Walters Art Museum

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Posted by motoman 03/25/2009 @ 14:10

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Arts Events - Baltimore Sun
The Walters Art Museum, 600 N. Charles St. 410-547-9000. 10 am-5 pm Wednesdays-Sundays. Free. Permanent exhibit: Palace of Wonders, 19th-Century Collection, Medieval Art. Through May 24: The Saint John's Bible: A Modern Vision Through Medieval Methods....
Summer Times: Art - Pittsburgh Post Gazette
"The Road to Impressionism: Barbizon Landscapes From the Walters Art Museum" lingers through May 24. Arriving July 11 is "The Dutch Italianates: Seventeenth-Century Masterpieces From Dulwich Picture Gallery, London," 40 paintings from England's oldest...
Kennedy Center president wins Peabody - Baltimore Sun
The summer season at the Walters Art Museum will include the exhibition Herman Maril: An American Modernist. Last year marked the centennial of the Baltimore-born, MICA-trained Maril, who died here in 1986. He spent several years in the early part of...
LRMA gearing up for annual Blues Bash - Laurel Leader Call
Sponsors of the Lauren Rogers Museum of Art's Blues Bash gathered recently to finalize plans for the Friday, June 5 event. Held on the museum's front lawn, the event is from 6:30 - 10:30 pm and will feature music by Don McMinn and Nightrain with...
Independent Press Prime Time calendar for week of May 20, 2009 - Independent Press
Lilliput: Tiny Art for Big People, a group exhibition, will be on view at The Walsh Gallery at Seton Hall University, 400 South Orange Ave., South Orange, from June 8 through July 23. There will be an opening reception from 5 to 9 pm on Sunday, June 7....
In prestigious Houston Museum of Fine Arts is opened a permanent ... - Baltic Review
... Missouri; Cleveland Museum of Art in Ohio; Mingei International Museum in San Diego, California; American Museum of Natural History, New York; Philadelphia Museum of Art in Pennsylvania; Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland; etc....
Best Shots: GLC, Lockjaw, Young Avengers & More - Newsarama
The battle between the original (and best) She-Hulk (aka Jen Walters) and this new red-haired-She-Hulk-wannabe (Lyra) might have been slightly one-sided – the new She-Hulk kinda kicks the snooty-snoot out of Jen She-Hulk - but I suppose the star of the...
Arts Under Attack - Baltimore Magazine
By John Lewis and Evan Serpick A new display turned up at the Walters Art Museum this March. It wasn't fashioned around an Egyptian artifact or some newly acquired piece of medieval weaponry. Rather, it was part of a grassroots advocacy campaign...
Uptown Lexington's Pigs in the City 5 unveiled - Lexington Dispatch
From “Hog Heaven,” sponsored by M&L Motor and designed by Jan Fritts, and “Bass Hogg,” designed by Aimee and Margaret Sink and sponsored by Uptown Lexington, to “Pignic Basket,” sponsored by Tricia's Catering and designed by Frank Walters,...
Walters Museum Celebrates Herman Maril - HULIQ
Maril's paintings have also appeared over the past year at The Provincetown Art Association and Museum on Cape Cod, at the New York gallery of David Findlay Jr. Fine Art, the Ward Museum in Salisbury, Maryland and the University of Maryland, Adelphi,...

Walters Art Museum

The Walters Art Museum, located in Baltimore, Maryland's Mount Vernon neighborhood, is a public art museum founded in 1934. The museum's collection was amassed substantially by two men, William Thompson Walters (1819-1894), who began serious collecting when he moved to Paris at the outbreak of the American Civil War, and Henry Walters (1848–1931), who refined the collection and rehoused it in a palazzo building on Charles Street which opened in 1909. Upon his death, Henry Walters bequeathed the collection of over 22,000 works and the original Charles Street palazzo building to the city of Baltimore, “for the benefit of the public.” The collection touches masterworks of ancient Egypt, Greek sculpture and Roman sarcophagi, medieval ivories, illuminated manuscripts, Renaissance bronzes, Old Master and 19th-century paintings, Chinese ceramics and bronzes, and Art Deco jewelry.

In 2000, the Walters Art Gallery changed its name to the Walters Art Museum to reflect its image as a large public institution. The following year, the museum reopened its largest building after a dramatic three-year renovation. The Walters Art Museum is where the Archimedes Palimpsest may be seen.

Starting Sunday, October 1, 2006, the Baltimore Museum of Art and the Walters Art Museum began having free admission year-round as a result of grants given by Baltimore City and Baltimore County.

