Walt Disney Pictures

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Posted by kaori 03/18/2009 @ 04:10

Tags : walt disney pictures, film studios, cinema, entertainment

News headlines
Robobama to join Hall of Presidents at Walt Disney World - Examiner.com
Walt Disney Imagineering has finally given the public a glimpse of the new Audio-Animatronic version of President Barack Obama, set to debut at the grand re-opening of the rehabbed Hall of Presidents at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom on July 4,...
Disney stands by Miramax - Fort Wayne Journal Gazette
A co-production with Ted Field's Radar Pictures. Opens Nov. 20. HOLLYWOOD – At Creative Artists Agency's recent corporate retreat, Walt Disney Co. Chief Executive Bob Iger was invited to expound on the future of the entertainment business and field...
An Update on Walt Disney Pictures, Tomorrowland - Magical Mountain
According to Collider.com, the upcoming Walt Disney Pictures film, "Tomorrowland" is moving right along with the production process. The site had interviewed Jon Lucas and Scott Moore, who said that they are turning in a script for the film to Disney....
All aboard for 'Carol' - Los Angeles Times
"We were blown away by this movie, and we knew we had to do something really special for it," said Lylle Breier, senior vice president of worldwide special events for Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. "We wanted to get out into the country and let...
Disney and Pixar's Up looks to fly through its opening weekend - Examiner.com
Walt Disney Pictures has certainly had its hands full these past few years, what with Pixar Animation Studios match-ups such as Wall-E and Ratatouille, upcoming productions such as Pirates of the Carribean 4, Frankenweenie, Jailhouse Rock,...
Walt Disney Pictures Looks Ahead After Dressing Down from the Boss - New York Times Blogs
By Brooks Barnes The live-action arm of Walt Disney Pictures got a public dressing down from the boss yesterday. Discussing second-quarter results, Robert A. Iger, Disney's chief executive, told analysts that the studio's poor performance – income...
Architecture Review Times Square Plan's Challenge: Lose the Cars ... - New York Times
And part of Times Square's value, from the days of its notoriety as a porn haven to the Walt Disney Company's takeover of 42nd Street, has been as a kind of instant snapshot of how the city sees itself. Its next incarnation will have as much to do with...
Don't let the Great Recession get you down; Enjoy a Walt Disney ... - Examiner.com
A final preparation idea is to gather any old photographs you may have taken in past Disney vacations. If you have never been on a Disney Vacation download some pictures for an activity I will mention later. Go to a local store like Wal-Mart or Target...
Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Aust | - Special Broadcasting Service
Toy Story, Monsters Inc, Finding Nemo, The Incredibles and Wall-E all redefined the art of computer animation in their day, but none of that matters now – they are family favourites because, like the best of Disney's golden era, they embrace, engage,...
Mickey Mouse Theater of the Air - MousePlanet
In the picture are stuffed 3-foot tall Charlotte Clark made dolls of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. The caption to the picture reads: “Lucky New Year…Amos (left) and Andy (right) turn over their lucky radio horseshoe to Walt Disney (center)....

Walt Disney Pictures


Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was found as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the parent company, then named Walt Disney Productions. Another label, Touchstone Pictures, was created in 1984 to enable Disney to release films with a more mature content than what was associated with the Disney name.

Walt Disney Pictures and Television, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studio Entertainment and the main production company for live-action feature films within the Walt Disney Motion Pictures Group, based at the Walt Disney Studios, acquires and produces output that are released under the Walt Disney Pictures and Touchstone Pictures banners. Their most commercially successful production partners in later years has been Jerry Bruckheimer, Spyglass Entertainment, Walden Media and Yash Raj Films.

Animated features produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios, Pixar Animation Studios, and DisneyToon Studios are usually released by Walt Disney Pictures. Exceptions include Who Framed Roger Rabbit and The Nightmare Before Christmas which were originally released by Touchstone Pictures.

One of the most recognized designs featured a castle based on their famous theme park structures in Disneyland and Walt Disney World. With a blue background or a blue/black gradient background, a glowing arch flies over the white castle with the titles on the bottom.

In 2000, Disney introduced a different logo, in which the screen was black and a glowing beam appeared on the screen and shone light on a gold version of Sleeping Beauty's castle and the Disney logo. The beam then arched over the castle, and faded out. It was seen on live-action movies made by Disney, as well as the animated Disney film, Brother Bear, and a reissued version of The Lion King.

In 2006, on Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, Disney introduced a new logo, which begins with a glowing star shining in the night sky. The view then heads down to what appears to be a town with a sailing ship in the distance and a steam train crossing a bridge over a river, before flying high over the tallest spire of Cinderella's castle, which features fireworks and a white flag with the Disney family crest on it. Eventually it settles in front of the castle while the glowing arch flies over it, and the title appears at the bottom. The music in this logo is the modified version of "When You Wish Upon a Star" from Pinocchio. Dead Man's Chest was the first live action film to receive the new logo, while Meet the Robinsons was the first animated film to receive it. Mark Mancina composed the music. The logo has received universally positive praise from moviegoers and Disney fans.

Walt Disney Pictures distributes most all of their own films internationally, with a few excepted movies to Canada. Some, though not all, films by Walt Disney Pictures are distributed in Canada by another billion-dollar franchise known as Alliance Films. In Turkey, Walt Disney Pictures films had been distributed by United International Pictures.

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Brother Bear

Brother Bear Poster.png

Brother Bear is a 2003 traditionally animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 1, 2003, the 44th animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. In the film, an Inuit boy pursues a bear in revenge for a battle that he provoked in which his oldest brother is killed. He tracks down the bear and kills it, but the Spirits, angered by this needless death, change the boy into a bear himself as punishment. Originally titled Bears, it was the third and final Disney animated feature produced primarily by the Feature Animation studio at Disney-MGM Studios in Orlando, Florida; the studio was shut down in March 2004, not long after the release of this film in favor of computer animated features. The film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Animated Feature, but lost against Finding Nemo. A sequel, Brother Bear 2 was released on August 29, 2006.

Long ago in a post-ice age North America, there are three Indian brothers named Kenai (Joaquin Phoenix), Denahi (Jason Raize), and Sitka (D.B. Sweeney). Denahi is the middle brother, and Sitka, the oldest. Kenai, the youngest, hates bears because they fight for the same food, overtake the land, and ruin his coming-of-age ceremony. Each brother was given his own totem when they came of age: Sitka, the eagle of guidance and Denahi, the wolf of wisdom. At the ceremony, Kenai is presented with the bear of love. Kenai questions the totem he has been given with his brother by saying that " don't love anyone, they don't think, they don't feel ", calling them thieves when he notices the stolen fish basket.

When Sitka is killed in a battle with the bear that stole the basket, Tanana (Joan Copeland), the tribal shaman, officiates a funeral rite for Sitka. Suddenly Kenai ignores the village teachings of brotherhood with animals and sets out to hunt the bear for revenge and eventually kills it. To punish Kenai, the Great Spirits, represented by the spirit of Sitka, transform him into a bear. Unfortunately his other brother, who was pursuing Kenai to stop him, doesn't realize what has happened. He finds Kenai's torn clothes and believes the bear took his other brother's life. In grief, he vows revenge.

Disoriented and barely escaping Denahi's wrath by falling into the river, Kenai awakens on the shore and in the presence of Tanana, who eases him through his initial shock at his change. Although she cannot understand his bear speech, she advises Kenai to find where the lights touch the mountain so that he can ask Sitka's spirit to change him back, and then she disappears without giving him directions. To Kenai's surprise, he finds he can talk with the other animals - but the only animals who are willing to talk to him are two stupid sibling moose, Rutt and Tuke (Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas, loosely based on Bob and Doug McKenzie, two characters the actors pouplarized in the 1980s) , who are more interested in cracking jokes at Kenai's claims to be a man than helping him. Along the way, Kenai meets a talkative, pesky bear cub named Koda (Jeremy Suarez), who claims to know the way to the salmon run where the bears gather to fish and where the lights seem to hug the mountain.

What follows is a journey in which Kenai, when not dodging Denahi who is now hunting him, grows rather fond of the irrepressible Koda who he learns shares his spiritual beliefs. This in turn puts his hatred of bears in a stark perspective that forces him to reconsider, especially when he learns that Koda sees humans as the same sort of dangerous monsters as he himself once believed bears to be. This culminates when they finally reach the salmon run and Kenai has the awkward experience of being surrounded by bears. Yet, the bears quickly accept him and he in turn learns about the loving community of these animals that makes his hate seem so foolish even as he learns to enjoy himself.

