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Posted by motoman 03/12/2009 @ 12:11

Tags : tsunami, earthquakes, earth sciences, sciences

News headlines
1946 tsunami survivor shares her story - AlaskaReport
Jeanne Branch Johnston's uncle Rod Mason took this photo of a tsunami wave that hit Hilo, Hawaii, on April 1, 1946. Photo by Rod Mason, courtesy of the Pacific Tsunami Museum. The residents of Hilo, on Hawaii's big island, were also unaware of the...
Taiwan's tsunami-survival plan - American Machinist
The Taiwanese refer to the current global manufacturing recession as an “economic tsunami,” one that could have devastating effects if preventative steps aren't taken. The country's concern is magnified because it is home to 450 machine tool builders...
The Fiscal Tsunami Grows - American Spectator
By Doug Bandow on 5.12.09 @ 5:27PM The red ink is truly frightening. Uncle Sam's fiscal situation continues to deteriorate. The deficit this year will run at least $1.8 trillion. The latest increase in the expected deficit dwarfs the president's...
Tsunami Dance hopes to spark a renaissance of ballet in New Orleans - The Times-Picayune - NOLA.com
Tsunami Dance Company's multimedia ballet features dance, short films and live music from Morella & the Wheels of If. This is the company's first full-length narrative ballet since Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans' Tsunami Dance Company will explore the...
Taiwan's tsunami-survival plan - American Machinist
The DMT-500 vertical multitasking traveling-column machining center from Dah Lih Machinery Industry Co. Ltd. does turning, milling and drilling on a vertical machine platform. The 5-axis machine includes a swiveling spindle head (B axis), rotary table...
Fears for stability as Pacific hit by economic tsunami - New Zealand Herald
By Greg Ansley The possibility of Fiji turning to China following sanctions by New Zealand and Australia has set alarm bells ringing. Photo / AP CANBERRA - Australia and New Zealand are bracing for more trouble in the region as the global economic...
Speedtest: Like surfing a tsunami - Long Island Business News
Think about it, your average Cablevision broadband plan connects you to the Internet at 15 Mbps, Verizon gives you 20 Mbps. Both are fast, and in the relatively same ballpark. But 50 Mbps is remarkably fast. Since coming to terms with only getting the...
Dr Carby: Risk from any Eastern Caribbean tsunami may be slight - Cayman Net News
According to British geologist Richard Teeuw, one side of the volcano called Morne aux Diables (Devil's Peak) shows signs that it might collapse sometime in the future, sending million tons of rock into the sea, causing a tsunami....
Tsunami response exercise to happen today - Times-Standard
The Department of Water Resources will be conducting a regional North Coast tsunami response exercise today, designed to test emergency plans, policies and procedures. Humboldt County is included in the eight-hour exercise beginning at 8:30 am,...
Tsunami monitor - The Engineer
Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has been awarded a contract by the Thai government to produce and deliver a sea-based system that can warn against the threat of a tsunami. The so-called Tsunami Buoy system will replace the current...


The tsunami that struck Thailand on December 26, 2004.

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (detonations of nuclear devices at sea), landslides, asteroid impacts, and other mass movements above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Due to the immense volumes of water and energy involved, the effects of tsunamis can be devastating.

The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunami to submarine quakes, but understanding of the nature of tsunami remained slim until the 20th century and is the subject of ongoing research.

Some meteorological storm conditions—deep depressions causing cyclones, hurricanes—can generate a storm surge which can be several metres above normal tide levels. This is due to the low atmospheric pressure within the centre of the depression. As these storm surges come ashore the surge can resemble a tsunami, inundating vast areas of land. These are not tsunami. Such a storm surge inundated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008.

The term 'tsunami' comes from the Japanese, meaning "harbor" (tsu, 津) and "wave" (nami, 波) —for the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese. Tsunami are common throughout Japanese history; approximately 195 events in Japan have been recorded.

Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. In recent years, this term has fallen out of favor, especially in the scientific community, because tsunami actually have nothing to do with tides. The once-popular term derives from their most common appearance, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunami and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving the impression of an incredibly high tide. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, and the term tsunami is no more accurate because tsunami are not limited to harbours, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers.