The Walters’ collection of ancient art includes examples from Egypt, Nubia, Greece, Rome, Etruria, and the Near East. Highlights include two monumental 3,000 pound statues of the Egyptian lion-headed goddess Sekhmet, alabaster reliefs from the palace of Ashurnasirpal II, the Greek Olbia bracelets, and Roman sarcophagi from the tombs of the prominent Licinian and Calpurnian families in Rome.

In 1911, Henry Walters purchased almost 100 gold artifacts from the Chiriqui region of western Panama, creating a core collection of ancient American art. Through gifts of art and loans, the museum has added works from Central and South America, including pieces from the Mesoamerican Olmec, Aztec, and Maya cultures, as well as the Moche and Inca peoples of eastern South America.

Highlights of the Asian art collection assembled by William and Henry Walters include Japanese arms and armor, Chinese and Japanese porcelains, lacquers, and metalwork. Among the museum's outstanding works of Asian art is a late 12th- or early 13th-century Cambodian bronze of the eight-armed Avalokiteshvara, a T’ang Dynasty earthenware camel, and an intricately painted Ming Dynasty wine jar. The museum owns the oldest surviving Chinese wood-and-lacquer image of the Buddha (late 6th century AD), which is exhibited in a gallery dedicated solely to this work.

The museum now houses one of the largest and finest collections of Thai bronze, scrolls, and banner paintings in the world.

Islamic art in all media are represented at the Walters. Among the highlights are a 7th-century carved and hammered silver bowl from Iran; a 13th-century candlestick made of copper, silver, and gold from Mamluk Egypt; 16th-century mausoleum doors decorated with intricate wood carvings in a radiating star pattern; a 17th-century silk sash from Moghul India; and a 17th-century Turkish tile with an image of the Great Mosque of Mecca. The museum owns an array of Islamic manuscripts. These include a 15th-century Koran from northern India, executed at the height of the Timurid empire; a 16th-century copy of the Khamsa by Amir Khusraw, illustrated by a number of famous artists for the emperor Akbar; and a Turkish calligraphy album by Sheik Handullah al Amasi, one of the greatest calligraphers of all time.

Henry Walters assembled a collection of art produced during the Middle Ages, a period that stretches from the collapse of the Roman Empire to the beginning of the Renaissance. Featuring works of art in all the major artistic media of the period, the Walters' medieval collection includes examples of metalwork, sculpture, stained glass, textiles, icons, and other paintings. The collection is especially renowned for its ivories, enamels, reliquaries, early Byzantine silver, post-Byzantine art, and Ethiopian Christian art.

The Walters' medieval collection features unique objects like The Rubens Vase and the earliest surviving image of the Virgin of Tenderness. The Sculpted heads from the royal Abbey of St. Denis are rare surviving examples of portal sculptures that are directly connected with the invention of Gothic art in 12th-century France. An ivory casket covered with scenes of jousting knights is one of only about a dozen such objects to survive in the world.

This collection of European Renaissance and Baroque art features holdings of paintings, sculpture, furniture, ceramics, metal work, arms and armor. The highlights include Hugo van der Goes' Donor with Saint John the Baptist, Heemskerck’s Panorama with the Abduction of Helen Amidst the Wonders of the Ancient World, Veronese’s Portrait Of Countess Livia da Porto Thiene and her Daughter Porzia, El Greco's Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata, Bernini's Risen Christ, Tiepolo’s Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva, and The Ideal City attributed to Fra Carnavale.

William and Henry Walters collected works by both late 19th century French academic masters and Impressionists. Highlights of the collection include Claude Monet’s Springtime, Alfred Sisley's panoramic view of the Seine Valley, and Édouard Manet’s realist masterpiece, The Café Concert. Henry Walters was particularly interested in the courtly arts of 18th-century France. The museum’s collection of Sèvres porcelain includes a number of pieces that were made for members of the court at Versailles. Portrait miniatures and the examples of goldsmiths' works, especially snuffboxes and watches are displayed in the Treasury along with some exceptional 19th- and early 20th-century works. Among them are examples of Art Nouveau jewelry by René Lalique, jeweled objects by the House of Fabergé, including two Russian imperial Easter eggs, and precious jewels by Tiffany and Co. The Walters’ collection presents an overview of 19th-century European art, particularly art from France. From the first half of the century come major paintings by Ingres, Géricault, and Delacroix. As a result of his stay in Paris with his family during the Civil War, William Walters developed a keen interest in contemporary European painting. He either commissioned directly from the artists or purchased at auctions major works by the Barbizon masters, including Millet and Rousseau, the academic masters Gérôme and Alma-Tadema, and the modernists Monet, Manet, and Sisley.

