Video Games

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Posted by motoman 04/20/2009 @ 10:09

Tags : video games, entertainment

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Role-playing game (video games)

Rpg video game.svg

A role-playing video game (RPG) is a computer or video game where the player controls one or several characters, and achieves victory by completing a series of quests. A key feature of the genre is that characters grow in power and abilities, and characters are typically designed by the player. Players explore a game world, while solving puzzles and engaging in tactical combat.

These games usually have a highly developed story and setting, which is divided into a number of quests. Players control one or several characters by issuing commands, which is performed by the character at an effectiveness determined by that character's numeric attributes. These attributes increase each time a character gains a level, and a character's level goes up each time the player accumulates a certain amount of experience.

Role-playing video games borrow their genre terminology, settings and game mechanics found in early role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons. However, computers do not yet have the power to simulate nonplayer characters with the skill of a human game master. Thus, role-playing video games borrow more of the core mechanics from early role-playing games without as much of the role-playing activity and character freedom.

A role-playing game is a computer or video game where the player controls one or several characters, and achieves victory by completing a series of quests. A key feature of the genre is that characters grow in power and abilities, and characters are typically designed by the player. Players explore a game world, while solving puzzles and engaging in tactical combat. RPGs rarely challenge a player's physical coordination, with the exception of action role-playing games.

Unlike action games, RPGs seldom test a player's physical skill. Combat is typically a tactical challenge rather than a physical one, and games involve other non-action gameplay such as choosing dialog options, inventory management, or buying and selling items.

Although RPGs share some combat rules with wargames, RPGs are about a small group of individual characters. Wargames tend to have large groups of identical units, as well as non-humanoid units such as tanks and airplanes. Role-playing games don't normally allow the player to produce more units. However, the Heroes of Might and Magic series crosses these genres by combining individual heros with large amounts of troops in large battles.

RPGs rival adventure games in terms of their rich storylines, in contrast to genres that do not rely upon storytelling such as sports games or puzzle games. Both genres also feature highly detailed characters, and a great deal of exploration. However, adventure games usually have a well-defined character, whereas RPGs allow the player to design their characters. Adventure games usually focus on one character, whereas RPGs often feature an entire party. RPGs also feature a combat system, which adventure games usually lack. Whereas adventure games may focus on the personal or psychological growth of characters, RPGs emphasize a complex eternal economy where characters are defined by increasing numerical attributes. Arguably, role-playing games such as the Final Fantasy series could be considered a hybrid of RPG and adventure game, because of their vivid stories and highly personal characters.

Gameplay elements strongly associated with this genre, such as statistical character development, have been widely adapted to other video game genres. For example, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, an action game, uses resource statistics (abbreviated as "stats") to define a wide range of attributes including stamina, weapon proficiency, driving, lung capacity, and muscle tone, and uses numerous cutscenes and quests to advance the story. Warcraft III, a real-time strategy game, features heroes that can complete quests, obtain new equipment, and "learn" new abilities as they advance in level.

The premise of most-roleplaying games tasks the player with saving the world, or whichever level of society is threatened. There are often twists and turns as the story progresses, such as the surprise appearance of estranged relatives, or enemies who become friends or vice versa. The game world tends to be set in a fantasy or science fiction universe, which allows players to do things they cannot do in real life and helps players suspend their disbelief about the rapid character growth. To a lesser extent, settings closer to the present day or near future are possible.

A strong story often provides half the entertainment in the game. Because these games have strong storylines, they can often make effective use of recorded dialog and voiceover narration. Players of these games tend to appreciate long cut scenes more than players of faster action games. While most games advance the plot when the player defeats an enemy or completes a level, role-playing games often progress the plot based on other important decisions. For example, a player may make the decision to join a guild, thus triggering a progression in the storyline that is usually irreversible. New elements in the story may also be triggered by mere arrival in an area, rather than completing a specific challenge. The plot is usually divided so that each game location is an opportunity to reveal a new chapter in the story.

Whereas non-electronic role-playing games have a human gamemaster who can dynamically react to a player's choices, role-playing video games are confined to a smaller set of actions and do not yet have the power to simulate nonplayer characters with the skill of a human game master. Thus, role-playing video games borrow more of the core mechanics from such games without as much of the role-playing activity. Characterization in video games is limited to conversations with non-player characters using a dialog tree, although multiplayeronline role-playing games are a notable exception where more role-play is possible. Saying the right things to the right non-player characters will elicit useful information for the player, and may even result in other rewards such as experience.

Exploring the world is an important aspect of all RPGs. Players will walk through, talking to non-player characters, picking up objects, and avoiding traps. Some games such as NetHack or Diablo randomize the structure of individual levels, increasing the game's variety and replayability. Role-playing games where players complete quests by exploring randomly-generated dungeons are sometimes called roguelikes, named after the 1980 computer game Rogue.

The game's story is often mapped onto exploration, where each chapter of the story is mapped onto a different location. Unlike other linear games, RPGs usually allow players to return to previously visited locations. Usually, there is nothing left to do there, although some locations change throughout the story and offer the player new things to do in response. Players must acquire enough power to overcome a major challenge in order to progress to the next area, and this structure can be compared to the boss characters at the end of levels in action games.