This contentment is shattered when Koda tells the story of his separation from his mother. Kenai is aghast as he puts the pieces together and realizes the story is about the fight he and his brothers had with the bear. Kenai realizes to his horror that the bear he killed was Koda's mother. Distraught at the harm he has done to a cub he has grown to love, Kenai flees the gathering. The next morning Koda follows and asks what's wrong. With great shame and remorse, but also with great moral courage, Kenai confesses. At this traumatic revelation, Koda is left grief stricken and runs away in loss and betrayal while ignoring Kenai's apologies and pleas for forgiveness.

With nothing left to keep him with the bears, Kenai scales the mountain to contact the spirit of Sitka. Koda mourns alone, but then has a chance encounter with the squabbling Tuke and Rutt who reconcile because of their brotherhood, which makes Koda realize the importance of his friendship with Kenai. Meanwhile, Denahi finally tracks down Kenai; in the ensuing fight, Koda, having forgiven Kenai, rushes in to help at a critical moment in the fight. Kenai struggles to protect Koda and is willing to sacrifice himself to save the cub, much as Koda's mother had done. With this selfless act, Kenai shows that he has profoundly changed for the better and Sitka, who had been watching everything in the form of an eagle, changes Kenai back into a human.

Yet, while Kenai has regained his humanity, he can no longer talk with Koda, a cub who is now orphaned yet again. Rather than abandon Koda, Kenai tells Sitka that Koda needs him. Denahi calls Kenai "little brother" instead of "baby brother" and Sitka transforms Kenai (by his choice) back into a bear. The three brothers then share a hug and say goodbye, while Koda and his mother's spirit do the same.The film ends with Kenai as a bear, accompanied by Koda, being welcomed back by his tribe and pressing his pawprint to the cliff wall, which bears the handprints of countless generations of other tribe members who also fulfilled the calling of their totem animals.

According to Ruben Aquino, supervising animator for the character of Denahi, Denahi was originally meant to be Kenai's father; later this was changed to Kenai's brother.

The reaction from film reviewers was mixed with many panning the film as a retread of older Disney films like The Lion King and the 20th Century Fox film Ice Age (although Brother Bear began production before Ice Age did), while others defended the film as a legitimate variation of the theme. The popular American movie critics Roger Ebert and Richard Roeper have given positive reviews of the film.

The American reaction to the film revealed a sharp difference of opinion between Christian fundamentalists and the rest of society. The fundamentalist reviewers attacked the film as immoral for presenting a story world of divine spirits and promoting the idea of the fundamental spiritual equality of humanity and animals which was at odds with the Bible. On the other hand, The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops praised the film as extolling a philosophy similar to St. Francis of Assisi. In addition, secular critics who liked the film praised its story as a very moral work with messages about forgiveness, empathy, and brotherhood.

Of note to many critics and viewers was the use of the film's aspect ratio as a storytelling device. The film begins at a standard widescreen aspect ratio of 1.75:1 (similar to the 1.85:1 ratio common in U.S. cinema or the 1.78:1 ratio of HDTV), while Kenai is a human; in addition, the film's art direction and color scheme are grounded in realism. After Kenai transforms into a bear twenty-four minutes into the picture, the film itself transforms as well: to an anamorphic aspect ratio of 2.35:1 and towards brighter, more fanciful colors and slightly more caricatured art direction. Brother Bear was the first feature since The Horse Whisperer to do a widescreen shift. It was the only animated feature to do this trick, until The Simpsons Movie and Enchanted in 2007.

The film made $85,336,277 during its domestic theatrical run and then went on to earn $164,700,000 outside the U.S., bringing its worldwide total to $250,383,219, which is successful. In addition, its March 30, 2004 DVD release brought in more than $167 million in DVD and VHS sales and rentals. In April 2004 alone, 5.51 million copies of Brother Bear were sold.

Wil Wheaton is listed by many sources, previously including the Internet Movie Database (IMDb) as providing "additional voices" for the film. Willie Wheaton, the credited voice actor, is a different person.

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The Nightmare Before Christmas


Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas is a 1993 stop motion fantasy film directed by Henry Selick and produced/co-written by Tim Burton. It tells the story of Jack Skellington, a being from "Halloween Town" who opens a portal to "Christmas Town". Danny Elfman wrote the film score and provided the singing voice of Jack, as well as other minor characters. The remaining principal voice cast includes Chris Sarandon, Catherine O'Hara, William Hickey, and Glen Shadix.

The genesis of The Nightmare Before Christmas started with a poem by Burton as a Disney animator in the early-1980s. With the success of Vincent in 1982, Disney started to consider The Nightmare Before Christmas as either a short subject or 30-minute television special. Over the years, Burton's thoughts regularly returned to the project, and in 1990, Burton and Disney made a development deal. Production started in July 1991 in San Francisco. Walt Disney Pictures decided to release the film under their Touchstone Pictures banner because they thought Nightmare would be "too dark and scary for kids". The Nightmare Before Christmas has been viewed with critical and financial success. Disney has reissued the film under their Disney Digital 3-D format in 2006, 2007 and 2008.

Jack's obsession with Christmas leads him to usurp the role of Santa Claus. Every resident is assigned a task, while Sally, a rag doll woman who is created by the town's mad scientist, begins to feel a romantic attraction towards Jack. However, she alone fears that his plans will become disastrous. Jack assigns Lock, Shock, and Barrel, a trio of mischievous children, to abduct Santa and bring him back to Halloween Town. Against Jack's wishes and largely for their amusement, the trio deliver Santa to Oogie Boogie, a gambling-addict bogeyman who plots to play a game with Santa's life as the stake.

Christmas Eve arrives and Sally attempts to stop Jack, but he embarks into the sky on a coffin-like sleigh pulled by skeletal reindeer, guided by the glowing nose of his ghost dog Zero. He begins to deliver presents to children around the world, but the gifts (shrunken heads, Christmas tree-eating snakes, etc.) only terrify the recipients. Jack is believed to be an imposter attempting to imitate Santa, and the military goes on alert to blast him out of the sky. The sleigh is shot down and he is presumed dead by Halloween Town's citizens, but in fact he has survived the crash. Although he is depressed by the failure of his plan, he quickly regains his old spirit, having come up with new ideas for next Halloween. He then rushes back home to rescue Santa and put things right.

Meanwhile, Sally attempts to free Santa but is captured by Oogie. Jack slips into the lair and frees them, then confronts Oogie and unravels his outer covering to spill out all the bugs that live inside him. With Oogie gone, Santa reprimands Jack before setting off to deliver the right presents to the world's children. He makes snow fall over Halloween Town to show that there are no hard feelings between himself and Jack; the townspeople are confused by the snow at first, but soon begin to play happily in it. Jack reveals that he is attracted to Sally just as she is to him, and they kiss under the full moon in the cemetery.

Paul Reubens, O'Hara and Elfman also supply the voices of Lock, Shock, and Barrel. Reubens previously worked with Burton as Pee-wee Herman in Pee-wee's Big Adventure (1985). In addition Elfman also plays "Clown with the Tear-Away Face".

Burton wrote a three-page poem titled The Nightmare Before Christmas when he was a Disney animator in the early-1980s. Burton took inspiration from television specials of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, How the Grinch Stole Christmas! and the poem A Visit from St. Nicholas. With the success of Vincent in 1982, Disney started to consider The Nightmare Before Christmas as either a short subject or 30-minute Holiday television special. Rick Heinrichs and Burton created concept art and storyboards, with Heinrichs also sculpting character models. "Back then, I would have done anything to get the project off ground," Burton explained. "There was a lot of talk of either a short film, like Vincent or a TV special, but it went nowhere. I also wanted to have Vincent Price as narrator." Burton showed Henry Selick, who was also a Disney animator in the early-1980s, the material he and Heinrichs developed.

Over the years, Burton's thoughts regularly returned to the project. In 1990, Burton found out that Disney still owned the film rights, and the two committed to produce a full-length film with Selick as director. Disney was looking forward to Nightmare "to show capabilities of technical and storytelling achievements that were present in Who Framed Roger Rabbit." Nightmare marked Burton's third film in a row to have a Christmas setting. Burton could not direct because of his commitment to Batman Returns and he did not want to be involved with "the painstakingly slow process of stop-motion". To adapt his poem into a screenplay, Burton approached Michael McDowell, his collaborator on Beetlejuice. McDowell and Burton experienced creative differences, which convinced Burton to make the film as a musical with lyrics and compositions by frequent collaborator Danny Elfman. Elfman and Burton created a rough storyline and two-thirds of the film's songs, while Selick and his team of animators began production in July 1991 in San Francisco, California with a crew of 200 workers. Joe Ranft worked as a storyboard artist.

