Virginia Tech

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Posted by sonny 03/04/2009 @ 06:12

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Virginia Tech, Arlington team up for research lab -
Virginia Tech, IBM and Arlington County have created a partnership surrounding the school's massive research center being built in Ballston. Virginia Tech and IBM signed an agreement to establish an informatics lab at Virginia Tech called the Center...
Virginia vs Virginia Tech (May 15, 2009) - VT
Virginia Tech 1st - Reed, K singled. Bumbry, S walked; Reed, K advanced to second. Sosnoskie, A reached on a throwing error by ss; Bumbry, S advanced to second; Reed, K advanced to third. Wates, A singled, 2 RBI; Sosnoskie, A advanced to second;...
Graduation Day at Virginia Tech brings excitement , anxiety this year -
I'm just like right now kinda complacent, just like, wow I'm done," says Virginia Tech grad Frank Milien. While the pomp remains the same, the circumstances are quite different this year. These graduates are facing one of the least rosy job markets in...
Shimandle, Tech try to climb new heights - Atlanta Journal Constitution
By Doug Roberson Blair Shimandle has made plenty of Superwoman-like, parallel-to-the-ground, diving catches from her center-field spot during her time at Georgia Tech. There was the belly-buster against Virginia Tech on March 21, the fully extended...
Recruitment Tech: Making the grade - Blue Ridge Business Journal
Virginia Tech is also enjoying success on the school's youtube site (, which features student profiles and hosts an invitation for students who have accepted the offer of admissions to upload their acceptance video called...
Fox adds one to Georgia staff -
(AP) -- Stacey Palmore has joined new Georgia coach Mark Fox's staff after five seasons as an assistant at Virginia Tech. Palmore, a native of Greenwood, SC, joined the Virginia Tech in 2004 when the Hokies joined the Atlantic Coast Conference....
Virginia Tech graduation visitors good for business -
By Ashley Roberts When Virginia Tech graduation rolls around thousands of people come into town, which means big bucks for local businesses especially hotels. “We are completely booked,“ said Lynn Laidlaw, general manager at Comfort Inn in Blacksburg....
Traffic Alert: Virginia Tech graduation may cause weekend delays -
SALEM – Travelers in the New River Valley this weekend are reminded to expect heavy traffic on Interstate 81 and Route 460 due to Virginia Tech's graduation activities. The main commencement ceremony is scheduled for Friday, May 15 at 7:30 pm Other...
Wolcott goes the distance for Duke vs. Georgia Tech, ECU tops Memphis - College Baseball Insider
In Blacksburg, Va., Klint Reed went 4 for 5 with three runs as Virginia Tech clinched its ACC series with Virginia at English Field. The Hokies (12-16, 32-20) scored three in the first, two in the second and four in the fourth in building a 9-3 lead...
Tech's Cook center at core of changes - Roanoke Times
Chris Flynn, director of the Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center at Virginia Tech, helped establish changes after the shootings. BLACKSBURG -- With about 4000 undergraduates receiving diplomas this weekend, Virginia Tech's student body will shift further...

Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets

Virginia Tech Corps marching

The Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets (VTCC) is the military component of the student body at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Cadets live together in dormitories, march to meals in formation, wear a distinctive uniform on campus, and receive an intensive military and leadership educational experience similar to that available at the United States service academies. The Corps of Cadets has existed from the founding of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1872 to the present-day institution of Virginia Tech, which is designated a senior military college by federal law.

The Corps provides leadership training for all of its cadets. A cadet will have the opportunity to receive an academic minor in Leadership when they graduate through the Rice Center for Leader Development which is in the Pamplin School of Business. This is a unique endeavor in Senior Military Colleges.

While not mandatory for membership in the Corps, many members of the Cadet Corps also participate in the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and become commissioned officers in the U.S. Military upon graduation. Around 80% of the corps' graduates choose to participate in ROTC and receive a commission in the military as officers after graduation. If a cadet is enrolled in an ROTC program at Virginia Tech, they must also be enrolled in the Corps of Cadets. However, a cadet does not have to be enrolled in an ROTC program in order to participate in the corps. There are a few exceptions made for active duty enlisted students participating in programs like the Army's Green to Gold program.

Women entered the VTCC in the Fall of 1973 and created a single unit called L Squadron. By 1979, women were integrated into the line companies, though they still lived separately from the males in their units. In 1991 that changed and the dorms became co-ed and women were allowed to live in the same unit area as their male counterparts. In 1987, the first female Regimental Commanding Officer (CO) was appointed. To date, the Corps has had 4 female Regimental Commanding Officers. Today the Corps is nearly 14% female and females hold a number of positions throughout the Corps.

On October 1, 1872, Virginia Tech opened as the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (VAMC). All students were cadets organized into a battalion of two companies with an enrollment of 132. The Commandant of Cadets was General James H. Lane, formerly the youngest general in the Army of Northern Virginia, who was wounded three times in combat. He worked to provide both the best education and the best military training in the state for his cadets based on his experience in the Civil War, and as a student and teacher at VMI and UVA, and as a teacher at Florida State Seminary and North Carolina Military Institute.

General Lane is considered the father of the Corps. He wrote the first cadet regulations and began the tradition of academic and military excellence. In 1878, VAMC President Charles Minor wanted to do away with the strict military requirements. Lane opposed him and their disagreement became so heated that a faculty meeting ended with a fistfight between the two. Both left campus in the ensuing scandal, but the Corps remained.