Whereas the player must complete a linear sequence of specific quests to complete the game, RPGs often allow the player to seek out optional side-quests. These quests are typically found by talking to a non-player character, and there is no penalty for abandoning or ignoring these quests other than a missed opportunity. There is usually a reward for completing a side-quest, although quests in some games such as Arcanum or Geneforge can limit or enable certain choices later in the game. Quests may involve defeating one or many enemies, rescuing a non-player character, item fetch quests, or locational puzzles such as mysteriously locked doors.

Players can find loot throughout the game world and collect it, such as clothing, weapons, and armor. Players can trade items for gold and better requirement. Trade takes place in a specialized trading while interacting with certain friendly non-player characters, such as shopkeepers. Purchased items go into the player's inventory. Some games turn inventory management into a logistical challenge by limiting the size of the player's inventory, thus forcing the player to decide what they must carry at the time. This can be done by limiting the maximum weight that a player can carry, or by employing a system of arranging items in a virtual space.

Most of the actions in an RPG are performed indirectly, with the player selecting an action and the character performing it by their own accord. Success at that action depends on the character's numeric attributes. Role-playing video games often simulate die-rolling mechanics from non-electronic role-playing games, to determine success or failure. As a character's attributes improve, their chances of succeding at a particular action will increase.

Many role-playing games allow players to play as an evil character. Although robbing and murdering indiscriminately may make it easier to get money, there are usually consequences in that other characters will become uncooperative or even hostile towards the player. Thus, these games allow players to make moral choices, but forces players to live with the consequences of their actions. Games often let the player control an entire party of characters. However, if winning is contingent upon the survival of a single character, then that character effectively becomes the player's avatar.

Although some single-player role-playing games give the player an avatar that is largely predefined for the sake of telling a specific story, many role-playing games make use of a character creation screen. This allows players to choose their character's sex, their race or species, and their character class. Although many of theses traits are cosmetic, there are functional aspects as well. Character classes will have different abilities and strengths. Common classes include fighters, spellcasters, thieves with stealth abilities, and clerics with healing abilities. Characters will also have a range of physical attributes such as dexterity and strength, which affect a player's performance in combat. Mental attributes such as intelligence may affect a player's ability to perform and learn spells, while social attributes such as charisma may limit the player's choices while conversing with non-player characters. These attributes usually borrow heavily the Dungeons and Dragons ruleset.

Role-playing games frequently make use of magical powers, or equivelents such as psychic powers or advanced technology. These abilities are confined to specific characters such as mages, spellcasters, or magic-users. In games where the player controls multiple characters, these magic-users usually complement the physical strength of other classes. Magic can be used as an attack or defense, or to temporarily change an enemy or ally's attributes. While some games allow players to gradually consume a spell, as ammunition is consumed by a gun, most games offer players a finite amount of mana which can be spent on any spell. Mana is restored by resting, or by consuming potions. Characters can also gain other non-magical skills, which stay with the character as long as he lives.

Although the characterization of the game's avatar will develop through storytelling, characters may also become more functionally powerful by gaining new skills, weapons, and magic. This creates a positive-feedback cycle that is central to most role-playing games. The player grows in power, allowing them to overcome more difficult challenges, and gain even more power. This is part of the appeal of the genre, where players experience growing from an ordinary person into a superhero with amazing powers. Whereas other games give the player these powers immediately, the player in a role-playing game will choose their powers and skills as they gain experience.

Role-playing games usually measure progress by counting experience points and character levels. Experience is usually earned by defeating enemies in combat, with some games offering experience for completing certain quests or conversations. Experience becomes a form of score, and accumulating a certain amount of experience will cause the character's level to go up. This is called "levelling up", and gives the player an opportunity to raise one or more of his character's attributes. Many RPGs allow players to choose how to improve their character, by allocating a finite number of points into the attributes of their choice. Gaining experience will also unlock new magic spells for characters that use magic.

Some role-playing games also give the player specific skill points, which can be used to unlock a new skill or improve an existing one. This may sometimes be implemented as a skill tree. As with the technology trees seen in strategy video games, learning a particular skill in the tree will unlock more powerful skills deeper in the tree.

The experience system system, by far the most common, was inherited from traditional role-playing games and emphasizes receiving "experience points" (often abbreviated "XP" or "exp") by winning battles, performing class-specific activities, and completing quests. Once a certain amount of experience is gained, the character advances a level, at which point he may increase his skills and abilities.

The training system is similar to the way the Basic Role-Playing system works. The first computer game to use this was Dungeon Master, and emphasizes developing the character's skills by using them - meaning that if a character wields a sword for some time, he or she will become proficient with it. This system was later used in the The Elder Scrolls series, as well as the Dungeon Siege series.

Finally, in the skill-point system (as used in Vampire: Bloodlines for example) the character is rewarded with "skill points" for completing quests, which then can be directly used to "buy" skills and/or attributes, without having to wait until the next "level up".

Older games often separated combat into its own mode of gameplay, distinct from exploring the game world. More recent games tend to maintain a consistent perspective for exploration and combat. Some games, especially earlier console games, generate battles from random encounters. But most RPGs also use scripted, persistent moderns to some degree, if only for boss monsters. Combat options typically involve positioning characters, selecting which enemy to attack, and exercising special skills such as casting spells.