On the direction of the film, Selick reflected, "It's as though he laid the egg, and I sat on it and hatched it. He wasn't involved in a hands-on way, but his hand is in it. It was my job to make it look like "a Tim Burton film", which is not so different from my own films." When asked on Burton's involvement, Selick claimed, "I don't want to take away from Tim, but he was not in San Francisco when we made it. He came up five times over two years, and spent no more than eight or ten days in total." Walt Disney Animation Studios contributed with some use of second-layering traditional animation. Burton found production somewhat difficult because he was directing Batman Returns and in pre-production of Ed Wood.

The film's soundtrack album was released in 1993 on Walt Disney Records. For the film's 2006 re-release in Disney Digital 3-D, a special edition of the soundtrack was released, featuring a bonus disc which contained covers of several of the film's songs by Fall Out Boy, Panic! At the Disco, Marilyn Manson, Fiona Apple, and She Wants Revenge. Six original demo tracks by Elfman were also included. On September 30, 2008, Disney released the cover album Nightmare Revisited.

Around the release of the film, Touchstone president David Hoberman quoted, "I hope Nightmare goes out and makes a fortune. If it does, great. If it doesn't, that doesn't negate the validity of the process. The budget was less than any Disney blockbuster so it doesn't have to earn Aladdin-sized grosses to satisfy us." The film premiered at the New York Film Festival on October 9. Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas was given a limited release on October 15, 1993, before being wide released on October 29. The film earned $50 million in the United States on its first theatrical run.

Danny Elfman was worried the characterization of Oogie Boogie would be considered racist by National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Elfman's predictions came true; however, director Henry Selick stated the character was inspired from the Betty Boop cartoon The Old Man of the Mountain. "Cab Calloway would dance his inimitable jazz dance and sing "Minnie the Moocher" or "Old Man of the Mountain", and they would rotoscope him, trace him, turn him into a cartoon character, often transforming him into an animal, like a walrus," Selick continued. "I think those are some of the most inventive moments in cartoon history, in no way racist, even though he was sometimes a villain. We went with Ken Page, who is a black singer and he had no problem with it". The film was nominated for both the Academy Award for Visual Effects and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost both categories to Jurassic Park. Nightmare won the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, while Elfman won Best Music. Selick and the animators were also nominated for their work. Elfman lost the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score to Kitarō of Heaven & Earth.

With successful home video sales, Nightmare achieved the ranks of a cult film. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment first released the film on DVD in December 1997. It contained no special features. Nightmare was released a second time in October 2000 as a special edition. The release included audio commentary by Selick and cinematographer Pete Kozachik, a 28-minute making-of documentary, gallery of concept art, and storyboards, test footage and deleted scenes. Burton's Vincent and Frankenweenie were also included. On October 20, 2006, Disney reissued Nightmare (not under Touchstone Pictures) with conversion to Disney Digital 3-D. Industrial Light & Magic assisted in the process. It made a further $8.7 million in the box office. A more successful reissue under the Disney Digital 3-D format came on October 19, 2007. In its third run, Nightmare made a further $15.8 million, with the final gross under three releases at $74.88 million for the United States market.

These reissues have led to a reemergence of 3-D films and advances in Real D Cinema. Disney released the film again on DVD and Blu-ray Disc in August 2008 as a two-disc digitally remastered "collector's edition". Nightmare has also led to a brand name for Emo and Goth subcultures. In addition Nightmare has inspired video game spin-offs, including Oogie's Revenge, The Pumpkin King (on Game Boy Advance) and in the Kingdom Hearts series. A trading card game is also available. Since 2001, Disneyland has held a Nightmare Before Christmas theme for its Haunted Mansion Holiday attraction.

The film has gone on to receive critical acclaim. Based on 67 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 97% of the critics enjoyed The Nightmare Before Christmas with the consensus of "a stunningly original and visually delightful work of stop-motion animation." With 15 reviewers in the "Top Critics" category, the film has a 100% approval rating. By comparison, Metacritic calculated an average score of 77, based on 16 reviews. Roger Ebert, who mainly was not enthusiastic over Burton's previous films, gave a highly positive review for Nightmare. Ebert believed the film's visual effects were as revolutionary as Star Wars, taking into account that Nightmare was "filled with imagination that carries us into a new world".

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called it a restoration of "originality and daring to the Halloween genre. This dazzling mix of fun and fright also explodes the notion that animation is kid stuff. ... It's 74 minutes of timeless movie magic." James Berardinelli stated "The Nightmare Before Christmas has something to offer just about everyone. For the kids, it's a fantasy celebrating two holidays. For the adults, it's an opportunity to experience some light entertainment while marveling at how adept Hollywood has become at these techniques. There are songs, laughs, and a little romance. In short, The Nightmare Before Christmas does what it intends to: entertain." Desson Thomson of The Washington Post enjoyed homages to German Expressionism, the Brothers Grimm and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.

More recently, the film ranked #1 on Rotten Tomatoes Top 25 Best Christmas Movies.

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Who Framed Roger Rabbit

Movie poster who framed roger rabbit.jpg

Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 fantasy comedy film directed by Robert Zemeckis, produced by Steven Spielberg and based on Gary K. Wolf's novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit?. The film combines the use of traditional animation and live action with elements of film noir, and stars Bob Hoskins, Charles Fleischer, Christopher Lloyd, Kathleen Turner and Joanna Cassidy. Who Framed Roger Rabbit is set in 1947 Hollywood, where cartoon characters (referred to as "Toons") commonly interact with the studio system of Classical Hollywood cinema. The film tells the story of private investigator Eddie Valiant caught in a mystery that involves Roger Rabbit, an A-list Toon who is framed for murder.

Walt Disney Pictures purchased the film rights to Who Censored Roger Rabbit? in 1981. Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman wrote two drafts of the script before Disney brought Spielberg and Amblin Entertainment to help finance the film. Zemeckis was hired to direct the live action scenes with Richard Williams overseeing animation sequences. For inspiration, Price and Seaman studied the work of Walt Disney and Warner Bros. Cartoons from the Golden Age of American animation, especially Tex Avery and Bob Clampett cartoons. Production was moved from Los Angeles to Elstree Studios in England to accommodate Williams and his group of animators.

During filming, the production budget began to rapidly expand and the shooting schedule lapsed longer than expected. However, Who Framed Roger Rabbit was released with financial success and critical acclaim. The film brought a re-emerging interest from the golden age of American animation and became the forefront for the modern era. Roger Rabbit left behind an impact that included a media franchise and the unproduced prequel Who Discovered Roger Rabbit.

In 1947, Los Angeles, California, Toons commonly interact with the Hollywood studio system and live in a section of the city known as Toontown. Roger Rabbit is the star of "Maroon Cartoon" animated short subjects, but he has trouble following the director's commands, delaying the production. Rumours are going about that Roger's wife Jessica has a sugar daddy and studio head R.K. Maroon hires private investigator Eddie Valiant to look into the matter. Eddie, whose brother Teddy was killed by a Toon five years before, reluctantly takes the job. He discovers that the buxom Jessica is "cheating" on Roger by literally playing pattycake with Marvin Acme, owner of the Acme Corporation and Toontown. Eddie reveals photographic evidence to Roger, who sinks into depression. Marvin Acme is found murdered the next day, and Roger becomes the prime suspect.

At the crime scene, Eddie is met by Judge Doom of the Toontown District Superior Court and his Toon Patrol weasel henchmen. Doom is eager to use "The Dip", a mixture of chemicals that can dissolve any Toon character on contact, on Roger once he can be found. Eddie encounters Baby Herman, Roger's co-star, who swears that Roger is innocent and that Acme's will, which would have left Toontown to the Toons, has gone missing; if the will is not found by midnight, Toontown could be sold at a public auction. Roger himself turns up at Eddie's office and pleads his innocence. Eddie begins to investigate the case deeper with his on-off girlfriend Dolores and a Toon taxicab named Benny while trying to keep Roger hidden from the Toon Patrol. Eddie discovers that Jessica was forced by Maroon to get close to Acme or else he would have ruined Roger's career. Maroon himself admits that he was forced into blackmail by another person, but before he can reveal who it was to Eddie, he is shot.

Eddie sees Jessica fleeing from the studio and, overcoming his anxiety, pursues her into Toontown. He recovers the gun that killed Maroon which, Jessica claims, was actually used by Judge Doom. As they attempt to bring Doom to the authorities, Eddie, Jessica and Roger are all captured by the Toon Patrol and taken to the Acme warehouse. Doom reveals his plans: as the sole stockholder in Cloverleaf Industries, he plans to buy Toontown, the Acme Company, and Maroon Studios, and then raze them to make way for a freeway for Los Angeles. To wipe out Toontown, Doom has built a vehicle with a large Dip vat that he plans to spray throughout the district, wiping out all the Toons. As Roger and Jessica struggle to avoid being hit by the spray of Dip, Eddie manages to get free and causes the weasels of the Toon Patrol to die of fatal hilarity through various comedic antics, leaving the Dip sprayer running automatically.