The only language other than Japanese that has a word for this disastrous wave is the Tamil language; the word is "Aazhi Peralai". The South Eastern coasts of India had experienced these waves some 700 years before, and they were a regular event by that time, as the stone carvings (scriptures in stone) read.

The Acehnese language word for tsunami is ië beuna or alôn buluëk (depending on the dialect), whereas in the Defayan language of Simeulue Regency, Indonesia, the word for tsunami is semong. The Sigulai language of Simeulue also has a word for tsunami: emong .

A tsunami can be generated when converging or destructive plate boundaries abruptly move and vertically displace the overlying water. It is very unlikely that they can form at divergent (constructive) or conservative plate boundaries. This is because constructive or conservative boundaries do not generally disturb the vertical displacement of the water column. Subduction zone related earthquakes generate the majority of all tsunamis.

Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 mm above the normal sea surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a "shoaling" process described below. A tsunami can occur at any state of the tide and even at low tide will still inundate coastal areas if the incoming waves surge high enough.

On April 1, 1946 a Magnitude 7.8 (Richter Scale) earthquake occurred near the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. It generated a tsunami which inundated Hilo on the island of Hawai'i with a 14 m high surge. The area where the earthquake occurred is where the Pacific Ocean floor is subducting (or being pushed downwards) under Alaska.

Examples of tsunami being generated at locations away from convergent boundaries include Storegga during the Neolithic era, Grand Banks 1929, Papua New Guinea 1998 (Tappin, 2001). In the case of the Grand Banks and Papua New Guinea tsunamis an earthquake caused sediments to become unstable and subsequently fail. These slumped and as they flowed down slope a tsunami was generated. These tsunami did not travel transoceanic distances.

It is not known what caused the Storegga sediments to fail. It may have been due to overloading of the sediments causing them to become unstable and they then failed solely as a result of being overloaded. It is also possible that an earthquake caused the sediments to become unstable and then fail. Another theory is that a release of gas hydrates (methane etc.,) caused the slump.

The "Great Chilean earthquake" (19:11 hrs UTC) May 22, 1960 (9.5 Mw), the March 27, 1964 "Good Friday earthquake" Alaska 1964 (9.2 Mw), and the "Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake" (00:58:53 UTC) December 26, 2004 (9.2 Mw), are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that generated a tsunami that was able to cross oceans. Smaller (4.2 Mw) earthquakes in Japan can trigger tsunami that can devastate nearby coasts within 15 minutes or less.

Tsunami caused by these mechanisms, unlike the trans-oceanic tsunami caused by some earthquakes, may dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines distant from the source due to the small area of sea affected. These events can give rise to much larger local shock waves (solitons), such as the landslide at the head of Lituya Bay 1958, which produced a wave with an initial surge estimated at 524 m. However, an extremely large gravitational landslide might generate a so called "mega-tsunami" that may have the ability to travel trans-oceanic distances. This though is strongly debated and there is no actual geological evidence to support this hypothesis.

While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has a wavelength of about 200 kilometres (120 mi). This wave travels at well over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph), but due to the enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 metre (3.3 ft). This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water. Their passage usually goes unnoticed by ships.

As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, the wave is compressed due to wave shoaling and its forward travel slows below 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph). Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously, producing a distinctly visible wave. Since the wave still has a wavelength on the order of several km (a few miles), the tsunami may take minutes to ramp up to full height, with victims seeing a massive deluge of rising ocean rather than a cataclysmic wall of water. Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steep breaking front.

There is often no advance warning of an approaching tsunami. However, since earthquakes are often a cause of tsunami, any earthquake occurring near a body of water may generate a tsunami if it occurs at shallow depth, is of moderate or high magnitude, and the water volume and depth is sufficient.