In a classical turn-based system, only one character may act at a time; all other characters remain still, with a few exceptions that may involve the use of special abilities. The order in which the characters act is usually dependent on their attributes, such as speed or agility. This system rewards strategic planning more than quickness. It also points to the fact that realism in games is a means to the end of immersion in the game world, not an end in itself. A turn-based system makes it possible, for example, to run within range of an opponent and kill him before he gets a chance to act, or duck out from behind hard cover, fire, and retreat back without an opponent being able to fire, which are of course both impossibilities. However, tactical possibilities have been created by this unreality that did not exist before; the player determines whether the loss of immersion in the reality of the game is worth the satisfaction gained from the development of the tactic and its successful execution. Fallout has been praised as being "the shining example of a good turn-based Combat System".

Real-time combat can import features from action games, creating a hybrid action RPG game genre. But other RPG battle systems such as the Final Fantasy battle systems have imported real-time choices without emphasizing coordination or reflexes. Other systems combine real-time combat with the ability to pause the game and issue orders to all characters under his/her control; when the game is unpaused, all characters follow the orders they were given. This "real-time with pause" system (RTwP) has been particularly popular in games designed by Bioware. The most famous RTwP engine is the Infinity Engine. Other names for "real-time with pause" include "active pause", "semi real-time" and "smart pause".

Early Ultima games featured a semi real-time system: they were strictly turn-based, but if the player waited more than a second or so to issue a command, the game would automatically issue a pass command, allowing the monsters to take a turn while the PCs did nothing. Fallout Tactics is another game which used this system.

There is a further subdivision by the structure of the battle system; in many early games, such as Wizardry, monsters and the party are arrayed into ranks, and can only attack enemies in the front rank with melee weapons. Other games, such as most of the Ultima series, employed duplicates of the miniatures combat system traditionally used in the early role-playing games. Representations of the player characters and monsters would move around an arena modeled after the surrounding terrain, attacking any enemies that are sufficiently near.

Players typically navigate the game world from a first or third-person perspective in 3D RPGs. However, an isometric or aerial top-down perspective is common in party-based RPGs, in order to give the player a clear view of their entire party. Role-playing games require the player to manage a large amount of information, and frequently make use of a windowed interface. For example, spell-casting characters will often have a menu of spells they can use. On the PC, players typically use the mouse to click on icons and menu options, while console games duplicate this functionality with the game controller. Older games often revealed calculations of the game as seen in Dungeons and Dragons games, although more recent games have removed this information to improve immersion.

Though sharing fundamental premises, there are regional and cultural patterns to conventions in and design of RPGs, the main demarcation lines are based on geography (between Western and Eastern styles) and platform (between computer and console games) where Western games tend to have darker stories and older characters, and focus more on roaming freedom and less on linear story than their Eastern counterparts.

Role-playing video games owe their foundations to role-playing games, which also allows players to experience a gradual growth in abilities as they completed different quests. The role-playing video game genre began in the mid-1970s, as an offshoot of early university mainframe text-based RPGs on PDP-10 and Unix-based computers, such as Dungeon, pedit5 and dnd. In 1980, a very popular dungeon crawler, Rogue was released. Featuring ASCII graphics where the setting, monsters and items were represented by letters and a deep system of gameplay, it inspired a whole genre ("roguelikes") of similar clones. RPGs continued to be influenced by Dungeons and Dragons. Starting in 1988 with Pool of Radiance, SSI produced a series of "Gold Box" CRPGs based on the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons rules. These games featured a first-person display for movement, combined with an overhead tactical display for combat.

After the success of console role-playing games such as Dragon Quest and Final Fantasy, the role-playing genre eventually diverged into two distinct sub-genres: computer role-playing games and console role-playing games. This is due to cultural differences which arose due to RPGs being produced primarily for personal computers in the Western world and primarily for games consoles in Japan.

The first RPGs offered strictly a single player experience. The popularity of multiplayer modes in these games rose sharply during the early to mid 1990s, with games such as Secret of Mana and Diablo. With the advent of the internet, multiplayer games have grown into massively multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft and Final Fantasy XI.

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List of Dragon Ball video games

The following is a list of video games based on the Dragon Ball manga by Akira Toriyama. Since 1986, many video games based on the property have been released in Japan, with the majority of the games being produced by Bandai. Up until Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout, none of the Dragon Ball games were localized for the North American market, with the exception of Dragon Power (a version of the first Dragon Ball game for the Famicom that was graphically altered due to the lack of the license). However, a few of the fighting games were localized for the French market. Since 2002, Infogrames (now known as Atari) obtained the license to produce and release Dragon Ball games for the North American and international market.

The first Dragon Ball video game ever produced. Released by Epoch.

Dragon Ball: Daimaō Fukkatsu (ドラゴンボール大魔王復活 ,Doragon Bōru Daimaō Fukkatsu?, lit. Dragon Ball: Great Demon King's Revival) was released in Japan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) on August 12, 1988 by Bandai. It takes place during the Piccolo Daimao Saga. It was one of the first game to have a board game which included battles using cards. The battle card games are a hybrid of role playing games, board games, and trading cards. The players move around a game board, and encounter characters on the way. Some characters offer information and others need to be battled. The outcome of each fight is determined by the randomly generated hand of cards players and the opponent are dealt. The player flips over cards in a certain order, and their actions are shown in an animated battle that lasts until one of the characters is defeated.

Dragon Ball 3: Gokuden (ドラゴンボール3 悟空伝 ,Doragon Bōru Surī Gokūden?, lit. Dragon Ball 3: Goku's Story) was released by Bandai on October 27, 1989 for the NES in Japan. The game relates all the Dragon Ball story until the fight against Piccolo Junior. The main character is Goku as a child and adult, though Kulilin and Yamcha] are also playable. A remake was released for the WonderSwan in 2002.