Eddie and Doom then fight, using assorted Toon props found within the factory, until Eddie is able to run Doom over with a steamroller. The crushing does not kill Doom; instead, Doom reveals himself to be a Toon, the same one that killed Eddie's brother. Eddie manages to open the drain on the Dip sprayer, showering Doom with the mixture and dissolving him. Eddie frees Roger and Jessica, their relationship having been mended, while the Dip sprayer harmlessly crashes through the warehouse wall into Toontown and immediately smashed by a Toon train. As numerous Toons enter the warehouse to see what the commotion is, Eddie discovers Acme's will. It was an apparent blank piece of paper that Acme had given to Jessica that Roger later wrote a love poem to his wife on, but the will itself was written in disappearing/reappearing ink. With the will in hand, the Toons celebrate the ownership of Toontown and sing "Smile, Darn Ya, Smile" while Roger and Jessica as well as Eddie and Dolores rekindle their relationships.

Richard LeParmentier has a small role as Lt. Santino. Joel Silver makes a cameo appearance as the frustrated director at the beginning of the film. Archive sound of Frank Sinatra from "Witchcraft" was used for the Singing Sword. In addition to Charles Fleischer, The Weasel gang voices were provided by David L. Lander, Fred Newman and June Foray. Mel Blanc voiced Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Tweety Bird, Porky Pig and Sylvester the Cat. Joe Alaskey voiced Yosemite Sam and Foghorn Leghorn. Other voice work was provided by Wayne Allwine as Mickey Mouse,Tony Pope as The Big Bad Wolf and Goofy, Russi Taylor as the Birds and Minnie Mouse and Tony Anselmo as Donald Duck.

Walt Disney Pictures purchased the film rights to Gary Wolf's novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit? shortly after its publication in 1981. Ron W. Miller, then president of the Walt Disney Company saw it as a perfect opportunity to produce a blockbuster. Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were hired to write the script, penning two drafts. Robert Zemeckis offered his services as director in 1982, but Disney acknowledged that his previous films (I Wanna Hold Your Hand and Used Cars) were box office bombs, and thus let him go. When Michael Eisner became the new Disney president, he revamped the project in 1985. Amblin Entertainment, which consisted of Steven Spielberg, Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy, were approached to produce Who Framed Roger Rabbit alongside Disney. The original budget was projected at $50 million, which Disney felt was too expensive.

Roger Rabbit was finally greenlit when the budget went down to $29.9 million, which at the time, still made it the most expensive animated film ever greenlit. Disney executive Jeffrey Katzenberg argued that the hybrid of live action and animation would "save" Disney's animation department. Spielberg's contract included a extensive amount of creative control and a large percentage of the box office profits. Disney kept all merchandising rights. Spielberg convinced Warner Bros., Paramount Pictures (Famous Studios and Fleischer Studios) and Universal Pictures (Winkler Pictures and Walter Lantz Productions) to "lend" their characters to appear in the film. However, Spielberg was not able to acquire Popeye, Felix the Cat, Tom and Jerry or the Terrytoons for appearances. Terry Gilliam was offered the chance to direct, but he found the project too technically challenging. ("Pure laziness on my part," he later admitted, "I completely regret that decision.") Robert Zemeckis was hired to direct in 1985, based on the success of Romancing the Stone and Back to the Future. Richard Williams was hired to direct the animation sequences.

Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were brought aboard to continue writing the script once Spielberg and Zemeckis were hired. For inspiration, the two writers studied the work of Walt Disney and Warner Bros. Cartoons from the Golden Age of American animation, especially Tex Avery and Bob Clampett cartoons. Chinatown influenced the storyline. Price and Seaman said that "the Red Car plot, suburb expansion and urban political corruption really did happen," Price stated. "In Los Angeles, during the 1940s, car and tire companies teamed up against the Pacific Electric Railway system and brought them out of business. Where the freeway runs in Los Angeles is where the Red Car use to be." In Wolf's novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit?, the Toons were comic strip characters rather than movie stars.

During the writing process, Price and Seaman were unsure of whom to include as antagonist. They wrote scripts that had either Jessica Rabbit or Baby Herman as the villain, but they made their final decision with newly-created character Judge Doom. Doom was supposed to have an animated vulture sit on his shoulder, but this was deleted for technical challenges. Doom's five-man "Weasel Gang" (Stupid, Smart Ass, Greasy, Wheezy and Psycho) satires the Seven Dwarfs (Doc, Grumpy, Happy, Sleepy, Bashful, Sneezy and Dopey) who appeared in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). Further references included The "Ink and Paint Club" resembling the Harlem Cotton Club, while Zemeckis compared Judge Doom's invention of "The Dip" to eliminate all the Toons as Hitler's Final Solution Benny the Cab was first concepted to be a Volkswagen Beetle instead of a Taxicab. Before finally agreeing on Who Framed Roger Rabbit as the film's title, working titles included Murder in Toontown, Toons, Dead Toons Don't Pay Bills, The Toontown Trial, Trouble in Toontown and Eddie Goes To Toontown.

Animation director Richard Williams admitted he was "openly disdainful of the Disney bureaucracy" and refused to work in Los Angeles. To accommodate him and his animators, production was moved to Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England. Disney and Spielberg also told Williams that in return for doing Roger Rabbit, they would help distribute his unproduced film The Thief and the Cobbler. Supervising animators included Andreas Deja, Simon Wells, Phil Nibbelink, Nik Ranieri and Dale Baer. The production budget continued to escalate while the shooting schedule lapsed longer than expected. When the budget was reaching $40 million, Disney president Michael Eisner heavily considered shutting down production, but Jeffrey Katzenberg talked him out of it. Disney moved forward on production, despite the escalating budget because they were enthusiastic to work with Spielberg.

VistaVision cameras installed with motion control technology were used to accommodate the split screen photography of animation and live action. Mime artists, puppeteers, mannequins and robotic arms were commonly used during filming to help the actors interact with "open air and imaginative cartoon characters". Filming began on December 5, 1986 and lasted for 7.5 months at Elstree Studios, with an additional four weeks in Los Angeles and at Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) for blue screen effects of Toontown. Post-production lasted for one year, and during this time ILM finished the color compositing. Jessica's dress in the night club scene, for instance, had flashing sequins, an effect created by filtering light through a plastic bag scratched with steel wool. Regular Zemeckis collaborator Alan Silvestri composed the film score with the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO). Zemeckis joked that "the British could not keep up with Silvestri's Jazz tempo". The music themes written for Jessica Rabbit were entirely improvised by the LSO. The work of Carl Stalling heavily influenced Silvestri's work on Who Framed Roger Rabbit.

Michael Eisner, then president of The Walt Disney Company, complained Who Framed Roger Rabbit was too risqué with sexual innuendos. Eisner and Zemeckis disagreed over elements with the film, but since Zemeckis had final cut privilege, he refused to make alterations. Jeffrey Katzenberg felt it was appropriate to release the film under their Touchstone Pictures banner. Who Framed Roger Rabbit opened on June 22, 1988 in America, grossing $11,226,239 in 1,045 theaters during its opening weekend. The film went on to gross $156.45 million in North America and $173.35 million internationally, coming to a worldwide total of $329.8 million. At the time of release, Roger Rabbit was the twentieth highest-grossing film of all time. The film was also the second highest grossing film of 1988, only behind Rain Man.

However, Richard Corliss, writing for Time, gave a mixed review. "The opening cartoon works just fine, but too fine. The opening scene upstages the movie that emerges from it," he said. Corliss was mainly annoyed by the homages towards the Golden Age of American animation. Today, 43 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes indicated 98% of reviewers enjoyed the film, earning an average score of 8.2/10. The consensus reads: "Who Framed Roger Rabbit is an innovative and entertaining film that features a groundbreaking mix of live action and animation, with a touching and original story to boot." By comparison, Metacritic calculated an average score of 83, based on 15 reviews.

Who Framed Roger Rabbit won Academy Awards for Sound Editing, Visual Effects and Film Editing. Nominations included Art Direction, Cinematography and Sound. Richard Williams received a Special Achievement Award "for animation direction and creation of the cartoon characters". Roger Rabbit won the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, as well as Best Direction for Zemeckis and Special Visual Effects. Bob Hoskins, Christopher Lloyd and Joanna Cassidy were nominated for their performances, while Alan Silvestri and the screenwriters received nominations. The film was nominated for four categories at the 42nd British Academy Film Awards and won an awards for its visual effects. Roger Rabbit was nominated the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy), while Hoskins was also nominated for his performance. The film also won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.