The VAMC cadets made their first Corps trip in 1875 to Richmond to the dedication of the Lee Monument. Over the years, the Corps has made many trips. These trips were more frequent in the early years including the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York in 1901 and the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. In 1880, political mismanagement from Richmond contributed to enrollment dropping to just 78 cadets. But in the ensuing years, enrollment and educational opportunities were expanded. E Battery, manning four Civil War artillery pieces with upper classmen, existed between 1883 and 1907.

In 1896 VAMC, through an act of the Virginia Legislature, changed its name to the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute. The name was quickly abbreviated in common usage to VPI. Also that same year a tradition began that lasted nearly three-quarters of a century, the VPI-VMI annual football game in Roanoke. Known as the Military Classic of the South, the annual Corps trips and associated parades ended in 1970.

In 1898, with the outbreak of the Spanish American War, the VPI Corps of Cadets formally volunteered to the governor for combat service. This request was declined, but most of the VPI Cadet band and their director enlisted as the Band of the 2nd Virginia Infantry Regiment. Many alumni served in the Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection. One alumnus (A.M. Gaujot. Class of 1901) was awarded the Medal of Honor during the Philippine-American War and another cited for gallantry at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba. The Gaujot brothers remain the only two brothers in American history to receive the Medal of Honor for actions in two separate wars.

The VPI Cadet Band had first been organized in 1892. Prior to that, as early as 1883, music was provided by the "Glade Cornet Band," an organization made up of townspeople. The summer of 1902 saw the VPI Cadet Band serve as part of the 70th Virginia Infantry during large-scale national military maneuvers held in Manassas, Virginia. The VPI Cadet Band has been referred to as the Highty-Tighties since 1921.

With the approach of World War I, the ROTC was established at Virginia Tech. In January 1917, Infantry ROTC was established followed shortly by Engineer and Coast Artillery. During the war, Virginia Tech became an army post. Cadets were inducted and became enlisted men of the Student Army Training Battalion and its Navy detachment. They wore Army and Navy uniforms during this period. Two Army training detachments of between 226 and 308 men each operated on campus.

CPT. J.W.G. Stephens (class of 1915), of the 26th Infantry, led the first American forces "over on top" in combat near Montdidier, France. Many alumni served with distinction with the 1st, 2nd, 29th, and 80th Divisions, all of which saw heavy combat. Note must be made of Major Lloyd W. Williams (class of 1907), US Marine Corps. One of the famous quotes of the war, used for years as a Marine standard, was attributed to him. "Retreat, Hell No!" was his reply to the French orders to retreat his company. His company held its ground, but he was killed in the action and awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. In the air, alumni, even as World War I foreshadowed VPI's contribution to the Air Force, CPL Robert G. Eoff (class of 1918), French Foreign Legion, attached to the 157 French Fighter Squadron shot down the first of 6 enemy aircraft credited to Techmen. LT John R. Castleman (class of 1919) was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (USA) for heroism in completing an aerial reconnaissance in spite of the attack of 12 enemy aircraft, two of which he shot down.

VPI's contribution to the war effort during World War I included 2,297 men in uniform. These included 2,155 in the Army, 125 in the Navy, 19 in the Marine Corps, 6 in the Coast Guard, 1 in the British Army and 1 in the French Foreign Legion. One alumnus (Earle D. Gregory, Class of 1921) was awarded the Medal of Honor, seven the Distinguished Service Cross (USA), and one the Navy Cross. At least eight were awarded the Silver Star. Twenty-six died in service and another twenty-six were wounded. Based on this, VPI was designated as one of twelve 'Distinguished Colleges' by the War Department.

After World War I, veterans affected the Corps and VPI at large, both as new and returning cadets. In 1921, women were admitted to VPI as civilian students and attended classes as day students. The next year the Corps was reorganized into a regiment of two battalions. Two years later (1923) military service as a cadet was reduced from four years to two; however, after two years of the camaraderie of Corps life very few cadets chose to convert to civilian student status. During the national rail strike of 1923 the corps again volunteered to the Virginia Governor for active military service. They were not called upon.

A Third Battalion was added to the regiment by 1927. Rapid growth followed as Virginia Tech's reputation as both an outstanding academic and military institution grew. In 1939, a Fourth Battalion was added.

During World War II, academic sessions and the Corps operated on a twelve-month cycle. The Corps had grown to a brigade of 2,650 cadets consisting of two regiments with a total of five battalions. The First Battalion was primarily Infantry ROTC. The Second Battalion was Engineer ROTC and the Third, Fourth and Fifth consisted of Cadet Batteries taking Coast Artillery ROTC. Because of the war, seniors were graduated and commissioned early. Juniors were on an accelerated schedule and brought on active duty. Finally, sophomores and freshmen over 18 were largely inducted into military service. The Corps soon numbered under 300 and was organized into a single battalion.

During the war, the Commandant of Cadets, in addition to the cadet battalion, supervised a unit of the Army Specialized Training Program and Army Specialized Training Reserve Program (ASTRP) (soldiers under 18 years of age) and a Navy pre-flight-training unit. These units included many former cadets, and adopted many of the traditions of the Corps, including the Honor Code and saluting the Rock. The young men of the ASRTP were actually uniformed in cadet gray. Once again VPI was largely an active duty military installation.