Dragon Ball Z: Kyôshū! Saiyan (ドラゴンボールZ 強襲!サイヤ人 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Kyōshū! Saiyajin?, Dragon Ball Z: Fierce Attack! Saiyan) was the first Dragon Ball Z game to be released for the Nintendo Famicom system. It was released by Bandai on October 27, 1990 in Japan. The game features Brocco and Pumpkin, two illusion Saiyans fight Yamcha and Tien in the anime, and Onion, an original who transforms into a Giant Ape.

Dragon Ball Z II: Gekishin Freeza!! (ドラゴンボールZII 激神フリーザ!! ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Tsū Gekishin Furīza!!?, Dragon Ball Z II: Freeza the Planet Destroyer!!) was released by Bandai on August 10, 1991 in Japan for the NES. The game features the story on Namek and follows closely to the story in the anime except for the fact that, like in the previous game, Tenshinhan, Yamcha and Chaozu are not dead but are present in the player's party at the beginning.

Dragon Ball Z: Super Saiya Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 超サイヤ伝説 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Chō Saiya Densetsu?, Dragon Ball Z: Legend of the Super Saiyan) is the first Dragon Ball game for the Super Famicom. It is a remake of the first two Dragon Ball Z for the Family Computer.

Dragon Ball Z III: Ressen Jinzōningen (ドラゴンボールZIII 烈戦人造人間 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Surī Ressen Jinzōningen?, Dragon Ball Z III: Hot Battle! Artificial Humans!) released August 7, 1992 in Japan for the Family Computer by Bandai.

Dragon Ball Z: Gekitō Tenkaichi Budokai (ドラゴンボールZ 激闘天下一武道会 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Gekitō Tenkaichi Budōkai?) was released only in Japan on December 29, 1992 for the Family Computer by Bandai. The game was unique in that it came with a special card reader attachment, the Datach Joint Rom System, which required several character cards to be swiped in order to select a character.

Dragon Ball Z: Super Butōden (ドラゴンボールZ 超武闘伝 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Chō Butōden?, Dragon Ball Z: Super Fighting Story) is the first installment in the Super Butōden series. The game was released in Japan on March 20, 1993 and in France and Spain on November 30, 1993. Super Butōden features 10 playable characters and its story mode spans from the final saga of Dragon Ball to the conclusion of the Cell Games.

Dragon Ball Z Gaiden: Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku (ドラゴンボールZ外伝 サイヤ人絶滅計画 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Gaiden Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku?, Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans) was released for the NES on August 6, 1993. Gameplay takes the form of a card battle RPG, where the player's movement and battle choices are dictated by the randomly generated playing cards the player receives. Multiplayer is a six player tournament using difficulty level of computer players that are in the save file. Players can choose between Goku, Gohan, Piccolo, Trunks and Vegeta. Winner records are kept in the game data, as well as any moves the player might learn.

The game follows, Dr. Raichi, a survivor of the Tuffle race annihilated by the Saiyans. Raichi manages to escape from the planet with a ship containing Hatchhyack, a super computer able to create "Ghost images" of other warriors, though he is killed soon after. Hatchhyack creates a ghost image of him to get revenge on the surviving Saiyans. He places machines that emit a gas capable of destroying life on Earth, so Goku, Gohan, Vegeta, Future Trunks, and Piccolo rush to destroy the devices located around the planet. They manage to destroy all but one that is protected by an impenetrable energy barrier and guarded by ghost warriors of Frieza, Cooler, Turles, and Lord Slug, which have to be killed in the same way as the originals. They eventually track down Raichi, defeat him, and learn of Hatchhyack, who absorbs Raichi's hatred and materializes in an android body. Hatchhyack devastates the heroes until the Saiyans, after having transformed into their Super Saiyan states, combine their powers together into one massive wave of energy, ending the threat of the ghost warriors.

Dragon Ball Z: Super Butōden 2 (ドラゴンボールZ 超武闘伝2 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Chō Butōden Tzū?, Dragon Ball Z: Super Fighting Story 2), called Dragon Ball Z 2: la Légende Saien in France, is the second installment in the Super Butōden series. The game was released in Japan on December 17, 1993 and in France and Spain in 1994. Super Butōden 2 features 10 playable characters (8 normal, 2 unlockable with a code) and its story mode covers the Cell Games, as well as several stories involving Bojack, Zangya, and Broli completely unrelated to the movies they hail from. For unknown reasons, these three characters were renamed Kujila, Aki, and Tara in the French version, respectively.

Depending on if the player wins or loses a battle, the story will take a different turn in the Story Mode, which leads to a lot of possibilities to experience.

This is the only Dragon Ball Z fighting game in which Goku is not readily playable. A code is required to unlock him and Broly, the other hidden character.

Dragon Ball Z: Buyū Retsuden (ドラゴンボールZ 武勇烈伝 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Buyū Retsuden?), known Dragon Ball Z: L'appel Du Destin (Dragon Ball Z: The Call of Destiny ?) in France, is a fighting game released for the Mega Drive. It was released in Japan on January 1, 1994 (1994-01-01) and Europe in 1994. The playable characters are Goku, Gohan, Krillin, Piccolo, Vegeta, Captain Ginyu, Recoome, Freiza, Future Trunks, Android 18, and Cell.