The success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit rekindled an interest in the golden Age of American animation, and sparked the modern animation scene. In 1991, Walt Disney Imagineering began to develop Mickey's Toontown for Disneyland, based on the Toontown that appeared in the film. The attraction also features a ride called Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin. Three theatrical short cartoons were also produced. Tummy Trouble played in front of Honey, I Shrunk the Kids, Roller Coaster Rabbit was shown with Dick Tracy and Trail Mix-Up was included with A Far Off Place. The film also inspired a short-lived comic book and video game spin-offs, including PC game, The Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle and a 1989 game released on the Nintendo Entertainment System.

Gary Wolf, author of the novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit? filed a lawsuit in 2001 against The Walt Disney Company. Wolf claimed he was owed royalties based on the value of "gross receipts" and merchandising sales. In 2002, the trial court in the case ruled that these only referred to actual cash receipts Disney collected and denied Wolf's claim. In its January 2004 ruling, the California Court of Appeal disagreed, finding that expert testimony introduced by Wolf regarding the customary use of "gross receipts" in the entertainment business could support a broader reading of the term. The ruling vacated the trial court's order in favor of Disney and remanded the case for further proceedings. In a March 2005 hearing, Wolf estimated he was owed $7 million. Disney's attorneys not only disputed the claim but said Wolf actually owed Disney $500,000—$1 million because of an accounting error discovered in preparing for the lawsuit.

With the critical and financial success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Walt Disney Pictures and Steven Spielberg felt it was obvious to plan a second installment. Nat Mauldin wrote a prequel titled Roger Rabbit: The Toon Platoon, set in 1941. Similar to the previous film, Toon Platoon featured many cameo appearances with characters from the golden Age of American animation. It began with Roger Rabbit's early years, living on a farm in the Midwestern United States. With human Richie Davenport, Roger travels west to seek his mother, in the process meeting Jessica Krupnick (his future wife), a struggling Hollywood actress. Jessica is kidnapped and forced to make pro-Nazi Germany broadcasts, thus Roger and Ritchie must save her by going into Nazi-occupied Europe. After their triumph, Roger and Ritchie are given a Hollywood Boulevard parade, and Roger is finally reunited with his mother, and father: Bugs Bunny. The film would have gone direct-to-video.

Mauldin later retitled the script Who Discovered Roger Rabbit. Spielberg left the project when deciding he could not satirize Nazis after directing Schindler's List. Michael Eisner commissioned a rewrite in 1997 with Sherri Stoner and Deanna Oliver. Although they kept Roger's search for his mother, Stoner and Oliver changed the story to Roger’s inadvertent rise to stardom on Broadway and Hollywood. Disney was impressed and Alan Menken was hired to write five songs for the film and offered his services as executive producer. One of the songs, "This Only Happens in the Movies", was recorded in 2008 on the debut album of Broadway actress Kerry Butler. Eric Goldberg was set to be the new animation director, and began to redesign Roger's new character appearance.

Spielberg had no interest with the project because he was establishing DreamWorks, although Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy decided to stay on as producers. Test footage for Who Discovered Roger Rabbit was shot sometime in 1998 at the Disney animation unit in Lake Buena Vista, Florida; the results were an unwieldy mix of CGI, traditional animation and live-action that did not please Disney. A second test had the Toons completely converted to CGI; but this was dropped as the film's projected budget escalated well past $100 million. Eisner felt it was best to cancel the film. In March 2003, producer Don Hahn said "don't expect a Roger Rabbit sequel anytime soon. Animation today is completely conquered by computers, and traditional animation just isn't the forefront anymore." In December 2007, Marshall admitted he was still "open" to the idea.

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Jerry Bruckheimer

Jerome Leon Bruckheimer (born September 21, 1945), better known by his professional name Jerry Bruckheimer, is an American film and television producer. He has achieved great success in the genres of action, drama, and science fiction. His best known television series are CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Without a Trace, Cold Case, and The Amazing Race. His best known movies include Beverly Hills Cop, Top Gun, The Rock, Con Air, Crimson Tide, Armageddon, Enemy of the State, Gone in Sixty Seconds, Black Hawk Down, Pearl Harbor, Pirates of the Caribbean, King Arthur, and National Treasure.

Bruckheimer was born in Detroit, Michigan. He attended Mumford High School in Detroit until moving to Arizona for college at age 17. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Arizona with an algebra minor. Was a member of the Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity. A film buff at an early age with an interest in photography, Bruckheimer would take snapshots when he had the opportunity. After college, Bruckheimer moved to Chicago where he worked in the mail room of an advertising agency. Eventually, Bruckheimer segued into commercial producing when he got wind of an opportunity to produce a motion picture. Subsequently, Bruckheimer moved to Los Angeles.

As of 2007, Bruckheimer has produced over 30 feature films, and is regarded in the industry as one of the most successful movie producers of all time.

Bruckheimer started producing films in the 1970s, after leaving his job in advertising, with director Dick Richards. They had worked together on the films The Culpepper Cattle Company, Farewell, My Lovely, and March or Die. Bruckheimer then worked with Paul Schrader on two movies, American Gigolo and Cat People, which began to give him notice in Hollywood.

During the 1980s and 1990s, he was a co-producer with Don Simpson of a string of highly successful Hollywood films for Paramount Pictures. He originally met Don at a screening of (1973's) "The Harder They Come" at Warner Brothers. The two worked together and created Bruckheimer's first big hit, 1983's Flashdance, which brought in $95 million, an incredible sum for an R-rated movie. He had a number of other hits including the Beverly Hills Cop films, Top Gun, and Days of Thunder.

While working with Simpson, Bruckheimer became known as "Mr. Outside" because of his experience with film making, while Simpson became known as "Mr. Inside" because of his film industry contacts. The Rock was the last film in which Bruckheimer collaborated with Simpson, due to Simpson's untimely death. Bruckheimer stipulated that The Rock be dedicated to the memory of Simpson (this fact is mentioned at the end of the movie).

Despite the setback of the untimely death of Simpson in 1996, Bruckheimer has continued to produce a large number of action movies often working with director Michael Bay for several hits including Armageddon. His other hit movies produced include Remember the Titans, Black Hawk Down and the Pirates of the Caribbean series.

One of his well-known trademarks is that his films often feature a car being flipped over during an action sequence.

Early in his career, Bruckheimer produced television commercials, including one for Pepsi. Since 1997 he has branched out into television, creating a number of police dramas of which CSI: Crime Scene Investigation has been the most successful. He has also produced the reality game show The Amazing Race.

Bruckheimer currently has seven television shows on the air: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, Without A Trace, Cold Case, The Amazing Race and Eleventh Hour.

At one point, three of his TV series ranked among the top 10 in the ratings -- a unique feat in television.

In May 2008 CBS announced it had picked up Bruckheimer's newest series, Eleventh Hour, for the 2008–2009 broadcast television season. The sci-fi drama follows a government agent and a professor as they investigate strange scientific and medical activity.

One of the most successful producers of all time, Bruckheimer has been nicknamed "Mr. Blockbuster", due to his track record of commercially successful, high-grossing films. Overall, his films have brought in over $13 billion to Hollywood, and have launched the careers of numerous actors and directors.

In 2007 he was ranked #39 on Forbes Celebrity 100 List, up from #42 in 2006. With reported annual earnings of $120 million, he was the 10th highest money-earner on the 2006 Forbes Celebrity 100 List.

In July 2003, Bruckheimer was honored by Variety magazine as the first producer in Hollywood history to field the top two highest-grossing movies in a single weekend, the buddy-cop fender-bender Bad Boys II and the Disney theme-park spin-off, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.

The Pirates of the Caribbean film trilogy, produced through Walt Disney Pictures was enormously profitable, and demonstrates Bruckheimer's ability to create lucrative projects. Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, the first film in the franchise, was released on July 9, 2003. A surprisingly popular box office hit, it was well-received by critics and moviegoers alike. After the unexpected success of the first film, Walt Disney Pictures revealed that a trilogy was in the works. Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest was released on July 7, 2006. The sequel proved to be very successful, breaking records worldwide the day of its premiere. In the end it acquired a total of $1,066,179,725 at the worldwide box office, becoming the third and fastest film to reach this staggering amount. The last film in the trilogy, Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End was released worldwide on May 25, 2007. Altogether, the film franchise has grossed over $2.79 billion worldwide.

For 19 years, the 1984 film Beverly Hills Cop (estimated earnings $234 million) stood as Bruckheimer's highest-grossing film until August 12, 2003, when it was pushed to the Number Two spot by Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.