During World War II, 7,285 alumni served in uniform. The army had 5,941 men, the navy 1,095, 110 in the Marine Corps, 29 in the Merchant Marine, 23 in the Coast Guard, and one in the Royal Air Force. These included ten Brigadier Generals, five Major Generals, and one Rear Admiral. Three hundred twenty-three died, five were awarded the Medal of Honor, seven the Distinguished Service Cross, two the Navy Cross, at least 73 the Silver Star, and 94 the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Following World War II, returning veterans were not required to serve in the Corps and the great influx of veterans swelled the number of civilian students. Civilian students out-numbered cadets for the first time in 1946. That same year Air Force ROTC was introduced to Virginia Tech. Initially civilian-cadet relations were not good as most veterans were attending Virginia Tech for the first time. Thanks to the regimental commander, Cadet Robertson (class of 1949), a World War II Coast Guard veteran, greater understanding was promoted among his fellow veterans and the Corps continued to grow and flourish.

During the following years the Corps would expand again back to a regiment and eventually organize into four battalion-size units. The Cadet 1st Battalion was housed at Radford Army Arsenal for two years at "Rad-Tech." There, in World War II Army barracks, the cadets lived and took many of their classes. For unavailable classes, a fleet of buses brought them back to the main campus. As new dorms were completed the battalion returned to campus.

During the Korean War, 1,867 corps alumni served, of whom 30 died in service, and one was awarded the Medal of Honor (Richard Shea, class of 1948). In 1952, the university employed a retired general as the Commandant of Cadets. This was a departure from policy since 1884, where the senior active duty military instructor functioned as commandant.

In 1958, Virginia Tech became the first traditionally white southern college to graduate an African American, with the graduation of Cadet Charles Yates (class of 1958).

In a move to expand educational opportunities at Virginia Tech, the board of visitors made participation in the Corps completely voluntary starting in 1964. However the taking of ROTC continued to require Corps membership. The Vietnam War period saw unrest on campus outside the Corps ranks. In 1970 demonstrations were conducted with the aim of halting Corps drill. Cowgill and Williams Hall were occupied and over 100 students were arrested. Other incidents occurred including the suspected arson of an on-campus building. Civilian-cadet relations were at an all-time low. Throughout all of this, the Corps maintained discipline and high esprit.

The post-Vietnam years saw the Corps numbers decline and reorganization to a two-battalion sized regiment. In 1973, Virginia Tech was among the first Corps of Cadets in the nation to enroll women, assigning them to L Squadron. In 1975, the first female cadet was assigned to Band Company. In 1979, L Squadron was disbanded and female cadets were integrated into the line companies. In 1991, the Cadet dormitories became coed.

Naval ROTC was established in 1983. The cadet regiment expanded to a three-battalion structure in 1998. Today the Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets is one of six senior military colleges outside the five federal military academies. Virginia Tech is one of only two universities in the nation that maintains a full time military environment within a larger civilian university; the other is Texas A&M, which also dubs its institution the Corps of Cadets.

The Corps at Virginia Tech has seen many turbulent years and weathered them all. Since the Spanish American War, the corps has provided officers to the U.S. military. Most recently, the War in Iraq has seen three alumni killed. The valor of Corps alumni is legendary, with seven Medal of Honor recipients, and eighteen recipients of the nation's second highest award for valor, the Distinguished Service Cross or Navy Cross. The Corps exemplifies in many ways the University motto, "Ut Prosim"--that I may serve.

The Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets (VTCC) is a cadet-run organization modeled on an Army regiment structure. The cadet corps is supervised by a senior leadership staff who establish cadet regulations and enforce base line guidance for the running of the cadet corps. The day-to-day corps activities, however, are run by the cadets.

The senior leadership is provided by the Commandant of Cadets, who is appointed by Virginia Tech and is a paid faculty member. The Commandant is typically a retired Major General from either the Army or Air Force. Of note, the VTCC has never had a Commandant from the Navy or the Marine Corps.

The Commandant is assisted by three Deputy Commandants who oversee the cadet battalions and one Deputy Commandant for Leader Development. There is also an Assistant Commandant of Cadets for Recruiting and an Assistant Commandant for Alumni Development. The Commandant of Cadets is assisted by an Executive Officer, typically a recent civilian track corps graduate who assists in administrative matters and also serves as the Traveling Recruiter.

The Director of the Regimental Band is also a member of the Commandant's Staff and is normally appointed from the officer ranks of the Virginia Militia.

Freshman cadets are required to report to Virginia Tech a week before the start of classes for training, also known as New Cadet Week. During this week, the new cadets are trained in drill with and without a weapon and also receive physical training to help prepare them for the rigors of leadership and the upcoming stresses of the academic year. The week ends on Saturday with the New Cadet Parade, where the new cadets march under arms for their families and university staff, as well as a crowd of friends and fellow Virginia Tech students moving onto campus. The parade is intended to display the change in the new cadets and their acquisition of military knowledge and discipline. After this event, the new cadets are given approximately 30 hours of pass so they can stay overnight off-campus with their families. During this freshman pass, the returning upperclass who were not cadre move into their rooms in Upper Quad (Brodie Hall, Rasche Hall, and Monteith Hall).

Prior to the Freshman year of the Class of 2004, the old corps system was in effect where a freshman had minimal privileges and spent the year earning acceptance into their designated company and the Corps. They were under the direct control of their Cadre (or Drill Instructors) for the entire year. Most Friday or Saturday nights were spent in physical training under the instruction of the upperclassmen or spent cleaning the company common areas and studying under the supervision of the Cadre. Throughout the year, they would gain acceptance from the different class above them at hall-mark events.