Dragon Ball Z Gaiden: Saiyan Zetsumetsu Keikaku Chikyū-Hen (ドラゴンボールZ外伝 真サイヤ人絶滅計画 地球編 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Gaiden Shin Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku Chikyū-Hen?, Dragon Ball Z Side Story: True Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans: Earth Edition) is part one in the Saiyan Zenmetsu Keikaku series for the Playdia. The game was released on September 23, 1994.

Dragon Ball Z: Super Butōden (ドラゴンボールZ 超武闘伝3 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Chō Butōden Surī?, Dragon Ball Z: Super Fighting Story 3), called Dragon Ball Z 3: Ultime Menace in France, is the third installment in the Super Butōden series. The game was released in Japan on September 29, 1994 and in France and Spain in 1994. Super Butōden 3 features ten playable characters. Strangely enough, it is the only game in the series that lacks a story mode.

The game has 10 characters, 9 normal and 1 hidden. The hidden character, Future Trunks, can be unlocked with a code.

Dragon Ball Z: Idainaru Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 偉大なる孫悟空伝説 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Idainaru Son Gokū Densetsu?, Dragon Ball Z: The Greatest Son Goku Legend) was released for the PC Engine (the Japanese version of the Turbografx 16) on November 11, 1994 (1994-11-11). It features Gohan telling Goten of the battles of their deceased father, Goku, along with other characters. The game illustrates Goku's seven greatest battles: Fighting Tao Pai Pai, challenging Tenshinhan at the Tenkaichi Budokai, destroying Piccolo Daimao, fighting Piccolo at the Tenkaichi Budokai, protecting Earth from Vegeta, saving Namek from Freiza, and sacrificing his life to save the world from Perfect Cell.

Dragon Ball Z Gaiden: Saiyan Zetsumetsu Keikaku~Uchū-Hen (ドラゴンボールZ外伝 真サイヤ人絶滅計画 宇宙編 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Gaiden Shin Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku Uchū-Hen?, Dragon Ball Z Side Story: True Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans: Universe Edition) is part two in the Saiyan Zenmetsu Keikaku series. The game was released on December 16, 1994.

Dragon Ball Z: Super Goku Den — Totsugeki-Hen was released on March 24, 1995. Totsugeki-Hen chronicles the adventures of Goku and his adventures through the start of Dragon Ball all the way to the final battle with Piccolo Daimao.

Dragon Ball Z: Ultimate Battle 22 (ドラゴンボールZ アルティメイトバトル22 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Arutimeito Batoru Towintetzū?) is a fighting game released July 28, 1995 (1995-07-28) in Japan, rereleased as a Greatest Hit game on December 6, 1995 (1995-12-06), released in Europe on July 1996 (1996-07), and released in North America years later on March 25, 2003 (2003-03-25). The game features cel drawings from the animators as character sprites and three dimensional backgrounds. The playable characters are Goku, Gohan, Vegeta, Future Trunks, Cell, Android 16, Android 18, Frieza, Zarbon, Recoome, Captain Ginyu, Dabura, Goten, Kid Trunks, Supreme Kai, Majin Buu (Good), Super Buu, Super Saiyan Gotenks, Great Saiyaman, Krillin, Tien, and Piccolo. Unlockable characters include Gogeta, Hercule, Master Roshi, Super Saiyan 3 Goku, and Kid Goku.

Ultimate Battle 22 was the subject of an overwhelming number of negative American reviews. GameSpot give it a 1.2/10, calling it a "really, really terrible game." X-Play said it was "a waste of time and money." Official PlayStation Magazine gave it a 1/5, the second lowest score possible. Electronic Gaming Monthly said that "someone crapped in a jewel case and passed it off as a game." Overall, it has a 32% on Game Rankings.

Dragon Ball Z: Super Goku Den — Kakusei-Hen is the second game in the Super Gokuden series. The game was released on September 22, 1995. Kakusei-Hen follows the story of Goku from his fight with Piccolo at the 23rd World Tournament to his final battle with Freeza after the latter had reached the Super Saiyan state.

Dragon Ball Z: Shin Super Butōden (ドラゴンボールZ 真武闘伝 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Shin Butōden?, Dragon Ball Z: True Fighting Story) is the fourth installment in the Super Butōden series. The game was released only in Japan on November 17, 1995. The game features 26 playable characters, their sprites being those used in an earlier Dragon Ball Z game, Dragon Ball Z: Ultimate Battle 22. Its story mode ranges from the Android Saga to the Cell Games.

Shin Butōden also features two other exclusive modes: Group Battle and Mr. Satan mode. In Group Battle, players gets to create a team of five characters and fight against either another player or an AI-controlled character. In Mr. Satan mode, Mr. Satan is trying to raise enough money to pay off his debt to Artificial Human 18, and the player places bets on matches and cheats by using several items, such as banana peels, guns, and dynamite.

Dragon Ball Z: Hyper Dimension (ドラゴンボールZ ハイパー ディメンション ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Haipā Dimenshon?) is the last Dragon Ball Z fighting game released for the Super Nintendo in Japan and Europe. It was released in Japan on March 29, 1996 (1996-03-29) and in Europe on January 1, 1996 (1996-01-01). The game features a story mode that begins from the Freeza Saga and ends at the Buu Saga. The amount of life for characters is measured by a number system from 1 to 999, which can be charged at any time during the match. When the life reaches a level below 80, the characters are able to perform "desperate moves", which cause a large amount of damage. The characters fight on a multi-tier stage, which allows opponents to hit each other to other stages. The playable characters are Goku, Vegeta, Gohan, Perfect Cell, Piccolo, Vegetto, Freiza, Majin Buu, Kid Buu, and Gotenks.

