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Posted by sonny 02/28/2009 @ 06:41

Tags : vermont, states, us

News headlines
University of Vermont budget fight lingers - Fox44 News
AP - May 13, 2009 7:05 AM ET BURLINGTON, Vt. (AP) - A group of faculty and students at the University of Vermont is continuing to protest a $10.8 million budget cut announced in February. David Shiman of the faculty union United Academics,...
Walker Motors loses Chrysler franchise - Barre Montpelier Times Argus
By STEPHANIE M. PETERS Rutland Herald Staff - Published: May 15, 2009 MONTPELIER – Chrysler's well-publicized financial woes have now put the squeeze on two Vermont dealerships, Walker Motors Inc. in Montpelier and Automobile International in North...
Education Secretary Visits Vermont - WCAX
Vermont is only the second state Duncan has visited as part of the tour but the Education Secretary says he's already hearing similar suggestions. "Basically our students are being outcompeted now and are at a disadvantage compared to students in other...
WCAX.COM Local Vermont News, Weather and Sports-Wild Crash Closes ... - WCAX
Entertainment News from AP A dramatic crash on Interstate 89 sent at least four people to the hospital Thursday. Police say a Green Mountain Transit Agency bus carrying passengers from Burlington to Montpelier hit several cars before ending up in the...
The fiercely proud Mad River Valley -- one of Vermont's most likeable regions -- manages to appeal to visitors while keeping it completely real. MUST DO Waitsfield and nearby Warren are charming enough, but they're not the main attraction around here...
#29 BARNARD, VERMONT - New York Post
Barnard has maintained the spirit of a quintessential Vermont village, yet there are no tourists hoping for a taste of quintessential Vermont. MUST DO The General Store is the center of action in Barnard, such as there ever is any action in Barnard,...
Long-ago pedestrianized and usually the site of a few interesting street performances (unicyclists, jugglers, you name it), the strip contains some of the city's best shopping and attracts a student-y crowd - the University of Vermont is nearby....
Vermont in center of bicycle pack - Brattleboro Reformer
By CHRIS GAROFOLO, Reformer Staff BRATTLEBORO -- A nationwide bicycling advocacy group has ranked Vermont as the 21st most bike-friendly state. The League of American Bicyclists, a 300000-member organization based in Washington, DC, dropped Vermont...
Vermont Veto Showdown - WCAX
Jim Douglas, R-Vermont. Even so, Governor Douglas put pressure on lawmakers saying they need to cut the budget deeper and bring it in line with what Vermonters can afford. "People come up to me and say hold your ground, don't give an inch,...
WCAX.COM Local Vermont News, Weather and Sports-Craigslist to Shut ... - WCAX
One incident was right here in Vermont. South Burlington police arrested 23-year-old Alexis Serrano last October after she met up with a client she found on Craigslist. Attorneys General from several states pressured the site to change its terms....

List of United States Senators from Vermont


Vermont was admitted to the Union on March 4, 1791. Its current United States Senators are Patrick Leahy and Bernie Sanders.

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United States congressional delegations from Vermont

These are tables of congressional delegations from Vermont to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.

Vermont used At-large seats.

Vermont restored the use of districts.

Since 1933, Vermont has had one at-large seat.

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The University of Vermont


The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, more commonly known as The University of Vermont, is a national public research university and the state of Vermont's land-grant university. Known to many as "UVM," an abbreviation of its Latin name Universitas Viridis Montis, the university has also been named a Public Ivy. UVM serves students from across the United States and more than 30 countries.

The university's 451-acre (1.83 km2) campus is located in Burlington, Vermont. Features of the UVM campus include the historic University Green district; the Dudley H. Davis Center, the first student center in the nation to receive U.S. Green Building Council LEED Gold certificaton; the Robert Hull Fleming Museum; and the Gutterson/Patrick athletic complex, home to UVM's Division I athletic teams and extensive recreational sports programs. The largest hospital complex in Vermont, Fletcher Allen Health Care, has its primary facility adjacent to the UVM campus and is affiliated with the UVM College of Medicine.

The University of Vermont was chartered as a private university in 1791, the same year Vermont became the 14th state in the union. In 1865, the university merged with Vermont Agricultural College (chartered November 22, 1864, after the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act), emerging as the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College. Today, the university blends the traditions of both a private and public university. UVM draws 17 percent of its general fund (approximately 10 percent of its current operating budget) from the state and Vermont residents make up 35 percent of enrollment; 65 percent of students come from other states and countries.

Much of the initial funding and planning for the university was undertaken by Ira Allen, who is honored as UVM's founder. Allen donated a 50-acre parcel of land for the University's establishment. Most of this land has been maintained as the university's main green, upon which stands a statue of Allen.

The citizens of Burlington helped fund the university's first edifice, and, when fire destroyed it in 1824, also paid for its replacement. This building came to be known as "Old Mill" for its resemblance to New England mills of the time. The Marquis de Lafayette, a French general who became a commander in the American Revolution, laid the cornerstone of Old Mill, which stands on University Row, along with Ira Allen Chapel, Billings Center, Williams Hall, Royall Tyler Theatre and Morrill Hall. A statue of Lafayette rests on the north end of the main green.