Approximately 10 weeks into the freshman year, they would experience "Turn Day". In this event, freshman cadets, still referred to as "New Cadet" in title, would be woken up at 0530 by their upperclassmen on a Saturday morning and made to run a series of obstacles, exercises, and events that would test their physical and mental stamina. Throughout these events, the New Cadets would be guided and supervised by their upperclassmen, specifically the sophomores on this event. This would usually last until 1530 where the entire Corps would have a formation on the Upper Quad between their dormitories. At that point, each company would be dismissed to their respective hallways. Here the New Cadets would experience a company level initiation event, most commonly consisting of further PT and having to duck-walk with a black leather belt clamped in their mouth (The black belt was a symbol of the Upperclass cadets and a privilege denied the Freshman cadets.) Once this was completed, the Freshman cadets were promoted to the rank of "Cadet Private", told they had no longer New Cadets, or trainees, but had become members of the Corps and were "turned" to the Sophomore class. This meant they could now begin a social relationship with the Sophomores and were allowed to address them by their first name when not in a professional environment.

For juniors, a major hallmark is the Ring Dance in February. The Ring Dance celebrates the junior class's right to wear a Virginia Tech class ring, a major moment of pride in a cadet's career. At ring dance, the freshmen cadets play pranks on the junior class - usually involving the junior cadets rooms. At the end of the Ring Dance, the freshman cadets are turned to the junior class.

The last major hallmark was the rite of initiation. This varied in practice and timeframe from company to company, but was completed before the senior class performed their last Pass in Review as cadets. At this point, the freshman class officially becomes the sophomore class and is turned to the former senior class. The last class to experience this system was the Class of 2003.

After the introduction of the class of 2004, a new cadet training system was implemented. The new cadets officially begin Red Phase upon returning from pass at 1830 for their first study hours Sunday evening. A freshman cadet typically has eight-and-a-half hours of unstructured time during a weekday in which to attend classes, study, run errands, and workout. Red Phase, like the color red, is the most intense phase, and the new cadets continue to be trained by their cadre (juniors and seniors who were specifically trained to train the freshmen). They will be expected to learn topics from The Guidon, the Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets book of knowledge and will be quizzed on topics from the Guidon during "Freshmen Online", more commonly referred to as "onlines". Onlines are conducted Monday through Thursday and last for one-half hour. Onlines typically go away at the end of Red Phase. To delineate the phases, the cadets and cadre go on the Caldwell March, envisioned as the direct replacement for "Turn Day". The Caldwell March is named after the first student at Virginia Tech, William Addison Caldwell, and there is a statue of him by Brodie Hall on campus. William Addison walked 26 miles (42 km) to be the first student at Virginia Tech, and to commemorate this historic walk, the Caldwell March was begun. The march is broken into two 13-mile (21 km) hikes, the first 13 miles (21 km) are completed at the end of Red Phase, and Homer Hickam, whose life the movie October Sky is based upon, occasionally joins the cadets on this momentous hike. The hike begins at the Caldwell Homestead, which is still lived in today, and follows along parts of the Appalachian Trail, before ending at a park named after the Caldwell brothers. This usually takes place in October and the fall foliage adds to the spectacular views in marking the end of the arduous Red Phase. It is the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors' policy, that any freshmen or transfer cadets who leave the corps before the end of Red Phase (which is usually defined by the university's last day to drop classes in the fall semester and completion of the Caldwell March), must leave the university and begin again in the Spring (they do not have to re-apply).

White Phase begins after the Caldwell March in October and lasts until the conclusion of Military Weekend in February. During Blue Phase, freshman cadets attend Cadet Leader School taught by the Commandant's Staff and upperclassman cadets. During the Thursday afternoon period reserved normally for the Corps of Cadets lab, freshman are educated in leadership responsibilities and roleplay scenarios to learn solutions to different situations. Freshman cadets are evaluated during this time for their competence as Fire Team Leaders. Blue Phase normally terminates at the conclusion of the Second Caldwell March when the Freshman cadets are 'turned' to upperclassman status for the remainder of the year.

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Virginia Tech massacre

Permanent memorial on Virginia Tech's drillfield

The Virginia Tech massacre was a school shooting consisting of two separate attacks approximately two hours apart on April 16, 2007, that took place on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg, Virginia, United States. The perpetrator, Seung-Hui Cho, killed 32 people and wounded many others before committing suicide. The massacre was the deadliest shooting incident by a single gunman in United States history, on or off a school campus.

Cho, a senior English major at Virginia Tech, had been diagnosed with and was treated for a severe anxiety disorder in middle school and continued receiving therapy and special education support until his junior year of high school. While in college in 2005, Cho had been accused of stalking two female students and was declared mentally ill by a Virginia special justice. At least one professor had asked him to seek counseling.

The attacks received international media coverage and drew criticism of U.S. laws and culture from commentators around the world. It sparked intense debate about gun violence, gun laws, gaps in the U.S. system for treating mental health issues, the perpetrator's state of mind, the responsibility of college administrations, privacy laws, journalism ethics, and other issues. Television news organizations that aired portions of the killer's multimedia manifesto were criticized by victims' families, Virginia law enforcement officials, and the American Psychiatric Association.

The massacre prompted rapid changes in Virginia law that had allowed Cho, an individual adjudicated as mentally unsound, to purchase handguns without detection by the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). It also led to passage of the first major federal gun control measure in more than 13 years, a law that strengthened the NICS, which was signed by President George W. Bush on January 5, 2008.

The Virginia Tech Review Panel, a state-appointed body assigned to review the incident, criticized Virginia Tech administrators for failing to take action that might have reduced the number of casualties. The panel's report also reviewed gun laws and pointed out gaps in mental health care as well as misinterpretations of privacy laws and inherent flaws in the laws themselves that left Cho's deteriorating condition in college untreated.