Henry Walters’ original gallery was designed by William Adams Delano and erected between 1904 and 1909. Its exterior was inspired by the Renaissance-revival style Hôtel Pourtalès in Paris and its interior was modeled after the 17th-century Collegio dei Gesuiti (now the Palazzo dell’Università) built by the Balbi family for the Jesuits in Genoa. The arts of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, French decorative arts of the 18th and 19th centuries, and manuscripts and rare books are now exhibited in this palazzo-like building.

Designed by the Boston firm of Shepley, Bullfinch, Richardson, and Abbott, in the “Brutalist” style prevailing in the 1960s, this building opened in 1974. It was substantially altered in 1998-2001 to allow for a four-story glass atrium, a suspended staircase, a café and an enlarged museum store and a library. The ancient, Byzantine, medieval, Ethiopian, and 19th-century European collections are housed in this building as is the museum’s conservation laboratory, which is one of the oldest in the country.

This Greek-revival mansion, designed by John Rudolph Niernsee and erected between 1848 and 1850 for Dr. John Hanson Thomas, was long regarded as the most “elegant” house in Mount Vernon Place. Among the Thomas’s distinguished guests were the Prince of Wales, the future King Edward VII, and General Kossuth, the Hungarian freedom fighter. Since 1991, the house has been devoted to the Walters’ holdings of Asian art.

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Archimedes

Domenico-Fetti Archimedes 1620.jpg

Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: Ἀρχιμήδης) (c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and the explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.

Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time. He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi. He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulas for the volumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers.

Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere inscribed within a cylinder. Archimedes had proven that the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the cylinder (including the bases of the latter), and regarded this as the greatest of his mathematical achievements.

Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. AD 530 by Isidore of Miletus, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance, while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results.

Archimedes was born c. 287 BC in the seaport city of Syracuse, Sicily, at that time a colony of Magna Graecia. The date of birth is based on a statement by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years. In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his father's name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to King Hiero II, the ruler of Syracuse. A biography of Archimedes was written by his friend Heracleides but this work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure. It is unknown, for instance, whether he ever married or had children. During his youth Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries. He referred to Conon of Samos as his friend, while two of his works (The Method of Mechanical Theorems and the Cattle Problem) have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes.

Archimedes died c. 212 BC during the Second Punic War, when Roman forces under General Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured the city of Syracuse after a two-year-long siege. According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. A Roman soldier commanded him to come and meet General Marcellus but he declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem. The soldier was enraged by this, and killed Archimedes with his sword. Plutarch also gives a lesser-known account of the death of Archimedes which suggests that he may have been killed while attempting to surrender to a Roman soldier. According to this story, Archimedes was carrying mathematical instruments, and was killed because the soldier thought that they were valuable items. General Marcellus was reportedly angered by the death of Archimedes, as he considered him a valuable scientific asset and had ordered that he not be harmed.

The last words attributed to Archimedes are "Do not disturb my circles" (Greek: μή μου τούς κύκλους τάραττε), a reference to the circles in the mathematical drawing that he was supposedly studying when disturbed by the Roman soldier. This quote is often given in Latin as "Noli turbare circulos meos," but there is no reliable evidence that Archimedes uttered these words and they do not appear in the account given by Plutarch.

The tomb of Archimedes carried a sculpture illustrating his favorite mathematical proof, consisting of a sphere and a cylinder of the same height and diameter. Archimedes had proven that the volume and surface area of the sphere are two thirds that of the cylinder including its bases. In 75 BC, 137 years after his death, the Roman orator Cicero was serving as quaestor in Sicily. He had heard stories about the tomb of Archimedes, but none of the locals was able to give him the location. Eventually he found the tomb near the Agrigentine gate in Syracuse, in a neglected condition and overgrown with bushes. Cicero had the tomb cleaned up, and was able to see the carving and read some of the verses that had been added as an inscription.

The standard versions of the life of Archimedes were written long after his death by the historians of Ancient Rome. The account of the siege of Syracuse given by Polybius in his Universal History was written around seventy years after Archimedes' death, and was used subsequently as a source by Plutarch and Livy. It sheds little light on Archimedes as a person, and focuses on the war machines that he is said to have built in order to defend the city.