In addition, the university was an early advocate of both women's and African-Americans' participation in higher education. In 1871, UVM defied custom and admitted two women as students. Four years later, it was the first American university to admit women to full membership into Phi Beta Kappa, the country's oldest collegiate academic honor society. Likewise, in 1877, it initiated the first African-American into the society.

Justin Smith Morrill, a Representative (1855–1867) and Senator (1867–1898) from Vermont, author of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act that created federal funding for establishing the US Land-Grant colleges and universities, served as a trustee of the university from 1865-1898.

There are also regrettable, contrasting events in the university's history. Prior to 1970, UVM's winter carnival celebrations for many decades included a widely attended competition known as Kakewalk ("Walkin' fo' de cake"). The event involved males wearing bright suits and blackface performing athletic dance routines in imitation of Black minstrel shows. Greater awareness of and sensivity toward Black Americans promoted by the Civil Rights Movement led the University of Vermont to abolish Kakewalk in 1969. The University also was a leading center for eugenics in the early 1900s.

The University of Vermont comprises seven undergraduate schools, an honors college, a graduate college, and a college of medicine. The Honors College does not offer its own degrees; students in the Honors College concurrently enroll in one of the university's seven undergraduate colleges or schools.

Bachelors, masters, and doctoral programs are offered through the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Education and Social Services, the College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, the College of Medicine, the College of Nursing and Health Sciences, the Graduate College, the School of Business Administration, and The Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources.

The university's Division of Continuing Education offers certificate programs, a post-bac pre-medical series, credit courses for both degree and non-degree seeking students, and specialized training programs for businesses. Courses are presented in classroom, online, and/or interactive television formats.

The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) offers programs in animal science (early admission to Tufts School of Veterinary Medicine is available); biochemistry; biological science; community entrepreneurship; community and international development; dietetics, nutrition and food sciences; ecological agriculture; environmental science; environmental studies; microbiology; molecular genetics; plant biology; public communication; and sustainable landscape horticulture. The college is also home to the Center for Rural Studies.

As a land grant college, UVM receives an annual grant under the Cooperative extension service to provide agricultural research services to the state of Vermont.

The largest of UVM's schools and colleges, the College of Arts and Sciences offers 45 areas of study in the humanities, fine arts, social sciences, mathematics, natural and physical sciences.

UVM's School of Business Administration is accredited by the AACSB International and offers concentrations in accounting, entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, international management, management and the environment, management information systems, marketing, and production and operations management.

UVM's College of Education and Social Services offers teacher education, early childhood development and social work studies.

The College comprises the Department of Integrated Professional Services, Department of Education, Department of Social Work, and the Center for Disability and Community Inclusion. Studies leading to a masters degree or doctorate are offered.

In the College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (CEMS), the phrase "in service to humanity" has become the organizing principle for all programs of study: engineering, computer science and mathematics. Indeed, a sense of social relevance and social responsibility is pervasive throughout the College. The College is composed of vibrant departments and programs, all working together in an interdisciplinary manner.

The College has about 750 undergraduate students, 150 graduate students and 85 faculty members.

In 1804, John Pomeroy began teaching students in his house in Burlington, as the first medical department at a State College or University. In 1822, the College of Medicine was established as the seventh medical college in the United States, founded by Pomeroy and the medical educator Nathan Smith.

UVM enrolls approximately 100 medical students in each class; there are approximately 400 medical students total. Fletcher Allen Health Care is the primary clinical resource. Additional training takes place at Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine.

The UVM College of Medicine ranked 5th for overall quality in primary care training among the country’s top 125 medical schools according to U.S. News & World Report’s 2009 graduate school rankings.

The College of Nursing and Health Sciences at UVM comprises three departments: Nursing, the Medical Laboratory and Radiation Sciences, and Rehabilitation and Movement. Students in the college major in athletic training, exercise and movement sciences, medical laboratory science, nuclear medicine techonology, nursing, or radiation therapy, or they prepare to enter a doctor of physical therapy program.

The Honors College sponsors opportunities for students to participate in co-curricular programs and extracurricular activities — special symposia, dinners with visiting scholars, trips to museums and theaters in Montreal and Boston.

Faculty is selected from throughout the university to participate in the Honors College as lecturers in a first-year ethics course and advanced seminars, participants in reading groups, speakers at the Plenary Lecture Series, and mentors to honors students conducting research.

Through a required ethics course, small seminars, informal gatherings, and special research projects, students work alongside scholars from a section of the university's academic disciplines in the humanities, the sciences, engineering, nursing, medicine, education, business and more.

The Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources seeks to cultivate an appreciation and understanding of ecological and social processes and values aimed at maintaining the integrity of natural systems and achieving a sustainable human community in harmony with the natural environment.