Cho used two firearms during the attacks: a .22-caliber Walther P22 semi-automatic handgun and a 9 mm semi-automatic Glock 19 handgun. The shootings occurred in separate incidents, with the first at West Ambler Johnston Hall and the second at Norris Hall.

Cho was seen near the entrance to West Ambler Johnston Hall, a co-ed residence hall that houses 894 students, at about 6:45 a.m. EDT. The hall was normally only accessible to its residents via magnetic key card before 10 a.m. However, Cho's student mailbox was in the lobby of the building, so he had pass card access after 7:30 a.m. It is unclear how Cho gained early entrance to the building.

Cho shot his first victims around 7:15 a.m. in West Ambler Johnston Hall. A freshman, Emily J. Hilscher, aged 19, of Woodville, Rappahannock County, Virginia, and a male resident assistant, Ryan C. Clark, a senior, aged 22, of Martinez, Columbia County, Georgia, were shot and killed in the room Hilscher shared with another student. Cho left the scene and went back to his dormitory room. While police and emergency medical services units were responding to the shootings in the dorm next door, Cho changed out of his bloodstained clothes, logged on to his computer to delete his e-mail, and then removed the hard drive. About an hour after the attack, Cho was believed to be seen near the campus duck pond. Authorities suspected Cho threw his hard drive and cell phone into the water, but it was searched and the devices were never found.

Almost two hours after the first killings, Cho appeared at a nearby post office and mailed a package of writings and video recordings to NBC News; the package was postmarked 9:01 a.m. He then walked to the site of the second set of murders. In a backpack, he carried several chains, locks, a hammer, a knife, two guns, nineteen 10- and 15-round magazines, and almost 400 rounds of ammunition.

About two hours after the initial shootings, Cho entered Norris Hall, which houses the Engineering Science and Mechanics program among others, and chained the three main entrance doors shut. He placed a note on at least one of the chained doors, claiming that attempts to open the door would cause a bomb to explode. Shortly before the shooting began, a faculty member found the note and took it to the building's third floor to notify the school's administration. At the same time, however, Cho had gone to the second floor and began shooting students and faculty; the bomb threat was never called in.

Before Cho began shooting, several student eyewitnesses said he poked his head into a few classrooms. Erin Sheehan, an eyewitness and survivor who had been in room 207, told reporters that the shooter "peeked in twice" earlier in the lesson and that "it was strange that someone at this point in the semester would be lost, looking for a class". Cho's first attack after entering Norris occurred in an advanced hydrology engineering class taught by Professor G. V. Loganathan in room 206. Cho first shot and killed the professor, then continued shooting, killing nine of the 13 students in the room and injuring two others; only two survived unharmed. Next, Cho went across the hall to room 207, in which instructor Christopher James Bishop was teaching German. Cho killed Bishop and then commenced shooting students, killing four and wounding six others. Cho then moved on to Norris 211 and 204, reloading and shooting students and professors in classrooms and in the hallway, returning to most classrooms more than once. By the end of this second attack, which continued for nine minutes after the first 9-1-1 call was received and about 10 to 12 minutes in total, Cho had fired at least 174 rounds, killing 30 people and wounding 17 more. Sydney J. Vail, the director of the trauma center at Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital, said that Cho's choice of 9 mm hollow point ammunition had worsened the injuries.

Police took nearly five minutes to gain entry to the barricaded building. When they could not break the chains, an officer shot out a deadbolt lock leading into a laboratory; they then moved to a nearby stairwell. As police reached the second floor, they heard Cho fire his final shot. Police found Cho dead in Jocelyne Couture-Nowak's classroom, room 211, from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. During the investigation, State Police Superintendent William Flaherty told a state panel that police found 203 live rounds in Norris Hall. "He was well prepared to continue on," Flaherty testified.

Virginia Tech student Jamal Albarghouti used his mobile phone to capture video footage of a part of the attack from the exterior of Norris Hall. This was later broadcast on many news outlets.

Student Nikolas Macko described to BBC News his experience at the center of the shootings. He had been attending a computer science class in room 205, taught by graduate student Haiyan Cheng, who substituted for the professor that day. They heard gunshots in the hallway. At least three people in the classroom, including Zach Petkewicz, barricaded the door using a table. At one point, Macko said, the shooter attempted to open the classroom door and then shot twice into the room; one shot hit a podium and the other went out the window. The shooter reloaded and fired into the door, but the bullet did not penetrate into the room. Macko stated there were "many, many shots" fired.

In the aftermath, high winds related to the April 2007 Nor'easter prevented emergency medical services from using helicopters for evacuation of the injured. Victims injured in the shooting were treated at Montgomery Regional Hospital in Blacksburg, Carilion New River Valley Medical Center in Radford, Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital in Roanoke, Holston Valley Hospital in Kingsport, TN and Lewis-Gale Medical Center in Salem.

During the two attacks, Cho killed 5 faculty members and 27 students before committing suicide. The Virginia Tech review panel reported that Cho's gunshots wounded 17 other people; 6 more were injured when they jumped from second-story windows to escape.

The shooter was identified as 23-year-old Seung-Hui Cho, a South Korean citizen with U.S. permanent resident status. An undergraduate at Virginia Tech, Cho lived in Harper Hall, a dormitory west of West Ambler Johnston Hall.