Dragon Ball Z: The Legend, known as Dragon Ball Z: Idainaru Dragon Ball Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 偉大なるドラゴンボール伝説 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Idainaru Doragon Bōru Densetsu?, Dragon Ball Z: The Greatest Dragon Ball Legend) in Japan, is a fighting game produced and released by Bandai on March 31, 1996 in Japan and the same year in Europe for the Sega Saturn and PlayStation. Greatest Hits versions were released on June 20, 1997 for the Saturn and June 27, 1997 for the PlayStation.

The game utilizes a unique system of play that is different from most other fighters. The graphics feature 2-D sprites in a three dimensional world. Although each battle begins on the ground, the majority of the action is featured skyward. The characters fly around each and utilize rapid punches and kicks, and ki blasts, either singularly or rapidly by holding the assigned button for a short period. The characters have a limited amount of ki that can be charged over time. If the player uses all of their available ki their character will stop fighting out of exhaustion, leaving them wide open for an attack. The life meter is a scale made up of energy from both sides that shifts depending on damage taken, and after one side is depleted, the character performs a special "Meteo Attack", which takes place in a cut scene and finishes of the opponent. Each match is made up of two teams that can include one fighter or multiple fighters that can be switched out at various times.

Dragon Ball Z: Goku Hishōden (ドラゴンボールZ: 悟空 飛翔伝 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto: Gokū Hishōden?) is the first installment in the Goku RPG series, released on November 25, 1994. Despite the title, the game starts out during the end of Dragon Ball with Son Goku's fight with Piccolo at the World Martial Arts Tournament and ends with the battle against Vegeta in Dragon Ball Z.

Dragon Ball Z: Goku Gekitōden (ドラゴンボールZ: 悟空激闘伝 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto: Gokū Gekitōden?) is the second installment in the Goku RPG series, released on August 25, 1995. It features five playable characters, as well as Son Goku's Super Saiyan transformation. Goku Gekitōden takes place immeditately after Son Goku's battle with Vegeta, and ends with Son Goku's final battle with Freeza.

In Goku Gekitōden, moving about and fighting is real time, unlike its predecessor. The game also features many extras, such as minigames and a tournament mode. Most characters from the Namek Saga can be fought during the story mode, including ones such as Zarbon and Frieza's transformed states.

Dragon Ball Z Collectible Card Game was released on May 29, 2002 by Atari. It is based on the Dragon Ball Z Collectible Card Game.

Dragon Ball Z: Legendary Super Warriors (ドラゴンボールZ 伝説の超戦士たち ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Densetsu no Chô Senshi Tachi?) is a turn-based strategy game developed and released for the Game Boy Color by Banpresto. It was released in North America on June 30, 2002 (2002-06-30), Japan on August 9, 2002 (2002-08-09), and Europe on November 2002 (2002-11). It is played with the use of in-game cards for attacks, techniques and support items. The game’s story takes place from the start of Dragon Ball Z, the Saiyan Saga, and runs until the end of the Buu Saga. The game also includes two extra stories involving Future Trunks's timeline. The game boasts a large array of characters and forms for the various characters. The first playthrough selects one or two characters for each battle, and subsequent playthroughs allow the player to select various unlockable characters for any scenario.

Remake of the third Dragon Ball game for the Family Computer.

Dragon Ball Z: Taiketsu (ドラゴンボールZ 対決 ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Taiketsu?, Dragon Ball Z: Confrontation) is a fighting game released on November 24, 2003 for the Game Boy Advance. The game includes 15 characters, including Goku, Gohan, Vegeta, Future Trunks, Krillin, Piccolo, Gotenks, Raditz, Nappa, Frieza, Android 16, Android 18, Cell, Majin Buu, and Broly. This game was sold individually and in a pack that included a Game Boy Advance. The game was subjected to overwhelming negative reviews, with the general complaint being that the game was rushed to get it out in time for the holidays.

Dragonradar Mobile (ドラゴンレーダーモバイル ,Doragon Rēdā Mobairu?) is a handheld LCD game that is produced by Bandai exclusively in Japan on January 2007 (2007-01). The game is featured in the shape of the dragon radar from the series and comes in either the standard white or orange colors which are listed as "Dragonradar Mobile: White" and "Dragonradar Mobile: Orange". The game features two distinct modes of play, a battle game and a search game. The game controls are determined by the player's hand movement by a motion device, and features a "accelerometer" that determines the strength of the players attacks by how hard the player shakes the device. Players can also compete with other players courtesy of an infrared sensor which can detect other radars for two player mode.

Dragon Ball Z 2: Super Battle (ドラゴンボールZ 2 スパーバトル ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Tsū Supā Batoru?) the sequel to Dragon Ball Z released in 1994, also produced by Banpresto. The gameplay matches the Butōden series of games rather than the previous arcade game. The characters are Goku, Gohan, Vegeta, Future Trunks, Piccolo, Cell, Android 16, Android 18, Android 20, and Mr. Satan.