In 2007, the university won a $6.7 million grant to research the pollution problems of Lake Champlain.

The University adopted a $251 million budget for the 2007-08 academic year or $21,643 per enrollee. In 2007, tuition revenue provided 63 percent of the general fund budget; state funds provided 17 percent; endowment, annual giving, income/expense activities and other sources made up 20 percent of the university's annual budget.

Undergraduate tuition for the 2008-09 academic year was set by the university's board of trustees at $11,048 for Vermont residents; $27,886 for out-of-state residents.

On December 17, 2008 it was announced by University president Daniel Mark Fogel that the University's projected budget shortfall for the 2010 fiscal year had grown from $22 million to $28 million and that the University would likely undergo layoffs and budget reductions to combat the University's mounting debt.

UVM offers 20 varsity sports. Women's teams include: basketball, cross-country, field hockey, ice hockey, lacrosse, skiing, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, track & field (indoor and outdoor). Men's teams include: baseball, basketball, cross-country, ice hockey, lacrosse, skiing, soccer, track & field (indoor and outdoor)] and the teams are known as the Catamounts. All teams compete at the NCAA Division I level. Most teams compete in the America East Conference. Men’s and women’s hockey teams compete in the Hockey East Association. The alpine and Nordic ski teams compete in the E.I.S.A. (Eastern Intercollegiate Ski Association).

UVM's varsity teams participate in the NCAA's Division I America East Conference and the Hockey East.

UVM’s athletic teams have won three straight America East Academic Cups (2005, 2006, 2007) for the best overall combined GPA among its student-athletes. UVM is the first school in the America East Conference to win three straight years and four times overall.

The UVM ski team has won six national championships and 31 EISA titles.. The team has had 52 individual national champions, over 273 All-Americans, and 66 US Ski Team members.

UVM’s men’s hockey team has produced 12 NHL players in its history. UVM alumni in the NHL include Torrey Mitchell ’07 (San Jose Sharks), Martin St. Louis ’97 (Tampa Bay Lightning), Eric Perrin ’97 (Atlanta Thrashers), Tim Thomas ’97 (Boston Bruins) and Aaron Miller ’93 (Vancouver Canucks). St. Louis, Perrin and former NHL all-star John LeClair ’91 won the Stanley Cup in their careers. St. Louis also won the Hart trophy as the NHL's most valuable player in 2004, along with winning the Art Ross trophy (most points), the Lester B. Pearson award (MVP as selected by the NHLPA) and the Bud Light Plus/Minus award.

The men’s and women’s basketball programs have produced over 20 professional players who have continued their careers overseas. Between 2003-2007 the men’s basketball team made five consecutive trips to the America East Championship game and won the title three straight years from 2003-2005. In 2005 the 13th seeded UVM Men's Basketball team defeated 4th seeded Big East Champion Syracuse University 60-57 in the opening round of the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament, their first ever win in the Big Dance.

In 2007, the UVM men’s soccer team won the America East Conference title.

Thirty-six former UVM athletes have competed in 16 Olympic Games (13 winter, 3 summer) and combined have won six Olympic medals.

UVM sponsors several club sports teams. The UVM crew team competes in the Head of the Charles Regatta and Dad Vail Regatta. The Cycling Team competes against other collegiate varsity teams. The UVM sailing team was competitively ranked 6th in the nation in 2008.

In Winter 2009, college president Dan Fogle announced that after the 2009 season, the UVM Baseball and Softball team would be cut in order to bridge a severe budget gap the college was facing. There was nothing mentioned about how long the teams would be cut for.

UVM's Lane Performing Arts Series and Music Department sponsor instrumental and choral performances featuring national and international performers throughout the year. The Robert Hull Fleming Museum hosts traveling exhibits and displays of the museum's extensive fine art and ethnographic collections. The Royall Tyler Theatre presents mainstage productions of varied themes, often featuring Equity actors along with student talent. The Vermont Mozart Festival concept evolved at UVM. Though it has been incorporated as a separate non-profit organization in 1976, its ties to UVM have remained.

Student clubs and organizations, totaling more than 100, span student interests and receive sponsorship from the Student Government Association. Clubs with longstanding history and the largest memberships include: Volunteers in Action, the UVM Outing Club, Ski & Snowboard Club.

UVM has a long history of student activism. There are many student organizations with focuses in social and environmental justice, attempting to make change both at UVM, as well as around the world.

The University of Vermont has an active environmental council, and the sustainability staff include a full-time environmental coordinator and a green building coordinator. In 2006, two students led a drive to change university policy so that all copier paper would be 100% recycled and chlorine–free. Recently, UVM started operating 2 new buses on compressed natural gas. Because of these innovative initiatives and others, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave the University of Vermont an “A-” on its College Sustainability Report Card 2008.