The editors of Entertainment Weekly named Bruckheimer the #1 most-powerful person in Hollywood in 2003. He was ranked #10 on Premiere's 2006 "Power 50" list, and had also ranked #10 on the 2005 list. He ranked #19 on Premiere's 2003 annual Hollywood Power List, and had ranked #22 in 2002.

His projects have been honored with 35 Academy Award nominations, five Oscars, eight Grammy Award nominations, five Grammys, 23 Golden Globe nominations, four Golden Globes, 30 Emmy Award nominations, six Emmys, eight People's Choice nominations, four People's Choice Awards, and numerous MTV Awards, including one for Best Picture of the Decade.

Bruckheimer received the ShoWest Producer of the Year Award in 1998 and in 2000 the Producers Guild honored him with the David O. Selznick Award for Lifetime Achievement.

In May 2006, he was honored with a doctor of fine arts degree (DFA) from the University of Arizona's College of Fine Arts.

When asked about his favorite films, he named (1972's) "The Godfather," (1971's) "The French Connection," (1997's) "Good Will Hunting," and "The 400 Blows".

Bruckheimer has been married twice. His first wife was Bonnie Bruckheimer. The couple had one son, Blake Dallan Makar (b. 27 May 1988). He currently lives in Burbank with his second wife, novelist Linda Bruckheimer. He also has one stepdaughter, Alexandra. The couple also owns a 110-acre (0.45 km2) farm in Bloomfield, Kentucky, about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Louisville, Linda Bruckheimer's hometown, as well as another in Ojai, south of Santa Barbara. As a teenager, Linda moved from Kentucky to Los Angeles, where she has been a writer, producer and West Coast editor for Mirabella, and where she married Jerry Bruckheimer. She regularly spends time as a preservation activist, restoring and preserving historic buildings in small rural U.S. towns. .

His film company, Jerry Bruckheimer Films, is located at 1631 10th Street in Santa Monica, California.

Bruckheimer's philanthropic activities have included publicly supporting the fight against multiple sclerosis via his work with The Nancy Davis Foundation for MS. He has additionally pledged to help various causes by establishing the Jerry Bruckheimer Foundation. However, according to one source, the last time the Jerry Bruckheimer Foundation made a contribution was in 1995, when it gave $9,350 to Van Nuys prep school .

Bruckheimer has aided in the repair and restoration of the historic clipper ship Cutty Sark, which is similar to the ships seen in the Pirates of the Caribbean films. A collection of photos taken by Bruckheimer went on display in London in November 2007 to help raise money for the Cutty Sark Conservation Project. The exhibition featured more than thirty pictures taken on set during the filming of Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End.

Bruckheimer is one of the few Hollywood personalities who supported Former President Bush outspokenly. He has donated funds to John McCain's 2008 presidential election campaign. In 2007 it was reported the he donated 29% of his $20,700 in political contributions to Republican candidates . He gave $5,000 to a joint fundraising committee on John McCain’s behalf.

Bruckheimer has been named as one of the investors of a new sports arena in Las Vegas, Nevada and has been rumored to be the leading choice by the National Hockey League to own an expansion hockey team that would play in the proposed arena.

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Aladdin (film)


Aladdin is a 1992 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation, and released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 25, 1992. The thirty-first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon, the film is based on the Arab folktale of Aladdin and the magic lamp from One Thousand and One Nights. Several characters and plot elements are also based on the 1940 version of The Thief of Bagdad. Many aspects of the traditional story were changed for the film—for instance, the setting is changed from "China" to a fictional Arabian city, Agrabah. It was released at the peak stretch of the era known as the Disney Renaissance beginning with The Little Mermaid. Aladdin was the most successful film of 1992, earning over $217 million in revenue in the United States, and over $504 million worldwide.

The film was directed by John Musker and Ron Clements, both of whom had just finished writing and directing The Little Mermaid (1989). The musical score was written by Alan Menken, with lyrics written by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice. Aladdin features the voices of Scott Weinger, Jonathan Freeman, Linda Larkin, Frank Welker, Gilbert Gottfried, Douglas Seale, and, as the Genie of the lamp, Robin Williams. Although this was not the first time in which a major actor such as Williams provided voice-over work for an animated film, it was the first major American animated feature film in which particular attention was paid to a celebrity voice cast member, such as a major movie star, in the film as part of its promotion. This has led to a subsequent increased attention to the casts of later productions, as a major element of animated film marketing. Aladdin was followed by two direct-to-video sequels: The Return of Jafar (1994) and Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996), and an animated television series, Aladdin, set between the two sequels.

The film begins with a peddler singing Arabian Nights while riding a camel and tells about the story of Aladdin. On a dark night, when Jafar, the Grand Vizier to the Sultan of Agrabah, attempts to access the Cave of Wonders, a magical cave which holds treasures beyond the wildest belief -- above all is a magical oil lamp containing a genie is hidden. He and his talking parrot, Iago, learn that the only one who can enter the Cave of Wonders is the metaphorical "Diamond in the Rough".

Meanwhile, in the palace of Agrabah, Jasmine, the beautiful teenage daughter of the Sultan, must be married before her upcoming birthday, but she rejects every prince she meets, as she wants to be married for true love and not merely for wealth. Later, Jasmine, frustrated with "having her life lived for her," climbs over the palace walls, and sees the marketplace for the first time, where she meets the street urchin Aladdin and his monkey, Abu, and the two young people are seen to be falling for each other. Jafar uses a machine to see that the "diamond in the rough" is Aladdin. Jafar sends a group of guards to capture Aladdin while Jasmine is still with him. Jasmine tells Jafar to release him, but Jafar lies and tells her he is already dead.

Jafar, disguised as an elderly man, releases Aladdin from prison and leads him to the Cave of Wonders. They are told by the tiger-shaped head of the cave to touch nothing but the lamp. Aladdin enters the cave and encounters a magic carpet before finding the lamp. Abu tries to steal a ruby and causes the cave to start collapsing, but the carpet helps them to the entrance. Jafar takes the lamp from them and tries to kill them but Abu takes the lamp back and bites his arm, causing him to knock Abu back into the cave just as it collapses.

When Aladdin awakens, Abu gives him the lamp which he had snatched from Jafar. After rubbing it, a genie is unleashed, revealing that he will grant Aladdin three wishes. Aladdin dupes the genie into freeing them from the cave without using up a wish. Jafar, having lost the lamp, plans to trick the Sultan into marrying him forcefully to Jasmine, then kill off both of them.

While contemplating his wishes, Aladdin asks for the genie's opinion. The genie admits he would wish for freedom, since he is a prisoner to his lamp and must follow the orders of the lamp's master. Aladdin promises to wish him free with his last wish. Happily, the genie grants Aladdin his first wish: making him a prince so he can marry Jasmine. They parade to the Sultan's palace, much to Jafar's dismay, but Jasmine initially rejects "Prince Ali" considering him a buffoon like all the others before him. Later that night, Aladdin meets Jasmine, and takes her on a magic carpet ride through the sky. She soon realizes that he is the same boy she met in the streets and that he has lied to her. Aladdin comes up with a story that he sometimes dressed as a "commoner" to escape the pressures of palace life, and she believes him. Aladdin returns her home and they kiss.

Jafar tricks the guards into slapping Aladdin in chains and throwing him off a cliff into the ocean for no reason. The lamp falls from inside his turban, and rubs against his limp hands luckily releasing the genie, who then rescues Aladdin as the second wish after liberally interpreting Aladdin's nodding head. Aladdin returns to the palace, smashing Jafar's staff and revealing the vizier's plot to Jasmine and the Sultan. Jafar realises Aladdin's identity, and escapes from the Sultan's personal bodyguards. Surprised by Aladdin's bravery, the Sultan decides that Aladdin should be King. This made Aladdin stuck in a dilemma as he needs it to use his final wish to become king, but resulting in breaking his promise that he made to Genie to free him. Iago later steals the genie's lamp and brings it to Jafar, who becomes the genie's new master and uses his first wish to become sultan. Jafar then wishes to become a powerful sorcerer and turns Aladdin back to rags, sending him to a blizzard-swept, far-off place.

Aladdin uses the magic carpet to return to Agrabah, where Jafar is keeping the Sultan, the Genie, and Jasmine as his slaves. He offers Jasmine a place as his queen and wife, but she refuses. Jasmine then notices Aladdin coming in the palace, who was about to get the lamp. She tries to make a diversion by tricking Jafar into believing that she's desperately in love with him. Jasmine gives Jafar an extremely passionate kiss, but he sees Aladdin's reflection in her tiara. Aladdin fights Jafar as he transforms into a giant cobra. When Jafar boasts that he is "the most powerful being on Earth," Aladdin tells him that he isn't as powerful as the genie. Jafar uses his final wish to become a Genie and tries to gain control of the universe with his powers - but he forgets that genies are not their own master, they are bound to their lamps and are slaves to the bearer of the lamp. Jafar is instantly sucked into his new black lamp, dragging Iago with him. The genie then flicks the lamp into the Cave of Wonders, to presumably remain undiscovered for ten thousand years.