A large part of Archimedes' work in engineering arose from fulfilling the needs of his home city of Syracuse. The Greek writer Athenaeus of Naucratis described how King Hieron II commissioned Archimedes to design a huge ship, the Syracusia, which could be used for luxury travel, carrying supplies, and as a naval warship. The Syracusia is said to have been the largest ship built in classical antiquity. According to Athenaeus, it was capable of carrying 600 people and included garden decorations, a gymnasium and a temple dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite among its facilities. Since a ship of this size would leak a considerable amount of water through the hull, the Archimedes screw was purportedly developed in order to remove the bilge water. Archimedes' machine was a device with a revolving screw-shaped blade inside a cylinder. It was turned by hand, and could also be used to transfer water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation canals. The Archimedes screw is still in use today for pumping liquids and granulated solids such as coal and grain. The Archimedes screw described in Roman times by Vitruvius may have been an improvement on a screw pump that was used to irrigate the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

The Claw of Archimedes is a weapon that he is said to have designed in order to defend the city of Syracuse. Also known as "the ship shaker," the claw consisted of a crane-like arm from which a large metal grappling hook was suspended. When the claw was dropped onto an attacking ship the arm would swing upwards, lifting the ship out of the water and possibly sinking it. There have been modern experiments to test the feasibility of the claw, and in 2005 a television documentary entitled Superweapons of the Ancient World built a version of the claw and concluded that it was a workable device.

The 2nd century AD historian Lucian wrote that during the Siege of Syracuse (c. 214–212 BC), Archimedes repelled an attack by Roman soldiers with a burning-glass. The device was used to focus sunlight onto approaching ships, causing them to catch fire. This purported weapon, sometimes called the "Archimedes heat ray," has been the subject of ongoing debate about its credibility since the Renaissance. René Descartes rejected it as false, while modern researchers have attempted to recreate the effect using only the means that would have been available to Archimedes. It has been suggested that a large array of highly polished bronze or copper shields acting as mirrors could have been employed to focus sunlight onto a ship. This would have used the principle of the parabolic reflector in a manner similar to a solar furnace.

A test of the Archimedes heat ray was carried out in 1973 by the Greek scientist Ioannis Sakkas. The experiment took place at the Skaramagas naval base outside Athens. On this occasion 70 mirrors were used, each with a copper coating and a size of around five by three feet (1.5 by 1 m). The mirrors were pointed at a plywood mock-up of a Roman warship at a distance of around 160 feet (50 m). When the mirrors were focused accurately, the ship burst into flames within a few seconds. The plywood ship had a coating of tar paint, which may have aided combustion.

In October 2005 a group of students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology carried out an experiment with 127 one-foot (30 cm) square mirror tiles, focused on a mock-up wooden ship at a range of around 100 feet (30 m). Flames broke out on a patch of the ship, but only after the sky had been cloudless and the ship had remained stationary for around ten minutes. It was concluded that the device was a feasible weapon under these conditions. The MIT group repeated the experiment for the television show MythBusters, using a wooden fishing boat in San Francisco as the target. Again some charring occurred, along with a small amount of flame. In order to catch fire, wood needs to reach its flash point, which is around 300 degrees Celsius (570 °F).

When MythBusters broadcast the result of the San Francisco experiment in January 2006, the claim was placed in the category of "busted" (or failed) because of the length of time and the ideal weather conditions required for combustion to occur. It was also pointed out that since Syracuse faces the sea towards the east, the Roman fleet would have had to attack during the morning for optimal gathering of light by the mirrors. MythBusters also pointed out that conventional weaponry, such as flaming arrows or bolts from a catapult, would have been a far easier way of setting a ship on fire at short distances.

While Archimedes did not invent the lever, he wrote the earliest known rigorous explanation of the principle involved. According to Pappus of Alexandria, his work on levers caused him to remark: "Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the Earth." (Greek: δῶς μοι πᾶ στῶ καὶ τὰν γᾶν κινάσω) Plutarch describes how Archimedes designed block-and-tackle pulley systems, allowing sailors to use the principle of leverage to lift objects that would otherwise have been too heavy to move. Archimedes has also been credited with improving the power and accuracy of the catapult, and with inventing the odometer during the First Punic War. The odometer was described as a cart with a gear mechanism that dropped a ball into a container after each mile traveled.

This is a description of a planetarium or orrery. Pappus of Alexandria stated that Archimedes had written a manuscript (now lost) on the construction of these mechanisms entitled On Sphere-Making. Modern research in this area has been focused on the Antikythera mechanism, another device from classical antiquity that was probably designed for the same purpose. Constructing mechanisms of this kind would have required a sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing. This was once thought to have been beyond the range of the technology available in ancient times, but the discovery of the Antikythera mechanism in 1902 has confirmed that devices of this kind were known to the ancient Greeks.

Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus. By assuming a proposition to be true and showing that this would lead to a contradiction, he could give answers to problems to an arbitrary degree of accuracy, while specifying the limits within which the answer lay. This technique is known as the method of exhaustion, and he employed it to approximate the value of π (pi). He did this by drawing a larger polygon outside a circle and a smaller polygon inside the circle. As the number of sides of the polygon increases, it becomes a more accurate approximation of a circle. When the polygons had 96 sides each, he calculated the lengths of their sides and showed that the value of π lay between 3 + 1/7 (approximately 3.1429) and 3 + 10/71 (approximately 3.1408). He also proved that the area of a circle was equal to π multiplied by the square of the radius of the circle.

If the first term in this series is the area of the triangle, then the second is the sum of the areas of two triangles whose bases are the two smaller secant lines, and so on. This proof uses a variation of the series 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/256 + · · · which sums to 1/3.

In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes set out to calculate the number of grains of sand that the universe could contain. In doing so, he challenged the notion that the number of grains of sand was too large to be counted. He wrote: "There are some, King Gelo (Gelo II, son of Hiero II), who think that the number of the sand is infinite in multitude; and I mean by the sand not only that which exists about Syracuse and the rest of Sicily but also that which is found in every region whether inhabited or uninhabited." To solve the problem, Archimedes devised a system of counting based on the myriad. The word is from the Greek μυριάς murias, for the number 10,000. He proposed a number system using powers of a myriad of myriads (100 million) and concluded that the number of grains of sand required to fill the universe would be 8 vigintillion, or 8×1063.

The written work of Archimedes has not survived as well as that of Euclid, and seven of his treatises are known to have existed only through references made to them by other authors. Pappus of Alexandria mentions On Sphere-Making and another work on polyhedra, while Theon of Alexandria quotes a remark about refraction from the now-lost Catoptrica. During his lifetime, Archimedes made his work known through correspondence with the mathematicians in Alexandria. The writings of Archimedes were collected by the Byzantine architect Isidore of Miletus (c. 530 AD), while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD helped to bring his work a wider audience. Archimedes' work was translated into Arabic by Thābit ibn Qurra (836–901 AD), and Latin by Gerard of Cremona (c. 1114–1187 AD). During the Renaissance, the Editio Princeps (First Edition) was published in Basel in 1544 by Johann Herwagen with the works of Archimedes in Greek and Latin. Around the year 1586 Galileo Galilei invented a hydrostatic balance for weighing metals in air and water after apparently being inspired by the work of Archimedes.

Archimedes' Book of Lemmas or Liber Assumptorum is a treatise with fifteen propositions on the nature of circles. The earliest known copy of the text is in Arabic. The scholars T. L. Heath and Marshall Clagett argued that it cannot have been written by Archimedes in its current form, since it quotes Archimedes, suggesting modification by another author. The Lemmas may be based on an earlier work by Archimedes that is now lost.

It has also been claimed that Heron's formula for calculating the area of a triangle from the length of its sides was known to Archimedes. However, the first reliable reference to the formula is given by Heron of Alexandria in the 1st century  AD.

The foremost document containing the work of Archimedes is the Archimedes Palimpsest. In 1906, the Danish professor Johan Ludvig Heiberg visited Constantinople and examined a 174-page goatskin parchment of prayers written in the 13th century AD. He discovered that it was a palimpsest, a document with text that has been written over an erased older work. Palimpsests were created by scraping the ink from existing works and reusing them, which was a common practice in the Middle Ages as vellum was expensive. The older works in the palimpsest were identified by scholars as 10th century AD copies of previously unknown treatises by Archimedes. The parchment spent hundreds of years in a monastery library in Constantinople before being sold to a private collector in the 1920s. On October 29, 1998 it was sold at auction to an anonymous buyer for $2 million at Christie's in New York. The palimpsest holds seven treatises, including the only surviving copy of On Floating Bodies in the original Greek. It is the only known source of the Method of Mechanical Theorems, referred to by Suidas and thought to have been lost forever. Stomachion was also discovered in the palimpsest, with a more complete analysis of the puzzle than had been found in previous texts. The palimpsest is now stored at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland, where it has been subjected to a range of modern tests including the use of ultraviolet and x-ray light to read the overwritten text.

The treatises in the Archimedes Palimpsest are: On the Equilibrium of Planes, On Spirals, Measurement of a Circle, On the Sphere and the Cylinder, On Floating Bodies, The Method of Mechanical Theorems and Stomachion.