Dragon Ball Z: V.R.V.S. is a fighting game released in 1994 for the Sega System 32 arcade platform by Sega and Banpresto. Although the game is in 2D, it uses camera angles positioned behind the characters to create a 3D-like experience. The game is controlled with a joysick and 3 buttons; a deluxe edition of the game features motion sensors that allow the player to move his or her body to control the character in the game. The object of the game is to defeat six opponents. The playable characters are Goku, Gohan, Piccolo, Vegeta, and Future Trunk. The final boss is an original character named Ozotto.

Same game that was later ported to the PlayStation 2.

Dragon Ball Z: Bakuretsu Impact (ドラゴンボールZ 爆烈インパクト ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Bakuretsu Inpakuto?, Dragon Ball Z: Burst Impact) is the third card-based fighting game for Bandai's Data Carddass arcade system. It was developed by Dimps and released in March 16, 2007 in Japan only by Bandai.

Dragon Ball Z: W Bakuretsu Impact (ドラゴンボールZ W爆烈インパクト ,Doragon Bōru Zetto Daburu Bakuretsu Inpakuto?, Dragon Ball Z: W Burst Impact) is the fourth card-based fighting game released on Bandai's Data Carddass arcade system. The playable characters are Goku, Gohan, Vegeta, Piccolo, Kid Goku, Pan, Future Trunks, Goten, Gotenks, Arale, Majin Buu, Super Buu, Kid Buu, Broly, Super 17, Nova Shenron, Omega Shenron, and Mighty Mask.

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Video game

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A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device. However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use.

The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms. For example, a dedicated console controller might consist of only a button and a joystick. Another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer games often needed a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button. Many modern computer games allow, or even require, the player to use a keyboard and mouse simultaneously.

Video games typically also use other ways of providing interaction and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones. But other feedback may come via haptic peripherals, such as vibration force feedback.

Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on January 25, 1947 by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on December 14, 1948 as U.S. Patent 2455992.

Inspired by radar displays, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.

Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe, Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, and Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other.

In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially-sold, coin-operated video game. It used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television. These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong; an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry.

The term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic or computer hardware which, in conjunction with low-level software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is also commonly used.

In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer connected to a high-resolution video monitor. A "console game" is played on a specialized electronic device that connects to a standard television set or composite video monitor. A "handheld" gaming device is a self contained electronic device that is portable and can be held in a user's hands. "Arcade game" generally refers to a game played on an even more specialized type of electronic device that is typically designed to play only one game and is encased in a special cabinet. These distinctions are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. Beyond this there are platforms that have non-video game variations such as in the case of electro-mechanically based arcade machines. There are also devices with screens which have the ability to play games but are not dedicated video game machines (examples are mobile phones, PDAs and graphing calculators).

A video game, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on many factors such as method of game play, types of goals, and more. Because genres are dependent on content for definition, genres have changed and evolved as newer styles of video games are created. As the production values of video games have increased over the years both in visual appearance and depth of story telling, the video game industry has been producing more life-like and complex games that push the boundaries of the traditional game genres. Some genres represent combinations of others, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing games. It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action or horror-themed video games.

Video games are primarily meant for entertainment. However, some video games are made (at least in part) for other reasons. These include advergames, educational games, propaganda games (e.g. militainment), and others. Many of these fall under the category of serious games.

Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment is frequently a cross disciplinary field. Video game developers, as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers. Although, over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in any movie or television program including sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; all of which are managed by producers.

In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game. As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone as this still occurs in the casual gaming and handheld markets where single screen games are more prevalent due to technical limitations of the target platform (such as cellphones and PDAs).

With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry the problem of cost has become more critical then ever. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly on the look to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment. Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. The growth of team size combined with greater pressures to get completed projects into the market to begin recouping production costs has led to a greater occurrence of missed deadlines and unfinished products; Duke Nukem Forever is the quintessential example of these problems.

Games running on a PC are often designed with end-user modifications in mind, and this consequently allows modern computer games to be modified by gamers without much difficulty. These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. Developers such as id Software, Valve Software, Crytek, Epic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with the very development tools used to make the game in the first place, along with documentation to assist mod developers, which allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as the (previously) Half-Life mod Counter-Strike.

Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes implemented by the game developers, modification of game code by third parties, or players exploiting a software glitch. Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer. Cheats usually make the game easier by providing an unlimited amount of some resource; for example lives, weapons, health, or ammunition. Other cheats might provide an unusual or amusing feature, like altered game colors or graphical appearances.

Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games. This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction. In some cases publishers will release updates (referred to as patches) to repair glitches.

Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities. The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama". That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck, a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek, arguing for the video game as a medium in which we get to become another person, and to act out in another world. This image of video games received early widespread popular support, and forms the basis of films such as Tron, eXistenZ, and The Last Starfighter.

Ludologists break sharply and radically from this. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay. For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the curvaceous heroine of the game Tomb Raider, saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists, are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently... When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it." Simply put, ludologists reject traditional theories of art because they claim that the artistic and socially relevant qualities of a video game are primarily determined by the underlying set of rules, demands, and expectations imposed on the player.

While many games rely on emergent principles, video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game. The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player." However, emergent behavior is not limited to sophisticated games. In generally any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track: the cars might then maneuver to avoid the obstacle causing the cars behind them to slow and/or maneuver to accommodate the cars in front of them and the obstacle. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.