If the first part of a tsunami to reach land is a trough (draw back) rather than a crest of the wave, the water along the shoreline may recede dramatically, exposing areas that are normally always submerged. This can serve as an advance warning of the approaching tsunami which will rush in faster than it is possible to run. If a person is in a coastal area where the sea suddenly draws back (many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound), their only real chance of survival is to run for high ground or seek the high floors of high rise buildings. This occurred in Phuket Thailand, at Maikhao beach. Ten-year old Tilly Smith of Surrey, England, was on the beach with her parents and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, was able to warn her family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned others on the beach and the hotel staff minutes before the tsunami hit. Ms. Smith is credited with saving dozens of lives as a result of her recent geography lesson. She gave credit to her geography teacher, Mr. Andrew Kearney.

In the 2004 tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean drawback was not reported on the African coast or any other eastern coasts it inundated, when the tsunami approached from the east. This was because of the nature of the wave—it moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault line and upwards on the western side. It was the western pulse that inundated coastal areas of Africa and other western areas.

About 80% of all tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes. They may be caused by landslides, volcanic explosions, bolides and seismic activity.

Indian Ocean Tsunami According to an article in "Geographical" magazine (April 2008), the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004 was not the worst that the region could expect. Professor Costas Synolakis of the Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California co-authored a paper in "Geophysical Journal International" which suggests that a future tsunami in the Indian Ocean basin could affect locations such as Madagascar, Singapore, Somalia, Western Australia and many others. The Boxing Day tsunami killed over 300,000 people with many bodies either being lost to the sea or unidentified. Some unofficial estimates have claimed that approximately 1 million people may have died directly or indirectly solely as a result of the tsunami.

Hence for a water column of 5,000 m depth the overlying pressure is equal to or about 5.7 Million tonnes per metre square.

In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami wave is the trough, the sea will recede from the coast half of the wave's period before the wave's arrival. If the slope of the coastal seabed is shallow, this recession can exceed many hundreds of meters. People unaware of the danger may remain at or near the shore out of curiosity, or for collecting fish from the exposed seabed. During the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, the sea withdrew and many people then went onto the exposed sea bed to investigate. Pictures taken show people on the normally submerged areas with the advancing wave in the background. Most people who were on the beach were unable to escape to high ground and died.

Regions with a high risk of tsunami may use tsunami warning systems to detect tsunami and warn the general population before the wave reaches land. On the west coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami, warning signs advise people of evacuation routes.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning System is based in Honolulu. It monitors all sesimic activity that occurs anywhere within the Pacific. Based up the magnitude and other information a tsunami warning may be issued. It is important to note that the subduction zones around the Pacific are seismically active, but not all earthquakes generate tsunami and for this reason computers are used as a tool to assist in analysing the risk of tsunami generation of each and every earthquake that occurs in the Pacific Ocean and the adjoining land masses.

As a direct result of the Indian Ocean tsunami, a re-appraisal of the tsunami threat of all coastal areas is being undertaken by national governments and the United Nations Disaster Mitigation Committee. A tsunami warning system is currently being installed in the Indian Ocean.

Computer models can predict tsunami arrival—observations have shown that predicted arrival times are usually within minutes of the actual time. Bottom pressure sensors are able to relay information in real time and based upon the readings and other information about the seismic event that triggered it and the shape of the seafloor (bathymetry) and coastal land (topography), it is possible to estimate the amplitude and therefore the surge height, of the approaching tsunami. All the countries that border the Pacific Ocean collaborate in the Tsunami Warning System and most regularly practice evacuation and other procedures to prepare people for the inevitable tsunami. In Japan such preparation is a mandatory requirement of government, local authorities, emergency services and the population.

Some zoologists hypothesise that animals may have an ability to sense subsonic Rayleigh waves from an earthquake or a tsunami. Some animals seem to have the ability to detect natural phenomena and if correct, careful observation and monitoring could possibly provide advance warning of earthquakes, tsunami etc. However, the evidence is controversial and has not been proven scientifically. There are some unsubstantiated claims that animals before the Lisbon quake were restless and moved away from low lying areas to higher ground. Yet many other animals in the same areas drowned. The phenomenon was also noted by media sources in Sri Lanka in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. It is possible that certain animals (e.g., elephants) may have heard the sounds of the tsunami as it approached the coast. The elephants reaction was to move away from the approaching noise—inland. Some humans, on the other hand, went to the shore to investigate and many drowned as a result.