There is a crater on the Moon named Archimedes (29.7° N, 4.0° W) in his honor, and a lunar mountain range, the Montes Archimedes (25.3° N, 4.6° W).

The asteroid 3600 Archimedes is named after him.

The Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in mathematics carries a portrait of Archimedes, along with his proof concerning the sphere and the cylinder. The inscription around the head of Archimedes is a quote attributed to him which reads in Latin: "Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri" (Rise above oneself and grasp the world).

Archimedes has appeared on postage stamps issued by East Germany (1973), Greece (1983), Italy (1983), Nicaragua (1971), San Marino (1982), and Spain (1963).

The exclamation of Eureka! attributed to Archimedes is the state motto of California. In this instance the word refers to the discovery of gold near Sutter's Mill in 1848 which sparked the California Gold Rush.

A movement for civic engagement targeting universal access to health care in the US state of Oregon has been named the "Archimedes Movement," headed by former Oregon Governor John Kitzhaber.

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Régis François Gignoux

Régis François Gignoux, View Near Elizabethtown, N. J., 1847.jpg

Régis François Gignoux (1816–1882) was a French painter who was active in the United States from 1840 to 1870. He was born in Lyon, France and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under with the French painter Paul Delaroche (1797–1856). Gignoux arrived in the United States from France in 1840 and opened a studio in Brooklyn, New York. He was a member of the National Academy of Design, and was the first president of the Brooklyn Art Academy. George Inness (1825–1894) and John LaFarge (1835–1910) were both his students. Gignoux was the only member of the Hudson River School to specialize in snow scenes. He returned to France in 1870 and died in Paris in 1882.

The Brooklyn Museum, the Corcoran Gallery of Art (Washington, DC), the Georgia Museum of Art (University Of Georgia, Athens), the High Museum of Art (Atlanta, Georgia), the Honolulu Academy of Arts, the Hood Museum of Art (Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire), the Museum of Art at Brigham Young University (Provo, Utah), the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City, Missouri), the New York Historical Society (New York City), the Parrish Art Museum (Southampton, New York), Smith College Museum of Art (Northampton, Massachusetts), the United States Capital Art Collection (Washington, D. C.), the Walters Art Museum (Baltimore, Maryland) and the Watson Gallery (Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts) are among the public collections holding work by Régis François Gignoux.

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Gatchina Palace (Fabergé egg)

The Gatchina Palace egg is a jewelled enameled Easter egg made under the supervision of the Russian jeweler Peter Carl Fabergé in 1901, for Nicholas II of Russia. Nicholas II presented it to his mother, the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, on Easter 1901. The egg opens to reveal a surprise miniature gold replica of the palace at Gatchina, a village 30 miles southwest of St. Petersburg that was built for County Grigorii Orlov and was later acquired by Tsar Paul I. It is one of two imperial Easter eggs held in the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.

The egg was created by Faberge's workmaster, Mikhail Perkhin (Russian, 1860-1903) and is crafted from gold, enamel, silver-gilt, portrait diamonds, rock crystal, and seed pearls. Detailed work around the palace in the surprise shows cannons, a flag, a statue of Paul I (1754-1801), and elements of the landscape. The miniature palace is fixed inside the Egg and cannot be removed, unlike the 1908 Alexander Palace (Fabergé egg), which Fabergé would create seven years later for Alexandra Fyodorovna. The dimensions are 4 15/16 x 3 9/16 in. (12.5 x 9.1 cm).

The egg opens to reveal as a miniature gold replica of the palace at Gatchina, the Dowager Empress's principal winter residence outside Saint Petersburg.

In 1920, the Egg was in the possession of Alexander Polovtsov who was a former employee at the Gatchina Palace and later started an antique shop in Paris. It is not known how Mr. Polovtsov acquired the Egg. In 1930, the egg was sold along with the 1907 Rose Trellis to American Henry Walters and became a part of the Walters Art Museum Collection in 1931. In 1936, the egg was exhibited along with the Rose Trellis at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland and has been on permanent display since 1952.

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William Henry Rinehart

Hero, by William Henry Rinehart (detail).jpg

William Henry Rinehart (September 13, 1825 - October 28, 1874) was a noted American sculptor.

Rinehart was born near Union Bridge, Maryland, where he attended school until he was nearly eighteen. He then began to work on his father's farm, but also became the assistant of a stone-cutter in the neighborhood. In 1844 he began an apprenticeship in the stone-yard of Baughman and Bevan on the site of what is now The Peabody Institute in Baltimore, and studied sculpture at what is now called the Maryland Institute College of Art.