The November 2005 Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2,000 regular gamers, found that the U.S. games market is diversifying. The age group among male players has expanded significantly up into the 25-40 age group. For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between males and females. Females have been shown to be significantly attracted to playing certain online multi-user video games that offer a more communal experience, and a small number of young females have been shown to play aggressive games that are sometimes thought of as being "traditionally male" games. According to the ESRB almost 41% of PC gamers are women. With such video game social networks as Miss Video Game and Guild Cafe having a large percentages of female gamers, the "traditionally male" games are now considered cross-gendered.

When comparing today’s industry climate with that of 20 years ago, women and many adults are more inclined to be using products in the industry. While the market for teen and young adult men is still a strong market, it’s the other demographics which are posting significant growth. In 2008, the average American gamer has been playing for 12 years, and is now, on average, 35 years of age.

Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. From its early beginnings, video games have commonly been playable by more than a single player. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating. Tennis for Two, arguably the first video game, was a two-player game, as was its successor Pong. The first commercially available game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, had two controller inputs.

Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs. Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as twelve inputs with additional adapters, such as the Multitap. Multiplayer arcade games typically feature play for two to four players, sometimes tilting the monitor on its back for a top-down viewing experience allowing players to sit opposite one another.

Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from Atari and Commodore both regularly featured at least two game ports. PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations. PCs typically had either one or no game ports at all. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or MUDs that were played remotely on a dedicated server. This was due both to the slow speed of modems (300-1200-bit/s), and the prohibitive cost involved with putting a computer online in such a way where multiple visitors could make use of it. However, with the advent of widespread local area networking technologies and Internet based online capabilities, the number of players in modern games can be 32 or higher, sometimes featuring integrated text and/or voice chat. MMOs can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; Eve Online set a record with just under 36,000 players on a single server in 2006.

It has been shown that action video game players have better visuomotor skills, such as their resistance to distraction, their sensitivity to information in peripheral vision, and their ability to count briefly presented objects than nonplayers. They found that such enhanced abilities could be acquired by training with an action game, involving challenges to switch attention to different locations, but not with a game requiring concentration on single objects. It has been suggested by a few studies that online/offline video gaming can be used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different mental health concerns.

In Steven Johnson's book, Everything Bad Is Good For You, he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly. To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books. Some research suggests video games may even increase players' attention capacities.

Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U.S. education system. It has been noticed that gamers adopt an attitude while playing that is of such high concentration, they don't realize they're learning, and that if the same attitude could be adopted at school, education would enjoy significant benefits. Students are found to be "learning by doing" while playing video games while fostering creative thinking.

The U.S. Army has deployed machines such as the PackBot which make use of a game-style hand controller to make it more familiar for young people.

According to research discussed at the 2008 Convention of the American Psychological Association, certain types of video games can improve the gamers’ dexterity as well as their ability to problem-solve. A study of 33 laparoscopic surgeons found that those who played video games were 27 percent faster at advanced surgical procedures and made 37 percent fewer errors compared to those who did not play video games. A second study of 303 laparoscopic surgeons (82 percent men; 18 percent women) also showed that surgeons who played video games requiring spatial skills and hand dexterity and then performed a drill testing these skills were significantly faster at their first attempt and across all 10 trials than the surgeons who did not play the video games first.

Whilst many studies have detected superior mental aptitudes amongst habitual gamers, research by Walter Boot at the University of Illinois found that non-gamers showed no improvement in memory or multitasking abilities after 20 hours of playing three different games. The researchers suggested that "individuals with superior abilities are more likely to choose video gaming as an activity in the first place".

Like related forms of media, computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advergaming (a form of advertising in games), consumption of drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games. Among others, critics of video games sometimes include parents' groups, politicians, organized religious groups, and other special interest groups, even though all of these can be found in all forms of entertainment and media. Various games have been accused of causing addiction and even violent behavior. "Video game censorship" is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views.

Various national content rating organizations, such as the Entertainment Software Ratings Board or ESRB in North America, rate software for certain age groups and with certain content warnings. Some of these organizations are optional industry self-regulation (such as the ESRB), while others are part of national government censorship organizations. Also, parents are not always aware of the existence of these ratings.

The three largest producers of and markets for computer and video games (in order) are North America (US and Canada), Japan and the United Kingdom. Other significant markets include Australia, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Mexico, France and Italy. Both India and China are considered emerging markets in the video game industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years.

Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase console games over computer games, with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games. There are over 20,000 Internet cafés in South Korea where computer games can be played for an hourly charge.

PC games that are digitally distributed either directly or by networks such as Steam are not tracked by the NPD, and Steam does not list sales numbers for games downloaded through their service. Unauthorized distribution is also rampant on the PC.

These figures are sales in dollars, not units, Unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, because more software and hardware was discounted than in 2003. But with the release of the next-generation consoles in 2006, these numbers increased dramatically. The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sony having significant stakes in both. A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time to share the marketing costs.

In Australia, the United Kingdom and other PAL regions, generally when compared to the US, PAL gamers pay 40% to 50% more for the same product.

As English is the main language in Australia and the UK there is little impetus for translation (although regional differences naturally exist). The differences between PAL and NTSC are these days irrelevant; most video displays run at least 60Hz. But there is a legal problem of regional lockout in Australia, with most DVD players release coming region-free to meet local laws.

But video game consoles are still sold fully region-locked in Australia. Some effort to increase awareness of the issue, specifically to Nintendo of Australia, was in the form of a formal report outlining the issues, published by Aaron Rex Davies. The report has gone on to gain a lot of attention in the public media.

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Source : Wikipedia