It is not possible to prevent a tsunami. However, in some tsunami-prone countries some earthquake engineering measures have been taken to reduce the damage caused on shore. Japan has implemented an extensive programme of building tsunami walls of up to 4.5 m (13.5 ft) high in front of populated coastal areas. Other localities have built floodgates and channels to redirect the water from incoming tsunami. However, their effectiveness has been questioned, as tsunami often surge higher than the barriers. For instance, the Okushiri, Hokkaidō tsunami which struck Okushiri Island of Hokkaidō within two to five minutes of the earthquake on July 12, 1993 created waves as much as 30 m (100 ft) tall—as high as a 10-story building. The port town of Aonae was completely surrounded by a tsunami wall, but the waves washed right over the wall and destroyed all the wood-framed structures in the area. The wall may have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami, but it did not prevent major destruction and loss of life.

The effects of a tsunami may be mitigated by natural factors such as tree cover on the shoreline. Some locations in the path of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami escaped almost unscathed as a result of the tsunami's energy being absorbed by trees such as coconut palms and mangroves. In one striking example, the village of Naluvedapathy in India's Tamil Nadu region suffered minimal damage and few deaths as the wave broke up on a forest of 80,244 trees planted along the shoreline in 2002 in a bid to enter the Guinness Book of Records. Environmentalists have suggested tree planting along stretches of seacoast which are prone to tsunami risks. It would take some years for the trees to grow to a useful size, but such plantations could offer a much cheaper and longer-lasting means of tsunami mitigation than the construction of artificial barriers.

Historically speaking, tsunami are not rare, with at least 25 tsunami occurring in the last century. Of these, many were recorded in the Asia–Pacific region—particularly Japan. The Boxing Day Tsunami in 2004 caused approximately 350,000 deaths and many more injuries.

The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen.

The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae 26.10.15-19) described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave, after the 365 A.D. tsunami devastated Alexandria.

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Tsunami warning system

Japanese TV warning of tsunamis, September 2004

A tsunami warning system (TWS) is a system to detect tsunamis and issue warnings to prevent loss of life and property. It consists of two equally important components: a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation of coastal areas.

There are two distinct types of tsunami warning systems – international and regional. Both depend on the fact that, while tsunamis travel at between 500 and 1,000 km/h (around 0.14 and 0.28 km/s) in open water, earthquakes can be detected almost at once as seismic waves travel with a typical speed of 4 km/s (around 14,400 km/h). This gives time for a possible tsunami forecast to be made and warnings to be issued to threatened areas, if warranted. Unfortunately, until a reliable model is able to predict which earthquakes will produce significant tsunamis, this approach will produce many more false alarms than verified warnings. In the currect operational paradigm, the seismic alerts are used to send out the watches and warnings. Then, data from observed sea level height (either shore-based tide gauges or DART buoys) are used to verify the existence of a tsunami. Other systems have been proposed to augment the warning paradigm. For example, it has been suggested that the duration and frequency content of t-wave energy (which is earthquake energy trapped in the ocean SOFAR channel) is indicative of an earthquakes tsunami potential. The first rudimentary system to alert communities of an impending tsunami was attempted in Hawaii in the 1920s. More advanced systems were developed in the wake of the April 1, 1946 (caused by the 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake) and May 23, 1960 (caused by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake) tsunamis which caused massive devastation in Hilo, Hawaii.

After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami which killed almost 230,000 people, a United Nations conference was held in January 2005 in Kobe, Japan, and decided that as an initial step towards an International Early Warning Programme, the UN should establish an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System.This then resulted in a system of warnings in Indonesia.This will also save the lives and the livelihood of the people.

The First United Session of the Inter-governmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected Seas (ICG/NEAMTWS), established by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO Assembly during its 23rd Session in June 2005, through Resolution XXIII.14, took place in Rome on 21 and 22 November, 2005. The Meeting, hosted by the Government of Italy (Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry for Environment and Protection of the Territory), was attended by more than 150 participants from 24 countries, 13 organizations and numerous observers.