In 1855 Rinehart went to Italy to continue his studies. While there he executed two bas-reliefs in marble, Night and Morning. On his return, two years later, he opened a studio in Baltimore, where he executed, besides numerous busts, a fountain-figure for the post-office at Washington, and two figures, Indian and Backwoodsman, to support the clock in the House of Representatives. In 1858 he settled in Rome. During the succeeding eight years there came from his studies Hero and Leander, Indian Girl, St. Cecilia, Sleeping Babes, Woman of Samaria, Christ and the Angel of Resurrection (now in Loudoun cemetery), and the bronze statue Love, reconciled with Death in Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore.

Rinehart was financially successful in his lifetime, executing many commissions for wealthy and cultured clients. American patrons often traveled to Italy to meet Rinehart and plan projects for their estates back in America. Rinehart's most important patron and sponsor was William T. Walters, founder of Baltimore's Walters Art Gallery (now the Walters Art Museum).

William Henry Rinehart left his estate in trust for the teaching of sculpture at the Maryland Institute College of Art. In his name, MICA established the Rinehart School of Sculpture and a Rinehart fellowship. The Rinehart School's alumni would one day include the estimable Hans Schuler, born the year Rinehart died.

Rinehart is buried in Baltimore's renowned Greenmount Cemetery.

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Baltimore Museum of Art

The Eltonhead Manor Room is one of six rooms at the Baltimore Museum of Art that replicates a historic Maryland house.

The Baltimore Museum of Art in Baltimore, Maryland, was founded in 1914. It is located between the Charles Village and Remington neighborhoods, immediately adjacent to the Homewood campus of Johns Hopkins University, though the museum is an independent institution not affiliated with the University.

The highlight of the museum is the Cone Collection, works by Matisse, Picasso, Cézanne, Manet, Degas, Gauguin, van Gogh, and Renoir, brought together by Baltimore sisters Claribel and Etta Cone.

Since Sunday, October 1, 2006, the Baltimore Museum of Art and the Walters Art Museum have had free admission year-round as a result of grants given by Baltimore City and Baltimore County, excepting for special exhibitions.

The Baltimore Museum of Art is the site of Gertrude's Restaurant, owned and operated by chef John Shields.

In 1904 a major fire destroyed much of the central part of the city of Baltimore. In response, the city government established a City-Wide Congress to develop a master plan for the city's recovery and future growth and development. The congress, headed by Dr. A.R.L. Dohme, decided among other things that a major deficiency of the city was the lack of an art museum. This decision led to the formation of an eighteen-person Committee on the Art Museum led by art dealer and industrialist Henry H. Wiegand as the Chairman. Ten years later, on November 16, 1914, the founders were incorporated.

William-Sergeant Kendall's painting Mischief, donated by Dr. Dohme, was the first work of art accessioned by the new museum. Without a permanent site, the Peabody Institute agreed to hold the museum's collection until a home was found. The group did try to get Henry L. Walters to open his recently completed Italienate palazzo, which he had built as a showcase for his works of art, as the city's museum, when he refused, the committee began planning a permanent home for the museum. In 1916 they purchased a building on the southwest corner of Charles and Biddle Streets and employed an architect to remodel it, but it was never occupied. The group had decided in 1915 to locate the museum permanently in Wyman Park, and by 1917 they had received a promise from Johns Hopkins University for the land it currently occupies. Before moving into its permanent home in 1929, however, the museum temporarily moved to the Garrett house at 101 West Monument in July 1922. The house was offered by Miss M. Cary as a home for the "collections" and a meeting place for the board of trustees. Garrett house was acquired in 1925 by a group of art enthusiasts who bought the property for the purpose of keeping museum intact.The museum offered accommodations to art associations and a hall for meetings despite having limited space.

Meanwhile, back at Wyman Park, the architect John Russell Pope was engaged to design the museum's permanent home, and the cornerstone was laid on October 20, 1927. The systems engineering for the building's original design was completed by Henry Adams (mechanical engineer). The building consists of three floors and includes several rooms that are replicated from six Maryland historic houses. The building phase was marked by controversy over its location, cost, and the quality of workmanship, but on April 19, 1929, it opened on schedule without much fanfare. The first visitors were greeted by Rodin's The Thinker in the Sculpture Court and most of the objects on display were lent by Baltimore and Maryland collectors. An average of 584 visitors attended the museum each day during the first two months of its opening. When the Museum opened in 1929, the library was on the ground floor, equipped with shelves to house several thousand volumes, reading tables, and chairs. In 1983 the library was reinstalled in its current location, on the third floor of the Cone Wing.