The Virginia Tech review panel's August 2007 report devoted more than 30 pages to Cho's troubled history. At three years of age, Cho was described as shy, frail, and wary of physical contact. While early media reports carried speculation by South Korean relatives that Cho had autism, the review panel report dismissed this diagnosis. In eighth grade, Cho was diagnosed with severe depression as well as selective mutism, a social anxiety disorder that inhibited him from speaking. Cho's family sought therapy for him, and he received help periodically throughout middle school and high school. Early reports also indicated Cho was bullied for speech difficulties in middle school, but the Virginia Tech review panel could not officially confirm this. High school officials worked with his parents and mental health counselors to support Cho throughout his sophomore and junior years. Cho eventually chose to discontinue therapy. When he applied and was admitted to Virginia Tech, school officials did not report his speech and anxiety-related problems or special education status because of federal privacy laws that prohibit such disclosure unless a student requests special accommodation.

The Virginia Tech review panel detailed numerous incidents of aberrant behavior beginning in Cho's junior year of college that should have served as warning signals of his deteriorating mental condition. Several former professors of Cho reported that his writing as well as his classroom behavior was disturbing, and he was encouraged to seek counseling. He was also investigated by the university for stalking and harassing two female students. In 2005, Cho had been declared mentally ill by a Virginia special justice and ordered to seek outpatient treatment.

The Virginia Tech review panel report faulted university officials for failing to share information that would have shed light on the seriousness of Cho's problems, citing misinterpretations of federal privacy laws. The report also pointed to failures by Virginia Tech's counseling center, flaws in Virginia's mental health laws, and inadequate state mental health services, but concluded that "Cho himself was the biggest impediment to stabilizing his mental health" in college.

Cho's underlying psychological diagnosis at the time of the shootings remains a matter of speculation. Media outlets routinely compared Cho's motives and mental state to those of the Columbine killers; however, it remains unclear whether Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold's motives and mental states were similar to Cho's.

The university first informed students via e-mail at 9:26 a.m., more than two hours after the first shooting, which was thought at the time to be isolated and domestic in nature. The state review panel, which issued its final report in August 2007, validated public criticisms that university officials erred in "prematurely concluding that their initial lead in the double homicide was a good one," and in delaying a campus-wide notification for almost two hours. The report analyzed the feasibility of a campus lockdown and essentially agreed with police testimony that such an action was not feasible. The report concluded that the toll could have been reduced if the university had made an immediate decision to cancel classes and a stronger, clearer initial alert of the presence of a gunman.

Virginia Tech canceled classes for the rest of the week, closed Norris Hall for the remainder of the semester, and held an assembly and candlelight vigil on April 17. The university offered counseling for students and faculty, and the American Red Cross dispatched several dozen crisis counselors to Blacksburg to help students. University officials also allowed students, if they chose, to abbreviate their semester coursework and still receive a grade.

Within a day after the shootings, Virginia Tech formed the Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund (HSMF) to help remember and honor the victims. The fund is used to cover expenses including, but not limited to: assistance to victims and their families, grief counseling, memorials, communications expenses, and comfort expenses. In early June 2007, the Virginia Tech Foundation announced that US$3.2 million was moved from the HSMF into 32 separate named endowment funds, each created in honor of a victim lost in the shooting. This transfer brought each fund to the level of full endowment, allowing them to operate in perpetuity. The naming and determination of how each fund will be directed is being developed with the victims' families. By early June, donations to the HSMF had reached approximately $7 million. In July 2007, Kenneth R. Feinberg, who served as Special Master of the federal September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001, was named to administer the fund's distributions. In October 2007, the families and surviving victims received payments ranging from $11,500 to $208,000 from the fund.

In early June 2007, the university announced it would begin reoccupying Norris Hall within a matter of weeks. The building is to be used for offices and laboratories for the Engineering Science and Mechanics and Civil and Environmental Engineering departments, its primary occupants before the shootings. The building is to be completely renovated over time, and it will no longer contain classrooms.

After the release of the Virginia Tech review panel report, some parents of those slain called for Virginia's governor to relieve the university president and campus police chief of their positions. However, Governor Tim Kaine rejected the notion, saying that the school officials had "suffered enough".

EQUITAS, a Canada-based “Strategic Rule of Law Think Tank” governed by international law, published a report pertaining to the Virginia Tech massacre which includes a review of measures for counter-terrorism and campus security adopted between 1993 through April 16, 2007. The report criticized Virginia Tech's institutional decision-making process and summarized the lethal effects of failing to “implement and administer valid procedural and substantive safeguards aimed at securing the broad Va Tech and Blacksburg community against Level II type incidents involving acts of terrorism and mass casualties". The report did not comment on gun control or mental health issues.

After becoming aware of the incident, students communicated with their families and peers about their conditions, using telephones and social networking services. Some bodies were found with cell phones and PDAs still ringing.

Tech students of South Korean descent initially feared they would be targeted for retribution. However, no cases of discrimination against Asian Virginia Tech students were reported in the weeks following the shootings.

Despite the timing of the shootings, as prospective students were replying to offers of admission from colleges and universities, Virginia Tech exceeded its recruiting goal of 5,000 students for the class of 2011.

In the hours and days following the shooting, makeshift memorials to those killed or injured began appearing in several locations on the campus. Many people placed flowers and items of remembrance at the base of the Drillfield observation podium in front of Burruss Hall. Later, members of Hokies United placed 32 pieces of Hokie Stone, each labeled with the name of a victim, in a semicircle in front of the Drillfield viewing stand.