The university's debate team, has sent students abroad to promote cultural understanding. In 2007, students traveled to Slovenia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

The University’s Concert Bureau (a.k.a. SA Concerts) is responsible for bringing live musical entertainment to the UVM community. SA Concerts features acts from across the country as well as local bands. The SA funded club comprises an elected bureau of students who learn about the various aspects of the music industry by putting on shows and working with local sound and production professionals. Students are in charge of choosing and booking bands and are responsible for all production aspects on the day of show.

UVM’s Concert Bureau was established in 1971 and has brought in artists such as R.E.M., Phish (whose members attended UVM in the 1980s), Red Hot Chili Peppers, Sting, Lou Reed, Primus, String Cheese Incident, James Brown, Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers Band, Death Cab for Cutie, Jurassic 5, the Disco Biscuits, The Grateful Dead, Guster, and the The Flaming Lips.

Since 2001, SA Concerts has organized an annual festival known as SpringFest, held in April. SpringFest headliners have included Vida Blue, The Roots, Cake, Keller Williams, Gov't Mule, co-headliners Robert Randolph & the Family Band and Ziggy Marley, and in 2008, Talib Kweli. Other acts to perform at various SpringFests have included The Meditations, Toots & the Maytals, Soulive, Rjd2, Afroman and Apollo Sunshine.

The University of Vermont Greek Community is one of the oldest in the nation with the first fraternal organization starting in 1836. The 4 pillar values of the University of Vermont Greek Community are: citizenship, leadership, lifelong learning and friendship. The cornerstone value is social justice. The University of Vermont values its Greek Community for their strong commitment to collaboration and relationship building. Only a small percent of students at UVM join a Greek Life organization.

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Flag of Vermont

Vermont ( /vərˈmɒnt/ (help·info)) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd by land area, 9,250 square miles (24,000 km2), and 45th by total area. It has a population of 608,827, ranking 49th of all 50 states (surpassing only Wyoming). The only New England state with no coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, Vermont is notable for Lake Champlain (which makes up 50% of Vermont's western border) and the Green Mountains, which run north to south. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

Originally inhabited by Native American tribes (Abenaki and Iroquois), the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France but became a British possession after France's defeat in the French and Indian War. For many years, the surrounding colonies disputed control of the area, especially New Hampshire and New York. Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic, founded during the Revolutionary War and lasting for 14 years. In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the fourteenth state.

The state is noted for its scenery and dairy products. It is the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. The state capital is Montpelier, and the largest city and metropolitan area is Burlington. No other state has a largest city as small as Burlington.

Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles (24,902 km²), making it the 45th-largest state. Of this, land makes up 9,250 square miles (23,955 km²) and water comprises 365 square miles (948 km²), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti.

The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern (New Hampshire) border of the state (the river itself is part of New Hampshire). Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (256 km) long. Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143 km) at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is 37 miles (60 km) at the Massachusetts line. The state's geographic center is Washington, three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury.

The origin of the name Green Mountains (French: Les verts monts) is uncertain. Some authorities say that they are so named because they have much more forestation than the higher White Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say that the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the reason. The Green Mountain range forms a north-south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen.

Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems. These include Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak. About 77% of the state is covered by forest; the rest is covered in meadow, uplands, lakes, ponds, and swampy wetlands.

Areas in Vermont administered by the National Park Service include the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (in Woodstock) and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such.

Vermont has a continental moist climate, with warm, humid summers and cold winters that are colder at higher elevations. It has a Koppen climate classification of Dfb, similar to Minsk, Stockholm, and Fargo. Vermont is known for its mud season in spring, followed by a generally mild early summer, hot Augusts, a colorful autumn, and, in particular—its cold winters. The northern part of the state, including the rural northeastern section (dubbed the "Northeast Kingdom"), is known for exceptionally cold winters, often averaging 10°F (5.56°C) colder than the southern areas of the state. Annual snowfall averages between 60 inches (152 cm) to 100 inches (254 cm) depending on elevation, resulting in a number of cross-country and downhill ski areas. The annual mean temperature for the state is 43 °F (6 °C).

In the autumn, Vermont's hills display red, orange, and gold foliage displayed on the sugar maple as cold weather approaches. This display of color is not due so much to the presence of a particular variant of the sugar maple; rather, it is caused by a number of soil and climate conditions unique to the area.

The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at Vernon, on July 4, 1911; the lowest recorded temperature was -50 °F (-46 °C), at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933. This is the lowest temperature recorded in New England.

The agricultural growing season ranges from 120–180 days.

There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Categorized by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, and the Vermont Piedmont.

Between 8500 to 7000 BC, at the time of the Champlain Sea, Native Americans inhabited and hunted in Vermont. During the Archaic period, from the 8th millennium BC to 1000 BC, Native Americans migrated year-round. During the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to AD 1600, villages and trade networks were established, and ceramic and bow and arrow technology was developed. In pre-Columbian Vermont, the western part of the state was originally home to a small population of Algonquian-speaking tribes, including the Mohican and Abenaki peoples. Sometime between 1500 and 1600, the Iroquois drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting ground and warring with the remaining Abenaki. The population in 1500 was estimated to be around 10,000 people.