A Caribbean wide tsunami warning system has been planned to be set up by 2010 by member nations representatives who met in Panama City in March 2008. Panama's last major tsunami killed 4,500 people in 1882.

Regional (or local) warning system centres use seismic data about nearby earthquakes to determine if there is a possible local threat of a tsunami. Such systems are capable of issuing warnings to the general public (via public address systems and sirens) in less than 15 minutes. Although the epicenter and moment magnitude of an underwater quake and the probable tsunami arrival times can be quickly calculated, it is almost always impossible to know whether underwater ground shifts have occurred which will result in tsunami waves. As a result, false alarms can occur with these systems, but due to the highly localised nature of these extremely quick warnings, disruption is small.

Detection and prediction of tsunamis is only half the work of the system. Of equal importance is the ability to warn the populations of the areas that will be affected. All tsunami warning systems feature multiple lines of communications (such as e-mail, fax, radio, and telex, often using hardened dedicated systems) enabling emergency messages to be sent to the emergency services and armed forces, as well to population alerting systems (e.g. sirens).

No system can protect against a very sudden tsunami. A devastating tsunami occurred off the coast of Hokkaidō in Japan as a result of an earthquake on July 12, 1993. As a result, 202 people on the small island of Okushiri, Hokkaido lost their lives, and hundreds more were missing or injured. This tsunami struck just three to five minutes after the quake, and most victims were caught while fleeing for higher ground and secure places after surviving the earthquake.

While there remains the potential for sudden devastation from a tsunami, warning systems can be effective. For example if there were a very large subduction zone earthquake (moment magnitude 9.0) off the west coast of the United States, people in Japan, for example, would have more than 12 hours (and likely warnings from warning systems in Hawaii and elsewhere) before any tsunami arrived, giving them some time to evacuate areas likely to be affected.

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Tsunami (album)

Tsunami is an album released in 1999. It contains ten tracks picked by Tsunami Tranceport, and was released under the Kinetic Label.

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Tsunami Bomb

Tsunami Bomb was a punk rock band from Petaluma, California that formed in 1998 and broke up in October 2005.

The band was started by bassist and songwriter Dominic Davi, who enlisted Kristin McRory as Tsunami Bomb's original female vocalist. Davi met McRory in late 1997, when she joined the band Headboard on female vocals.

Davi and McRory left Headboard in February 1998, and played their first show as Tsunami Bomb on June 26, 1998 at the Fatty Mocha in Merced, CA. The Tsunami Bomb song "Lemonade" was played at this first show, which Davi wrote in response to his feelings over leaving Headboard. "Lemonade" remained the most well-known Tsunami Bomb song and its most requested song in concert, however the band often refused to play the song in later years after their line-up had changed entirely from their membership at the time "Lemonade" was written.

Tsunami Bomb's original lineup consisted of 5 people, including a female keyboard player named Oobliette Sparks who also contributed vocals (and remained with the band until 2001). Gabriel Lindeman played drums for the band's first few shows, but he did not join the band full-time until 1999. Kristin McRory left Tsunami Bomb in late 1998, and Davi recruited Emily Whitehurst shortly thereafter (Emily's brother, Logan Whitehurst was Davi's roommate at the time). To add mystique and give her a more iconic presence, Dominic Davi and Emily Whitehurst created the moniker "Agent M." Whitehurst was credited as Agent M almost exclusively until the breakup of the band.

Tsunami Bomb maintained a grueling tour schedule for most of its existence. In 1999 they released two limited edition 7" singles: B-Movie Queens was a split with Emily Whitehurst and Brian Plink's former band Plinky; Mayhem On The High Seas was released on Checkmate Records which was owned by Hunter Burgan, bassist for AFI. In 2000 they signed to Tomato Head Records and released their first CD EP The Invasion from Within! In 2002 they signed with Kung Fu Records, and released their first full length album The Ultimate Escape. Tsunami Bomb would appear on the Warped Tour several times between 2001 and 2005. They have also toured Europe and Japan. Originally being booked by Dan Garcia at Royal Flush Booking, Tsunami Bomb had several tours including main support for the Vandals. In 2003, after a split with Royal Flush Booking and Dominic Davi, the band signed with the William Morris Agency, one of the largest and distinguished names in the business. Under the direction of Ron Opeleski, the band launched their most successful tours since their inception including a full US headlining tour which sold out venues such as the Metro in Chicago, two nights at Slim's in San Francisco, and three nights at the Troubadour in L.A. They also played main support for the Bouncing Souls on a world tour.

