyota Camry with the 4 cylinder engine.

The seventh generation Camry went on sale in Australia and New Zealand on August 20, 2006. For the first time in 18 years, it is marketed in those countries as a four cylinder model only. The simplified model range consists of the 'Altise', 'Sportivo', 'Ateva', and 'Grande' (in ascending order in terms of price). The Grande model was the first Australian-made Camry to be fitted with rain-sensing wipers, stability control, traction control and Bluetooth connectivity. Stability control was not available across the range until August 2007, where it became standard on all variants. In May 2008, the Grande variant received a change in specifications to the same set of alloy wheels as the 'Sportivo' variant, as opposed to the 'Grande' variant previously. It is worth noting that before the change, the "Grande" model had the same wheels as the "Ateva" model. Also, released in May 2008, was the Ateva L. It included extra features such as a rear lip spoiler, the same alloys as the "Sportivo" variant and leather seats and leather door trim.

Although Camry models are only offered with four cylinder engines, the Toyota Aurion, which has side windows, door panels, windscreen and roof panels identical to those in the Camry, is offered with V6 engines.

Toyota Australia produces the Camry for both domestic and export markets such as the UAE and the Middle East in Altona, Victoria. There have plans to negotiate a deal with Toyota to begin the manufacture of right hand drive Toyota Camry hybrids at Altona.

The Toyota Camry, as of 2008, is Australia's best selling locally made vehicle, when taking into account all sales, both domestic and exports.

In 2009 model year, which is sold starting in spring 2008, the cost for entire line was lowered by up to $2500. With such a price drop, the Canada price is still 30% higher than the one in the US for an identical model, due to the higher charges for freight and delivery.

The engines are a 2.4-litre inline four-cylinder in the LE and SE, and a 3.5-litre V6 in the LE V6, SE V6 and XLE V6. The 2.4-litre comes with a five-speed automatic in the LE and a five-speed manual in the SE, which can also be optioned with the automatic; reviewers consider the 2.4-litre engine somewhat underpowered. All V6 Camrys use a six-speed automatic with manual shift mode. The Hybrid is powered by the 2.4-litre four-cylinder with hybrid electric system fitted with a continuously variable transmission (CVT).

The XLE comes only as a V6 model and is the higher trim level compared to the base LE. The Camry Hybrid is very similar to the XLE, save for its Synergy Drive powertrain and engine. The SE (Sport Edition), priced between the LE and XLE, differs from the rest of the Camry trims, having 17-inch alloy wheels, a sport-tuned suspension, a three-spoke steering wheel, lip spoiler, side skirts, sport-style grille, and fog lamps. All other Camrys come with 16-inch alloy wheels, while the 4-cylinder LE has 16-inch steel wheels standard though alloy wheels are available as part of the Touring package.

While Vehicle Stability Control and Traction Control were initially exclusive to V6 cars for the 2008 generation, these features are now offered on every Camry model, save for the 4-cylinder LE which has these as part of the Convenience package. The moonroof is optional on the LE, SE, and LE-V6, while standard on the other Camry models.

There is a new Navigation package, which is built on top of SE V6 Leather and JBL package, including DVD-based navigation system with 7-inch LCD screen.

The Camry sold in the ASEANations is essentially a rebadged version of Toyota Aurion sold in Australia. However, the interior is carried over from the USDM/JDM Camrys, with some difference. The 2 liter variant of the engine based on the 1AZ-FE is a 2.0 L is also available. The output is 108 kW (147 PS; 145 hp) at 6000 rpm with 190 N·m (140 lb·ft) of torque at 4000 rpm.

In Malaysia, the 2.0 L models are available in two trim packages: the 2.0 E and 2.0 G. The 2.4 variant is also in Malaysia, utilizing the 2AZ-FE engine model. The output of this 2.4V model is 123 kW (167 PS; 165 hp) at 6000 rpm with 224 N·m (165 lb·ft) of torque at 4000 rpm. Toyota Camry LE V6 engine, CD DVD Players 5 tires and 3 drivers.

The Camry in the Philippines offers three grades: the base G, offering a l4 2.4 2AZ-FE engine producing 167 bhp (125 kW; 169 PS), mated to a 5-speed gate-type automatic transmission, has 2 SRS airbags, has fabric seats and has a foot-type parking brake. The 2.4 V is almost the same as the G variant, however, its has a 4-spoke steering wheel with wood grain, 2 SRS airbags, and has a leather-wrapped wood grain with chrome shift lever and knob. The 3.5 Q is the top-of-the-line segment, offering a 3.5 2GR-FE V6, 24V, DOHC and dual VVT-i. It is mated to a 6-speed gate-type automatic transmission, adaptive front lighting system, automatic rain sensor, dual exhaust tail pipe, tri-color/Optitron with multi-information display, 2 SRS front airbags, side SRS airbags, and a push start system. All of the variants has an integrated type / tuner/ in-dash 6 CD changer / MP3 / WMA. All of the variants also use a foot-type parking brake, and welcomes the driver whenever the ignition is set to "ON", displaying on the central console "Welcome to Camry". All of the variants has 4 front speakers and 2 rear speakers.

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European Car of the Year

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The European Car of the Year award was established in 1964 by a collective of automobile magazines from different countries in Europe. The current organisers of the award are Auto (Italy), Autocar (UK), Autopista (Spain), Autovisie (Netherlands), L'Automobile Magazine (France), Stern (Germany) and Vi Bilägare (Sweden).

The voting jury consists of motoring journalists from publications throughout Europe. Representation from each country is based on the size of the country's car market and car manufacturing industry. The jury for 2006 consisted of 58 members from 22 countries.

There are no categories or class winners — the stated objective is to find a "single, decisive winner" among all competing cars.

Eligible cars are new models released in the twelve months prior to the award. The award is not restricted to European cars, but nominees must be available in at least five European countries, and have expected sales of 5,000 a year.

Nominees are judged on the following criteria: design, comfort, safety, economy, handling, performance, functionality, environmental requirements, driver satisfaction, and price.

A shortlist of seven cars is selected by a simple vote. For the final round of voting, each jury member has 25 points to distribute among the finalists. The points must be distributed to at least five cars, with no more than ten to any one car, and no joint top marks. The voting is open, and each jury member provides published justification for their vote distribution.

Under these rules, the decisiveness of the victory has varied greatly. For example, in 2005, the Toyota Prius won by a clear 139 points, received maximum points from twelve jurors, and was the top choice of 37. The next year, the Renault Clio won by a mere 5 points, received maximum points from only one juror, and was the top choice of 11.

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Source : Wikipedia