Following the shootings, members of the Virginia Tech community wondered whether Norris Hall, the site of the shooting, would be reopened, transformed into a memorial, or torn down. Administrators decided to keep the building open.

President Bush and his wife Laura attended the convocation at Virginia Tech the day after the shootings. The Internal Revenue Service and Virginia Department of Taxation granted six-month extensions to individuals affected by the shootings. Virginia Governor Tim Kaine returned early from a trade mission to Tokyo, Japan, and declared a "state of emergency" in Virginia, enabling him to immediately deploy state personnel, equipment, and other resources in the aftermath of the shootings.

The incident also caused Virginia Commonwealth elected officials to re-examine gaps between federal and state gun purchase laws. Within two weeks, Governor Kaine had issued an executive order designed to close those gaps (see Gun politics debate, below).

Prompted by the incident, the federal government passed the most significant gun control law in over a decade. The bill, H.R. 2640, mandates improvements in state reporting to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) in order to halt gun purchases by criminals, those declared mentally ill, and other people prohibited from possessing firearms and authorizes up to $1.3 billion in federal grants for such improvements. Both the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence and the National Rifle Association supported the legislation. The measure passed the United States House of Representatives on a voice vote on June 13, 2007. The Senate passed the measure on December 19, 2007. President Bush signed the measure on January 5, 2008. On March 24, 2008, the U.S. Department of Education announced proposed changes in the regulations governing education records under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Certain of the changes address issues raised by the Virginia Tech incident and are intended to clarify for schools the appropriate balance to strike between concerns of individual privacy and public safety.

When the citizenship of the shooter became known, South Koreans expressed shock and a sense of public shame, while the South Korean Cabinet convened an emergency meeting to consider possible ramifications. A candlelight vigil was held outside the Embassy of the United States in Seoul. South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun expressed his deepest condolences. South Korea's ambassador to the U.S. and several Korean American religious leaders called on Korean Americans to participate in a 32-day fast, one day for each victim, for repentance. The foreign minister, Song Min-soon, announced that safety measures had been established for Koreans living in the U.S., in apparent reference to fears of possible reprisal attacks. A ministry official expressed hope that the shooting would not "stir up racial prejudice or confrontation". Some Korean Americans criticized the fasting proposal, saying that it directed undue and irrelevant attention on Cho's ethnicity and not other, more salient, reasons behind the shooting. News reports noted that South Koreans seemed relieved that American news coverage of Cho focused on his psychological problems. The Korea Tourism Organization (KTO) pulled its "Sparkling Korea" television advertisements off CNN after the shootings. A KTO official said it would be inappropriate to air the advertisements featuring images of Korea's culture and natural beauty in between the news reports of the rampage.

Hundreds of other colleges and universities throughout North America responded to the incident with official condolences and by conducting their own vigils, memorial services, and gestures of support. Some schools went beyond this and offered or provided cash donations and other forms of expertise and support, such as housing for officers and additional counseling support for Virginia Tech. Both inside the U.S. and abroad, the incident caused many universities to re-examine their own campus safety and security procedures as well as their mental health support services.

Some of Cho's family members expressed sympathy for the victims' families and described his history of mental and behavioral problems. Cho's maternal grandfather was quoted in The Daily Mirror referring to Cho as a person who deserved to die with the victims. On Friday, April 20, Cho's family issued a statement of grief and apology, written by his sister, Sun-Kyung Cho.

Many heads of state and international figures offered condolences and sympathy, including Pope Benedict XVI, Queen Elizabeth II, and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Sporting teams and leagues at both the college and professional levels, as well as sports figures from football, baseball, hockey, soccer, and NASCAR racing, paid their respects and joined fundraising efforts to honor the victims.

On July 30, 2007, after it came to light that Seung-Hui Cho had purchased on eBay two 10-round magazines for one of the guns used in the shootings, the online auctioneer prohibited the sale of firearms magazines, firearms parts, and ammunition components on its site.

The massacre reignited the gun politics debate in the United States, with proponents of gun control legislation arguing that guns are too accessible, citing that Cho, a mentally unsound individual, was able to purchase two semi-automatic pistols. Proponents of gun rights argued that Virginia Tech's gun-free "safe zone" policy ensured that none of the other students or faculty would be armed and that as a result they were unable to stop Cho's rampage.

Law enforcement officials found a purchase receipt for one of the guns used in the assault among Cho's belongings. The shooter waited one month after buying a Walther P22 pistol before he bought a second pistol, a Glock 19. Cho used a 15-round magazine in the Glock and a 10-round magazine in the Walther. The serial numbers on the weapons were filed off, but the ATF National Laboratory was able to reveal them and performed a firearms trace.

The sale of firearms to permanent residents in Virginia is legal as long as the buyer shows proof of residency. Virginia law also limits purchases of handguns to one every 30 days. Federal law requires a criminal background check for handgun purchases from licensed firearms dealers, and Virginia checks other databases in addition to the federally mandated NICS. A 1968 federal law passed in response to the assassinations of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr., also prohibits those "adjudicated as a mental defective" from buying guns. This exclusion applied to Cho after a Virginia court declared him to be a danger to himself in late 2005 and sent him for psychiatric treatment. Because of gaps between federal and Virginia state laws, the state did not report Cho's legal status to the NICS. Virginia Governor Timothy Kaine addressed this problem on April 30, 2007, by issuing an executive order intended to close those reporting gaps. In August 2007, the Virginia Tech review panel report called for a permanent change in the Code of Virginia to clarify and strengthen the state's background check requirements. The federal government later passed a law to improve state reporting to the NICS nationwide.