The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been Jacques Cartier, in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain claimed Vermont as part of New France, and erected a fort which was the first European settlement in Vermont.

In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point 8 miles (13 km) west of present-day Addison).

The first permanent British settlement was established in 1724, with the construction of Fort Dummer protecting the nearby settlements of Dummerston and Brattleboro.

From 1731-4, the French constructed a fort which gave the French control of the New France/Vermont border region in the Lake Champlain Valley.

The British failed to take the Fort St. Frédéric four times between 1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffrey Amherst captured the fort. The French were driven out of the area.

Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, the 1763 Treaty of Paris gave control of the land to the British.

The end of the war brought new settlers to Vermont. Ultimately, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all contended for this frontier area.

On 1764-07-20, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of the parallel of 45 Degrees north latitude. When New York refused to recognize land titles through the New Hampshire Grants (towns created earlier by New Hampshire in present Vermont), dissatisfied colonists organized in opposition, which led to the creation of independent Vermont on 1777-01-18.

In 1770, Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and Seth Warner recruited an informal militia, the Green Mountain Boys, to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against the new migrants from New York.

On January 18, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants declared the independence of the Vermont. For the first six months of the state's existence, the state was called New Connecticut.

On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met to adopt the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly Pennsylvanian who wrote them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent United States as the 14th state. On July 4, the Constitution of Vermont was drafted at the Windsor Tavern adopted by the delegates on July 8. This was among the first written constitutions in North America and was indisputably the first to abolish the institution of slavery, provide for universal manhood suffrage and require support of public schools.

The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the state of Vermont.

A combined American forces, under General Stark's command, attacked the British column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from Bennington and killed or captured virtually the entire British detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga, New York, on October 17.

The Battles of Bennington and Saratoga are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a British army. The anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday .

Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern town of Windsor for fourteen years. The independent state of Vermont issued its own coinage from 1785-1788 and operated a statewide postal service. Thomas Chittenden was the Governor in 1778-1789 and in 1790-1791. The state exchanged ambassadors with France, the Netherlands, and the American government then at Philadelphia. In 1791, Vermont joined the Federal union as the fourteenth state–the first state to enter the Union after the original thirteen colonies.

Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836.

The mid-1850s onwards saw a transition from Vermonters mostly favoring slavery's containment, to a far more serious opposition to the institution, producing the Radical Republican and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. While the Whig Party shriveled, and the Republican Party emerged, Vermont strongly trended in support of its candidates. In 1860 it voted for President Abraham Lincoln, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state.

During the American Civil War, Vermont sent more than 34,000 men into United States service. Almost 5,200 Vermonters, 15%, were killed or mortally wounded in action or died of disease.

The northernmost land action of the war, the St. Albans Raid, took place in Vermont.

The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage and were first allowed to vote in town elections, and then in state legislative races.

Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 85 people died, 84 of them in Vermont. Another flood occurred in 1973, when the flood caused the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage.

In 1964, the US Supreme Court forced “one-man, one-vote” redistricting on Vermont, giving cities an equitable share of votes in both houses for the entire country. Until that time, counties were often represented by area in state senates and were often unsympathetic to urban problems requiring increased taxes.

The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington County, in the town of Warren.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2005, Vermont has an estimated population of 623,050, which is an increase of 1,817, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 14,223, or 2.3%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 7,148 people (that is 33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 4,359 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 3,530 people.

It is the least populous state in New England. In 2006, it has the second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women. The median age of the work force was 42.3, the highest in the nation.

Residents of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout most of Vermont. The northern part of the state maintains a significant percentage of people of French-Canadian ancestry. Some vestiges of a Vermont accent are heard but the population has become more homogenized around American standard English in recent years.

In the last two decades, the Burlington area has welcomed the resettlement of several refugee communities. These include individuals and families from South East Asia, Bosnia, Sudan, Somalia, Burundi and Tibet. These communities have grown to include non-refugees and in some cases are several generations in the making.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 2.54% of the population aged 5 and over speak French at home, while 1.00% speak Spanish .

In colonial times, like many of its neighboring states, Vermont's largest religious affiliation was Congregationalism. In 1776, 63% of affiliated church members in Vermont were Congregationalists. At that time, however, only 9% of people belonged to a specific church due to the remoteness of population centers. The Congregational United Church of Christ remains the largest Protestant denomination and Vermont has the largest percentage of this denomination of any state.

Today more than two-thirds of Vermont residents identify themselves as Christians. This number includes a body of Christian Lebanese stoneworkers. The largest single religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church. According to the ARDA the Catholic Church had 147,918 members in 2000.

Twenty-four percent of Vermonters attend church regularly. This low is matched only by New Hampshire.

Over one-fifth of Vermonters identify themselves as non-religious, tying Vermont with Oregon as having the second-highest percentage of non-religious people in the United States. Only Washington State has a higher percentage. A survey suggests that people in Vermont and New Hampshire are less likely to attend weekly services and are less likely to believe in God (54%) than people in the rest of the nation (71%). The two states are at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. About 23% percent of the respondents attend religious service at least once a week (39% nationally). Thirty-six percent said religion is very important to them (56% nationally).