In 2003, a decision led to Tsunami Bomb's founding bassist and songwriter Dominic Davi leaving the group, leaving the band with no original members. The remaining band members cited "personality and creative conflicts." He would go on to form the musical group Love Equals Death on Fat Wreck Chords. He was replaced by Matt McKenzie. A year later, in 2004, Mike Griffen, their guitarist and songwriter since 2000, left the band and was replaced by Jay Northington. Controversy surrounded the split with Davi mainly due to comments in his personal Myspace page. "I still find the things they are doing completely deplorable... the cruel things they continue to do to me."Myspace 05.02.2004 Dominic went on to allege that Tsunami Bomb had stolen his bass amp in another personal blog. Also in 2003, they covered the popular Rocky Horror Picture Show song "Planet, Schmanet, Janet".

The title song from their first CD release, The Invasion from Within!, was used in Atlus USA's translation of the Nippon Ichi Software strategy RPG Disgaea: Hour of Darkness. Atlus also used the song Russian Roulette from the band's first full length album "The Ultimate Escape" in their collaboration with Spumco animation studios, a cartoon skateboarding game called Go! Go! Hypergrind.

Their last releases as a band included their final album as Tsunami Bomb entitled The Definitive Act which Sound Scanned over 33,000 copies and a live concert DVD entitled "Live at the Glasshouse" from the The Show Must Go Off! live music DVD series in 2005. Both were released on Kung Fu Records.

Emily Whitehurst and Matt McKenzie have gone on to form the musical group The Action Design, while Jay Northington and Gabriel Lindeman have gone on to form Nothington.

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Tsunami (Khoma album)

Tsunami is the debut album by Khoma. The album was limited to 1000 discs, but sold out quickly. A reprint was quickly sold out again. The album features songs that would be re-recorded on The Second Wave. At the time of the release, Khoma's official name was Koma. They later changed the name by adding an h to it, because of copyright issues.

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Tsunami (Marvel Comics)

Tsunami was a failed imprint of Marvel Comics founded in January 2003.

Marvel's goal was to create comic books that would appeal to manga readers. Other than in the art, the titles shared little in common, with, for example, Runaways and Sentinel being aimed at children and younger teenagers and Mystique touching on espionage and darker themes better suited for an older audience.

The results were a mixed bag. While New Mutants, Mystique, Runaways and Sentinel earned critical acclaim and a devoted fan following, Human Torch, Namor and Venom were complete flops, with the last surviving to issue 18 only on the back of exceptionally high initial sales.

The imprint was discontinued in late 2003. Mystique was the longest continuously-running survivor - lasting until issue 24 overall, although it was folded into the regular, mainstream Marvel Comics imprint and had a change of writer as part of the X-Men: ReLoad event after issue 13, while New Mutants, also part of ReLoad, was relaunched from issue 1 as New X-Men: Academy X at the same time. Venom and Runaways carried the imprint branding for the longest period, lasting until issue 18, after which Runaways was briefly cancelled before being relaunched as part of the Marvel Next initiative, while Venom was cancelled outright. The other series were cancelled with issue 12.

Since then, Runaways has received a boost from high Digest-sized trade paperback (TPB) sales, which was one of the reasons for its relaunch, while Sentinel was also revived, as a five-issue miniseries, for the same reason. However, Human Torch also received a single digest without signs of revival.

New Mutants received a single standard-size TPB, of its first six issues, as well as complete collections in the same format of its successor series, New X-Men: Academy X, which was revamped shortly after House of M as simply New X-Men. Mystique and Venom were fully collected as standard-size TPBs, but shows no sign of being revived.

Namor has not been collected, nor are there any reports of it being so in the remainder of 2006.

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Source : Wikipedia