The shootings also renewed debate surrounding Virginia Tech's firearms ban. The university has a general ban on possession or storage of firearms on campus by employees, students, and volunteers, or any visitor or other third parties, even if they are state-licensed concealed weapons permit holders. In April 2005, a student licensed by the state to carry concealed weapons was discovered possessing a concealed firearm in class. While no criminal charges were filed, a university spokesman said the University had "the right to adhere to and enforce that policy as a common-sense protection of students, staff and faculty as well as guests and visitors".

In August 2007, the Virginia Tech review panel report recommended that the state's General Assembly adopt legislation "establishing the right of every institution of higher education to regulate the possession of firearms on campus if it so desires" and went on to recommend campus gun bans, "unless mandated by law." The report also recommended gun control measures unrelated to the circumstances of the massacre, such as requiring background checks for firearms sales at gun shows. Governor Kaine made it a priority to enact a gun show background check law in the 2008 Virginia General Assembly, but the bill was defeated in the Senate Courts of Justice Committee.

The incident and its aftermath energized student activist efforts seeking to overturn bans that prevent gun permit holders from carrying their weapons on college campuses. Thirty-eight states throughout the U.S. ban weapons at schools; sixteen of those specifically ban guns on college campuses. A new group, Students for Concealed Carry on Campus, formed after the massacre; as of March 2008, it claimed to have 16,000 members at 500 campuses nationwide. Several states are weighing legislation to allow gun permit holders to carry concealed firearms on university campuses. Another attempt by Delegate Gilbert to pass a law to allow concealed weapons on college campuses in Virginia was defeated in March 2008.

The response to how gun laws affected the massacre was divided. According to a White House statement, "The president believes that there is a right for people to bear arms, but that all laws must be followed". The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence said that it was easy for an individual to get powerful weapons and called for increased gun control measures. Gun rights activist and National Rifle Association board member Ted Nugent, commenting on CNN, called for an end to gun-free zones and contrasted the Virginia Tech massacre with other incidents in which mass shootings have been ended by law-abiding gun owners.

Some government officials in other countries joined in the criticism of U.S. gun laws and policies. For example, then Australian Prime Minister John Howard said that stringent legislation introduced after a 1996 mass shooting in Tasmania had prevented a problematic gun culture in Australia.

On June 17, 2008, Virginia Circuit Court Judge Theodore J. Markow approved an $11 million settlement with 24 of the 32 victims' families. Of the other eight victims, two families chose not to file claims, while two remain unresolved. The settlement also covered 18 people who were injured; they will have health care needs covered for life.

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2007-08 Virginia Tech Hokies men's basketball team

Drill Field Virginia Tech - cropped.png

The 2007-08 Virginia Tech Hokies men's basketball team is an NCAA Division I college basketball team competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The Hokies lost five seniors off of their 2006-07 season team, which finished as the third place team in the conference, beating Duke at Cameron Indoor Stadium and sweeping North Carolina.

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2004 Virginia Tech Hokies football team

2004 Virginia Tech NC State wide right.jpg

The 2004 Virginia Tech Hokies football team represented Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University during the 2004 NCAA Division I-A football season. The team's head coach was Frank Beamer.

Virginia Tech began the season unranked nationally, having suffered a meltdown at the end of the 2003 season. The Hokies faced a daunting schedule, beginning with a nationally-televisioned game against the defending national co-champion USC Trojans. That game, known as the BCA Classic, was the first NCAA college football game of the year, and would be followed by a tough conference schedule in the Hokies' new conference, the then-eleven-team Atlantic Coast Conference. Some publications picked the Hokies to finish as low as 8th place in the conference. Following a home loss to NC State in which the Hokies missed a would-be winning field goal as time expired, the prospects of keeping alive their 11-year streak of consecutive bowl game appearances seemed bleak.

The Hokies' season had a turning point in the fourth quarter of their game against Georgia Tech in Atlanta on ESPN Thursday night college football. This game was a must-win for Tech. Needing seven wins for bowl eligibility, and facing extremely tough opponents in the remainder of its schedule, Tech could not afford to lose the game. Trailing 17-7 at halftime, Tech went on to score 25 unanswered points in the last 5:44 of the game - passes of 80 and 51 yards and a 64-yard interception return - to turn an 8-point deficit into a 14-point victory.

Tech would go on to win their remaining regular-season games, including an upset of the Miami Hurricanes, to clinch the ACC championship. Following its success in the ACC, Virginia Tech was awarded a bid to the 2005 Sugar Bowl, a Bowl Championship Series game in New Orleans, Louisiana. Virginia Tech would face Auburn University, a team that had gone undefeated in the regular season but was denied a bid to the national championship game by virtue of its lower rank in the BCS poll. In a game that was not decided until the final two minutes, Virginia Tech lost to Auburn 16-13, bringing an end to the 2004 Virginia Tech football season.

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2006-07 Virginia Tech Hokies men's basketball team

Virginia Tech's basketball team just before tip-off of their March 1, 2007 game against Virginia

The 2006-07 Virginia Tech Hokies men's basketball team is an NCAA Division I college basketball team that competed in the Atlantic Coast Conference, finishing the regular season as the third place team in the conference.

During the 2006-2007 regular season, Virginia Tech beat Duke at Cameron Indoor Stadium and also swept North Carolina defeating the top-ranked team both in Blacksburg, VA and their home court in Chapel Hill, NC, although losing 3 times in a row to NC State including a loss ending their ACC tournament run.

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Source : Wikipedia