Aladdin and Jasmine say goodbye to each other now that Aladdin is not a prince so they cannot be married. Aladdin wishes for the genie's freedom, much to the genie's surprise and happiness. Since Jasmine loves Aladdin, the Sultan changes the law so that Jasmine can marry anyone she chooses and she chooses Aladdin. The genie then leaves to explore the world while Aladdin and Jasmine celebrate their engagement.

In 1988, Howard Ashman suggested Disney make an animated musical adaptation of the story of Aladdin. After writing a storyline and songs with partner Alan Menken, Ashman delivered it to directors John Musker and Ron Clements. In 1991, the script was delivered to studio chief Jeffrey Katzenberg, who thought the script "didn't engage", and only approved it after rewrites from Clements, Musker and the screenwriting duo of Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio. Among the changes to the script were the removal of the character of Aladdin's mother, Princess Jasmine was made a stronger character, Aladdin's personality was reworked to be "a little rougher, like a young Harrison Ford," and the parrot Iago, originally conceived as a "British" calm and serious character, was turned into a comic role after the filmmakers saw Gilbert Gottfried in Beverly Hills Cop II. Gottfried was cast to provide Iago's voice. The concept of a calm, serious British bird would later be worked into The Lion King's Zazu.

Most characters' designs were based on the work of caricaturist Al Hirschfeld. Jafar's design was not based on Hirschfeld's work because Jafar's supervising animator, Andreas Deja, wanted the character to be contrasting. Aladdin, designed by a team including supervising animator Glen Keane, was originally made to resemble actor Michael J. Fox. During production, it was decided that the design was too boyish and wasn't "appealing enough," so the character was redesigned to add elements derived from actor Tom Cruise, rapper MC Hammer, and Calvin Klein models. Computer animation was used in a number of scenes in the film, such as the tiger entrance of the Cave of Wonders, the scene where Aladdin tries to escape the collapsing cave, and the texture for the magic carpet.

Musker and Clements created the Genie with Robin Williams in mind; even though Katzenberg suggested names such as John Candy, Steve Martin, and Eddie Murphy, Williams was approached and eventually accepted the role. Williams came for voice recording sessions during breaks in the shooting of two other films he was starring in at the time, Hook and Toys. Unusually for an animated film, much of Williams' dialogue was ad-libbed: for some scenes, Williams was given topics and dialogue suggestions, but allowed to improvise his lines. It was estimated that Williams improvised 52 characters. Eric Goldberg, the supervising animator for the Genie, then reviewed Williams' recorded dialogue and selected the best gags/lines. Goldberg and his crew then created character animation to match Williams' jokes, puns, and impersonations.

Williams also provided the voice of a merchant in the opening scene, which was completely unscripted (the production left Williams a table with props covered with a sheet and asked him to pull out objects without looking at them and describe them in character). The double role originally led to the merchant revealing to be the Genie disguised, but that idea was later dropped (the merchant returned in the ending of Aladdin and the King of Thieves).

Aladdin was praised for its musical score by composer Alan Menken and songwriters Howard Ashman and Tim Rice. Menken and Ashman began work on the film together, with Rice taking over as lyricist after Ashman died of AIDS-related complications in early 1991. The following six songs are featured in the movie.

The compilation Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic includes "A Whole New World" on the red disc and "One Jump Ahead" on the blue disc. The compilation Disney's Greatest Hits also includes "A Whole New World" on the blue disc.

Eight others were written, but removed from the film (most of them sung by Jafar). The DVD Special Edition released in 2004 includes four songs in early animations tests, and a music video of one of them, "Proud of Your Boy", performed by Clay Aiken. That version also appears on the album DisneyMania 3. Demo versions of these tracks were released on the "Music Behind the Magic" box set. Others included in the DVD are "You Can Count on Me", (replaced by "One Jump Ahead" in the movie), "Humiliate the Boy", and "Why Me?" (both replaced by "Prince Ali Reprise").

Aladdin was well-received by critics, with most praise to Robin Williams' Genie. Warner Bros. animator Chuck Jones even called the film "the funniest feature ever made." However, some criticism was reserved for the couple, Aladdin and Jasmine, and many reviews considered it inferior to its predecessors The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast.

It was the most successful film of 1992, with $217 million in the United States and over $504 million worldwide, being the biggest gross for an animated film until The Lion King two years later. As of 2008, it is the third highest grossing traditionally animated feature worldwide, behind The Lion King and The Simpsons Movie, however adjusted for inflation it is ahead of The Simpsons Movie.

One of the verses of the opening song "Arabian Nights" was altered following protests from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. The lyrics were changed in July 1993 from "Where they cut off your ear if they don't like your face/It's barbaric, but, hey, it's home," in the original release to "Where it's flat and immense and the heat is intense/It's barbaric, but, hey, it's home." The change first appeared on the 1993 video release. The original lyric was intact on the initial CD soundtrack release, but the re-release uses the edited lyric. The rerecording has the original voice on all other lines, then a noticeably deeper voice says the edited line. Entertainment Weekly ranked Aladdin in a list of the most controversial films in history, due to this incident. In 2008, an extended demo of "Arabian Nights" (with original lyrics) was released in "Howard Sings Ashman," the first unedited release in fifteen years.

The ADC also complained about lead characters Aladdin and Jasmine being portrayed, with Anglicized features and Anglo-American accents, in contrast to the other characters in the film, who are dark-skinned, have Arab accents and grotesque facial features, and appear villainous or greedy.

Animation enthusiasts have noticed similarities between Aladdin and Richard Williams's unfinished film The Thief and the Cobbler (also known as Arabian Knight under Miramax Films and The Princess and the Cobbler under Majestic Films International). These similarities include a similar plot, similar characters, scenes and background designs, and the antagonist Zig-Zag's resemblance in character design and mannerisms to Genie and Jafar. Though Aladdin was released prior to The Thief and the Cobbler, The Thief and the Cobbler was started much earlier in the 1960s, its production being mired in difficulties including financial problems, copyright issues (when it was about Mulla Nasruddin in the 1970s), and late production times caused by separate studios trying to finish the film after Richard Williams was fired from the project for lack of finished work. The late release, coupled with Miramax (a Disney-owned studio) purchasing and re-editing the film, has sometimes resulted in The Thief and the Cobbler being labeled a "copy" of Aladdin.

In gratitude for his success with the Disney/Touchstone film Good Morning, Vietnam, Robin Williams voiced the Genie for SAG scale pay ($75,000), on condition that his name or image not be used for marketing, and his (supporting) character not take more than 25% of space on advertising artwork, since Toys was scheduled for release one month after Aladdin's debut. The studio went back on the deal on both counts, especially in poster art by having the Genie in 25% of the image, but having other major and supporting characters portrayed considerably smaller. Disney's Hyperion book, Aladdin: The Making Of An Animated Film, listed both of Williams' characters "The Peddler" and "The Genie" ahead of main characters, but was forced to refer to him only as "the actor signed to play the Genie".

Williams and Disney had a bitter falling-out, and as a result Dan Castellaneta voiced the Genie in The Return of Jafar, the Aladdin animated television series, and had recorded his voice for Aladdin and the King of Thieves. When Jeffrey Katzenberg was fired from Disney and replaced by former 20th Century Fox production head Joe Roth (whose last act for Fox was greenlighting Williams' film Mrs. Doubtfire), Roth arranged for a public apology to Williams by Disney. Williams agreed to perform in Hollywood Pictures' Jack, directed by Francis Ford Coppola, and even agreed to voice the Genie again for the King Of Thieves sequel (for considerably more than scale), replacing all of Castellaneta's dialogue.

When Williams re-teamed with Doubtfire director Chris Columbus for 1999's Bicentennial Man, Disney asked that the budget be cut by approximately $20 million, and when the film was released on Christmas Day, it flopped at the box office. Williams blamed Disney's marketing and the loss of content the film had suffered due to the budget cuts. As a result, Williams was again on bad terms with Disney, and Castellaneta was once again recruited to replace him as Genie in the Kingdom Hearts video game series and the House of Mouse TV series. The DVD release for Aladdin has no involvement whatsoever from Williams in the bonus materials, although some of his original recording sessions can be seen.