Almost one-third of Vermonters are self-identified Protestants. The largest Protestant denomination in the state is the United Church of Christ with 21,597, and the second largest is the United Methodist Church with 19,000 members; followed by Episcopalians, "other" Christians, and Baptists.

Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young—the first two leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—were both born in Vermont. Adherents to the Mormon faith, however, do not make up a single percentage point of Vermont's population. A memorial to Joseph Smith, at his birthplace in Sharon, is maintained by the LDS.

The state has 5,000 people of Jewish faith - 3,000 in Burlington and 500 each in Montpelier-Barre and Rutland—and four Reform and two Conservative congregations.

Vermont may have the highest concentration of western-convert Buddhists in the country. It is home to several Buddhist retreat centers.

Other religions include The Society of Friends, Shinto, Wicca, Islam, and Paganism.

In 2007, Vermont was ranked 32nd among states in which to do business. It was 30th the previous year.

According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Vermont’s gross state product (GSP) was $23 billion. This places the state 50th among the 50 states. It stood 38th in per capita GSP. The per capita personal income was $32,770 in 2004.

Canada was Vermont's number one external trading partner in 2007, followed by Taiwan. The state had $4 billion worth of commerce with Quebec.

One measure of economic activity is retail sales. The state had $5.2 billion in 2007.

In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in Vermont, a decline of 500 from 2007.

The median household income from 2002-2004 was $45,692. This was 15th nationally.

About 80% of the 68,000 Vermonters who qualify for food stamps, actually received them in 2007.

In the quarter ending September 2008, the state had the lowest credit card delinquency rate in the country, 0.70%.

While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318 in 2004, to 8,120 (2005), 6,919 (2006) and 5,820 (2007), the average price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in 2007).

In the quarter ending September 2008, the state had the fourth lowest mortgage payment delinquency rate in the country, 1.8%.

Agriculture contributes $2.6 billion, about 12%, directly and indirectly to the state's economy.

Over the past two centuries logging has fallen off as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less attractive. Loss of farms has had the beneficial effect of allowing Vermont's land and forest to recover. The accompanying lack of industry has allowed Vermont to avoid many of the ill-effects of 20th century industrial busts, effects that still plague neighboring states. Today, most of Vermont's forests consist of second-growth.

Of the remaining industries, dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income.

In the last half of the twentieth century, developers have had plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's government has responded with a series of laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry.

In 1947 there were 11,206 dairy farms in the state. In 2003 there were fewer than 1,500, a decline of 80%. The number of cattle had declined by 40%. However, milk production had doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow. In 2007, there were 1,087 farms left, down from 1,138 in 2006. While milk production rose, Vermont's market share declined. Within a group of states supplying the Boston-NYC market, Vermont was third with a 10.6% share of the market. in 2007, there were 1,050 dairy farms remaining. The number has been diminishing by 10% annually. In 2007, dairy farmers received a record $23.60 for 100 pounds (45 kg) of milk. This dropped in 2008 to $17. The average dairy farm produced 1.3 million pounds of milk annually in 2008.

A significant amount of milk is shipped into the Boston market. Therefore the Commonwealth of Massachusetts certifies that Vermont farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the bulk market.

An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the state manages and defends. Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream.

In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about one-quarter of U.S. production. For 2005 that number was 410,000 accounting for 37% of national production.

In 2000, only 3% of the state's working population was still engaged in agriculture.

Wine industry started in Vermont in 1985. There are 14 wineries today.

IBM, in Essex Junction, is Vermont's largest for-profit employer. It provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont. In 2007 it employed 6,800 workers. It is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy.

An increasingly aging population is expected to improve this industry's position in the state economy. In 2008, Fletcher Allen Health Care was the second highest employer of people in the state.

In 2007 Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a mortgage.

Housing prices did not rise that much during the early 2000s. As a result, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either. While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood 50th (last,best) in ratio of foreclosure filings to households. While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to 2008, prices continued to rise.

In 2007, Vermont was best in the country for construction of new energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency‎ under the Energy Star program. However, about 60% of Vermont homes heated with oil in 2008. In August 2008, the cost in Vermont of various heating sources per 1 million BTU ranged from $14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene.

As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11% of these are unionized. A 2007 survey claimed that Vermonters were the least satisfied with their job in the nation and were the most likely to be making plans to leave.

A modern high unemployment rate of 9% was reached in June 1976. A modern low of 2.2% was measured in March 2002.

Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2004 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.

Tourism is a large industry in the state. In winter, the ski resorts Stowe, Smugglers' Notch, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount Snow and Bromley host skiers from around the globe, although their largest markets are the Boston, Montreal and New York metropolitan areas. In the summer, resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, Quechee, Wilmington and Woodstock host visitors. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round.

Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing draw outdoor enthusiasts to the state, as does the hiking on the Long Trail. In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail. Several horse shows are annual events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.

In 2005, visitors made an estimated 13,4 million trips to the state, spending $1.57 billion.

The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset. Up the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across from Chimney Point until it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs west past Barre, home of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest granite quarry in America. Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country. Production of dimension stone is the greatest producer of revenues by quarrying.

In 2007 Vermont stood 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average was $3,447. However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306.

In 2007, Vermont counties were among the highest in the country for property taxes. Chittenden ($3,809 median), Windham ($3,412), Addison ($3,352), and Windsor ($3,327) ranked in the top 100, out of 1,817 counties in the nation with populations greater than 20,000. Twelve of the state's 14 counties stood in the top 20%.

Vermont collects personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%.

Vermont's general sales tax rate is 6%, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts (some towns and cities impose an additional 1% Local Option Tax). There are 46 exemptions from the tax which include medical items, food, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays the use tax when the sellers fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax. Property taxes are imposed for the support of education and municipal services.

Vermont does not assess tax on intangible personal property. Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes; however, its estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws and therefore the state still imposes its own estate tax.

Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement and yet Vermont has had a balanced budget every year since 1991. In 2007, Moody's Investors Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.

There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in Vermont in 2008, with $2.8 billion in revenue.

Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont. The Ethan Allen Express serves Rutland and Fair Haven, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls and Brattleboro.

For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont.

The state has 2,843 miles (4,575 km) of highways under its control.

A 2005-6 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of 13 places since 2004-5.

Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006. In 2007 Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in the country.

Greyhound Bus Lines stops at Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, and White River Junction.

Vermont has the highest rate of nuclear generated power in the nation, 73.7%. As one result, Vermont is one of only two states with no coal-fired power plant.

Another source says that the state gets 1/3 of its power from Hydro Quebec and 1/3 from Vermont Yankee.

Vermont experts estimated that the state has the capacity to ultimately generate from 134 to 175 megawatts of electricity from hydro power.

In 2006, the total summer generating capacity of Vermont was 1,117 megawatts. In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average of 5,883 Kilowatt hours of electriciy per capita.

While Vermont pays the lowest rates in New England for power, it is still ranks among the highest 11 states in the nation; that is, about 16% higher than the national average.

All Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New England. Each utility pays a share of transmitting power over these lines. Vermont's share is about 4.5%.

Cell phone coverage in the state, generally, outside of the major metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains, the attempt to serve a small rural population living in a large area rendering investment in improvements uneconomical, and environmentalists' opposition to towers. Unicel, focusing on rural areas, formerly covered much of the state and is now owned by AT&T.

In May 2007, Vermont passed measures intended to make broadband (3 mbits minimum) together with cellular coverage universally available to all citizens with the intention of having the first e-state in the Union by 2010.

In 2008 Comcast started to extend additional cable access throughout the state. In 2007, 2/3 of all Vermonters had access to cable. At the end of this 2008 initiative, 90% of Vermonters will have access.

Vermont is federally represented in the United States Congress by two senators and one representative.

The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the Vermont General Assembly, the Governor of Vermont and the Vermont Supreme Court. The governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms including the governor and 30 senators. There are no term limits for any office. The state capital is in Montpelier.

There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont: towns, cities, and villages. Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as County and State Courts, with several elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff. All county services are directly funded by the State of Vermont. The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.

An in-depth evaluation of government ranked Vermont high compared to other states. It ranked highest in "small discrete issues and huge global ones." It performed poorly in the issues in-between and planning for the future.

Vermonters have been known for their political independence. Vermont is one of four states that were once independent (the others being Texas, California, and Hawaii). It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party, and Vermont was one of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his presidential campaigns (the other was Maine).

Vermont's unique history and history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession. In 2007, about 13% of Vermont's population supported Vermont's withdrawal from the Union. The percentage who supported this in 2005 was 8%.

Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably Republican states in the country in terms of national elections. Prior to the 1990s, Vermont had voted Democratic only once, in Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory of 1964 against Barry Goldwater. In the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, Republican presidential candidates frequently won the state with over 70% of the vote. Republicans also dominated local Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.

In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state. Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in Vermont. In addition, a series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States Supreme Court in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative districts to more fairly reflect population. As a result, urban areas in Vermont began to regain some political power.

These developments as well as the movement of the national GOP more towards the political right shifted Vermont in favor of the Democratic Party. In 1992, it supported Democrat Bill Clinton for president, the first time the state had done so since 1964, and has voted Democratic in every presidential election since. Vermont gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush, taking almost 59% of the vote. Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush. Vermont is the only state that did not receive a visit from George W. Bush when he was President of the United States. Vermont gave Barack Obama his third largest winning margin (37 percentage points) winning there 68%-31%. On the other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election.

Today, Vermont is one of only two states represented by a member of the United States Congress who does not currently associate with a political party: Senator Bernie Sanders describes his political views as democratic socialism, but is officially registered as an independent and caucuses with the Democrats in the selection of the Senate leadership.

After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the 1960s, it passed legislation to accommodate the new arrivals to the state. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities. As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are now four in the state, as of December 2008, but only the Williston store was new construction).

Another case involves the recent controversy over the adoption of civil unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage. In Baker v. Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean.

In 2007, when confronted with an allegedly liberal issue, assisted suicide for the terminally ill, the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives rejected the measure by a vote of 82-63.

Minor parties flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections.

A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.

A movement favors separating Vermont from the U.S. or making it the 11th province of Canada. Some suggest the state should join Canada due to its liberal policies as opposed to remaining with the U.S.

The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. That is trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically assumed.

Property taxes are levied by towns based on fair market appraisal. Rates vary from .97% on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72% on nonresidents property in Barre City. Statewide towns average 1.77% to 1.82% tax rate. To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support.

The state is an alcoholic beverage control state. In 2007, through the Vermont Department of Liquor Control, it took in over $14 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.

Money from state lotteries supply 2% of the annual expenditures for education. Prior to 1998, profits from the lottery went to the state government's general fund but since then all profits are required to be spent on education.

In 2008 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. The state scored well in cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer occupational fatalities, prevalence of health insurance, and low infant mortality. A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking.

In 2008, Vermont was ranked number four in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria. Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit or license is not required for the purchase or concealed carry of a firearm (including handguns) by any law-abiding person.

In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states.

In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities. In 2007, a third of fatal crashes involved a drunken driver. In 2008, Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest uninsured motorists - 6%.

Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas on 28 occasions from 1963 to 2008.

In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts of smog per billion which is undesirable.

In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in urban areas. Residents are aware of the potential danger and no one has been injured in rare chance encounters. They constitute a traffic threat since they are unaware of vehicles. There are several deaths each year from automobiles striking moose.

In 2008, about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the federal government, Medicare, Tri-Care and the Veteran's Administration. An additional 10,000 work for employers who provide insurance under federal law under ERISA. About 20% of Vermonters receive health care outside of Vermont. 20% of the care provided within the state is to non-Vermonters. In 2008, the state had an estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005. In 2008, the Vermont Health Access Program for low-income, uninsured adults cost from $7 to $49 per month. A "Catamount Health" premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who don't qualify for other programs. Total monthly premiums ranged from $60 to $393 for an individual. There was a $250 deductible. Insured paid $10 toward each generic prescription. 16.9% of residents 18 to 35 were uninsured, the highest group.

In March 2008, The American State Litter Scorecard, presented at the American Society for Public Administration national conference, rated Vermont along with Minnesota a topmost Best state for overall litter/debris removals from public properties (roadways, streams, trails), resulting in a high environmental quality status for landscapes .

Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average. This puts Vermont 11th best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias. However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US Government list of test scores shows Vermont white fourth graders performed 25th in the nation for reading (229), 26th for math (247). White eight graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th for reading (273). The first three scores were not considered statistically significant from average. White eighth graders scored significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black students were not comparable because of their small representation in the testing.

The average effective spending per pupil in Vermont was $11,548 in 2008.

Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing. Today Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, UVM, fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Bennington College, Burlington College, Champlain College, Goddard College, Marlboro College, Middlebury College, a private, co-educational liberal arts college founded in 1800, Saint Michael's College, the Vermont Law School, and Norwich University, the oldest private military college in the United States and birthplace of ROTC, founded in 1819.

The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, a single-A minor league baseball affiliate of the Washington Nationals, based in Burlington. They were named the Vermont Expos prior to 2006.

The Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 and 2008 American Basketball Association national champions, are a franchise of the Premier Basketball League, and have been based in Barre and Burlington since the fall of 2006.

Vermont is home to a semi-professional football team, the Vermont Ice Storm, based in South Hero. It plays its home games at the Colchester High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League.

The Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development League soccer club that plays in St. Albans.

Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.

Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green, the Enosburg Falls Dairy Festival, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Vermont Mozart Festival. The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area. The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a literary magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore which encourages submissions from members of various ages. Every year they hold various contests - one being for high school age young people. The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. Montpelier is home to the annual Green Mountain Film Festival.

In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.

One of Vermont's best known musical exports was the group Phish, whose members met while attending school in Vermont and played its final concert in the state.

The rate of volunteerism in Vermont was 8th in the nation with 37% in 2007. The state stood first in New England.

Vermont is distinct for being among only three U.S. states with both a state seal and a coat of arms. Vermont is the only U.S. state to have a heraldically correct blazon describing its coat of arms.

Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur.

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Miss Vermont Teen USA

The Miss Vermont Teen USA competition is the pageant that selects the representative for the state of Vermont in the Miss Teen USA pageant.

Vermont is one of the least successful states at Miss Teen USA, having only placed twice. Their most successful year was 1993, when Charlotte Lopez won the Miss Teen USA crown.

Two Vermont teens have won the Miss Vermont USA title and competed at Miss USA.

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Source : Wikipedia