He is currently working on the film Old Dogs with close friend John Travolta, which is being co-produced and distributed by Walt Disney Studios.

In the scene where Aladdin is attacked by the tiger Rajah on the palace balcony, Aladdin quietly says "Come on... good kitty, take off and go..." and the word "kitty" is overlapped by another, unidentifiable sound, possibly Rajah's snarl. Some people reported hearing "Good teenagers, take off your clothes," which they considered a subliminal reference to promiscuity. Because of the controversy, Disney replaced the phrase with "Down, kitty" on the DVD release. This is left unedited whenever Aladdin airs on Toon Disney, Disney Channel and ABC Family.

Genie's numerous imitations aside, Aladdin features many references to popular culture, especially from Disney's previous works. While the Sultan is making a pile of toy animals, one is Beast from Beauty and the Beast; Rajah's head briefly resembles Mickey Mouse, and the Genie pulls Sebastian from The Little Mermaid out of a recipe book (as the first two bars of "Under the Sea" are played); turns his head into Pinocchio's (complete with growing nose); says "Esalalumbo, shimin Dumbo!" to turn Abu into an elephant; and dons a Goofy hat before leaving on his vacation.

Many in-jokes were also done by the filmmakers, such as a "cameo appearance" from directors Clements and Musker, drawing some characters based on Disney workers, and naming a character "Razoul" after the layout supervisor, Rasoul Azadani.

The Goofy hat, Hawaiian shirt, and sandals that the Genie is wearing at the end of the film is a reference to a short film that Robin Williams did for the Disney/MGM Studios tour in the late 80's. In the film, Williams plays an excitable tourist who is wearing the same clothes.

Other impersonations of the Genie include Arnold Schwarzenegger, Peter Lorre, Señor Wences, Ed Sullivan, Groucho Marx, Robert De Niro, Woody Allen, Carol Channing, Arsenio Hall, Rodney Dangerfield, Jack Nicholson and William F. Buckley.

Aladdin was first released in VHS in October 1, 1993, as part of the "Walt Disney Classics" line. The previews include an exclusive trailer for The Lion King and a VHS trailer for Pinocchio. In its first week of availability, it sold over 10.8 million copies and went on to sell over 25 million in total (a record only broken by the later release of The Lion King). It entered moratorium in April 30, 1994. The movie was also released on laserdisc in 1994. The CAV Japanese version had many extras, such as documentaries, trailers and the book "Aladdin: The Making of an Animated Film".

On October 5, 2004, Aladdin was released on DVD, as Aladdin: Platinum Edition, part of Disney's Platinum Edition line of animated classic DVDs. The DVD release featured a version of the film with retouched and cleaned-up animation, prepared for Aladdin's planned but ultimately cancelled IMAX reissue in 2003, and a second disc with bonus features. It sold about 3 million units, less than any of the other Platinum Edition titles so far. The film's soundtrack was available in its original Dolby 5.1 track or in a new Disney Enhanced Home Theater Mix. The DVD went into moratorium on January 2008, along with its sequels.

The film aired on Disney Channel in the mid-1990s. Then film aired on ABC in January 2005. The film re-aired on Disney Channel on February 14, 2005. The film finally aired on Toon Disney in June 2008. The film once again re-aired on Disney Channel in the same year. Followed by Curious George, the film aired on ABC Family on November 18, 2008, being Disney's first traditionally-animated film to air on that channel and the first non-original film on the same channel to be presented in the high-definition format on ABC Family HD.

Aladdin was followed by Disney's first direct-to-video sequel, The Return of Jafar in 1994. The film saw the debut of a new character, Abis Mal, voiced by Jason Alexander, and all of the original cast, except for Robin Williams, replaced by Dan Castellaneta, and Douglas Seale, replaced by Val Bettin. The plot mainly focused on Jafar seeking revenge on Aladdin. However, this time, with Iago on Aladdin's side, Abis Mal becomes Jafar's new henchman.

Shortly after The Return of Jafar, the Aladdin TV Series was aired on television. The episodes focused on Aladdin's adventures after the events of the second film.

And in 1996, the final sequel to Aladdin, Aladdin and the King of Thieves was released on video. The story concludes as Aladdin and Jasmine are about to be married and Aladdin discovers that his father is still alive, but also the King of all thieves in Agrabah.

The Hercules: The Animated Series episode "Hercules and the Arabian Night" can be seen as a coda to Aladdin's story. Jafar, now in the underworld and still bitter about his many defeats by Aladdin, teams up with Hades, equally bitter about his inability to best Hercules. They set the two heroes up to fight each other by kidnapping their best friends, Abu and Icarus, while making each think that the other is responsible. This works at first, but the two quickly realize that Hades and Jafar are behind it all and defeat them.

Aladdin, Jasmine, Genie, Abu, Iago, Jafar, Carpet, Sultan, and Rajah were also featured as guests in the TV series House of Mouse. In related works to those series, Jafar was the leader of the villains in Mickey's House of Villains. Aladdin makes a brief appearance as well. Aladdin, Jasmine, Jafar, Genie, Abu, and Carpet also appear in Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse.

Along with the film release, three different video games based on Aladdin were released, one by Virgin Interactive for the Sega Mega Drive, Game Boy (later ported to the Game Boy Color), PC and another by SIMS for the Sega Game Gear and Sega Master System, and another by Capcom for the Super Nintendo and Sega Genesis (later ported to the Game Boy Advance in 2002). The Nintendo Entertainment System had both the Capcom version (but this was released in Europe only) and the Virgin Interactive version (released as "Aladdin 2" in Europe, but as "Aladdin" in America).

The TV series inspired another game by Argonaut Games, entitled Aladdin: Nasira's Revenge and released in 2001 for the PlayStation and PC. Also, in 2004 Vivendi Universal released Disney's Aladdin Chess Adventures, a chess computer game with the Aladdin license.

The Kingdom Hearts series features a playable Aladdin world known as Agrabah. Characters from the film include Aladdin, Genie, Jasmine, Jafar, Iago, Abu, Carpet and the Peddler. In Kingdom Hearts and Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, the plotline is loosely related to the storyline of the original film. In Kingdom Hearts II it is a mixture of Aladdin and The Return of Jafar. Genie is also a recurring summon in the series.

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Walden Media

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Walden Media is a film production and publishing company best known as the producers of The Chronicles of Narnia film series. Its films are based on notable classic or award-winning children's literature, compelling biographies or historical events, documentaries and some original screenplays.

The corporate headquarters of Walden Media are located in Los Angeles, California, and the Education, Outreach, Interactive and Publishing office is in Boston, Massachusetts.

The company's notable releases include Holes in 2003, Because of Winn-Dixie for Twentieth Century Fox in 2004, The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in 2005, How to Eat Fried Worms and Charlotte's Web in 2006, Bridge to Terabithia, released by Walt Disney Pictures and Walden Media in 2007, and The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian, released by Walt Disney Pictures and Walden Media in 2008. All of these films are adaptations of popular children's books.

Currently in development are movies based on Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader and Susan Cooper's The Dark Is Rising series.

On August 8, 2006, Walden Media announced a joint venture with 20th Century Fox. Mr. Magorium's Wonder Emporium and The Dark Is Rising will be the first films released under the venture. Previously announced films at other studios will remain in place.

Walden Media is unique among film production companies in that it works with teachers, museums, and national organizations to develop supplemental educational programs and materials associated with its films and the original events and/or novels that inspire the films.

Walden Media offers in-class teaching tools like educational guides and teacher kits and sponsors seminars and forums for teachers to discuss their craft and to trade ideas on using media in the classroom. Directors, writers, and stars of the productions participate in these events.

In 2006, Walden Media sponsored the "Break the World Reading Record with Charlotte’s Web". At noon on Wednesday, December 13th, 547,826 readers in 2,451 locations, 50 states and 28 countries read an excerpt from Charlotte’s Web, breaking the world record of 155,528 students from 737 schools in the United Kingdom who read William Wordsworth’s poem, "Daffodils" in 2004.

During filming in Bucharest, Romania there was a joke on The Dark is Rising set that only three things have been changed from the original 1973 novel: the nationality of lead character Will Stanton, changed from English to American; his age changed from 11 to 13; and everything else that happens in the story. A solo quest by an 11-year-old is no longer solo; family values have been deemed out of date — the happy, loving Stanton family rewritten dysfunctional; a series of five books bereft of a single love interest has been re-imagined with the lead character chasing the fairer sex, pleading in the trailer “I can't save the world! I don't even know how to talk to a girl!” Angered, disgusted fans are reporting little interest in their hero’s new, most ordinary of plights.

The company is named after Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts. Its logo is a rock skipping across a pond.

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Source : Wikipedia