Many of the objects lent to the museum when it opened were eventually donated to The Baltimore Museum of Art. Among the generous donors who have shaped the museum's collection are Blanche Adler, Dr. Claribel Cone and Miss Etta Cone, Jacob Epstein, Edward J. Gallagher, Jr., John W. and Robert Garrett, Mary Frick Jacobs, Ryda H. and Robert H. Levi, Saidie Adler May, Dorothy McIlvain Scott, Elsie C. Woodward, and Alan and Janet Wurtzburger. The growing collection is reflected in three major expansions that occurred in the 1950s: the Saidie A. May Wing in 1950, the Woodward Wing in 1956, and the Cone Wing in 1957. The three additions were all designed by local architects Wrenn, Lewis and Jencks to harmonize with the original Pope Building.

Today, The Baltimore Museum of Art's permanent collection includes over 90,000 objects, making it the largest art museum in Maryland. It is governed by a private Board of Trustees and receives funding from the City of Baltimore, surrounding Counties, the State of Maryland, corporations and foundations, Federal agencies, Trustees, and private citizens. The Baltimore Museum of Art welcomes over 300,000 visitors annually. In addition to its impressive permanent collection, it is host to traveling exhibitions and serves as a major arts center through its program offerings.

The BMA was one of the first museum's in the United States to obtain a collection of African Art. A large part of the collection was donated by Janet and Alan Wurtzburger in 1954. The collection contains more than 2,000 objects that span from ancient Egypt to contemporary Zimbabwe and includes works from many other cultures including Bamana, Yoruba, Kuba, Ndebele, and others. The collection includes many different forms of art including headdresses, masks, figures, royal staffs, textiles, jewelry, ceremonial weapons, and pottery. Several of the pieces are known for their use in royal courts, performances, and religious contexts, and many are internationally known.

Highlights of the collection include works by carvers Zlan and Sonzanlwon and several figures by the legendary brasscaster Ldamie. Also on display are a Lozi throne (c.1900) most likely carved in the court of King Lewanika of western Zambia, a 20th-century Hausa Koranic prayer board, and a 2006 video work by Theo Eshetu.

The BMA has one of the best collections of American Art in the world with works spanning from the colonial era to the late 20th century. The exhibit contains American paintings, sculptures, and decorative arts. The museum contains several works of Art from the Baltimore area including portraiture by Charles Willson Peale, Rembrandt Peale, and other members of the renowned Peale family; silver from Baltimore's prominent silver manufacturing company Samuel Kirk & Son; American Baltimore album quilts; and painted furniture by John Finlay and Hugh Finlay of Baltimore.

The American painting collection at he museum ranges from 18th-century portraits and 19th-century landscape painting to American Impressionism and modernism with works by acclaimed artists John Singleton Copley, Thomas Sully, Thomas Eakins, John Singer Sargent, Childe Hassam, and Thomas Hart Benton. Notable canvases include A Wild Scene (1831-1832) by Thomas Cole, La Vachère (1888) by Theodore Robinson, and Pink Tulip (1926) by Georgia O’Keeffe. These are complemented by outstanding holdings of prints and drawings, as well as modern photographs from the Gallagher/Dalsheimer Collection. Artists represented include by Imogen Cunningham, Man Ray, Paul Strand, and Alfred Stieglitz.

The BMA has a long and distinguished record of collecting works by African-American artists that began in 1939 with one of the first exhibitions of African-American art in the country. This collection has grown substantially in recent years with the addition of more than 50 historical and contemporary works. Joshua Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Horace Pippin, and Henry Ossawa Tanner are included among the 19th- and 20th-century African-American artists.

The BMA’s holdings of American decorative arts include an extensive furniture collection that represents the major historic cabinetmaking centers of Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston. Many of these objects came from Miss Dorothy McIlvain Scott, a generous Baltimore philanthropist and collector.

A remarkable gift in 1933 by Mrs. Miles White, Jr. of over 200 stunning pieces of Maryland silver formed the nucleus of an impressive silver collection that now embraces objects by leading 18th- and early 19th-century silversmiths in Annapolis and Baltimore, as well as elegant examples of early English silver owned by Maryland families during the Federal era. Among them is the Annapolis Subscription Plate, made by Annapolis silver smith John Inch and the oldest surviving silver object made in Maryland. Later masterworks by artists from Louis Comfort Tiffany to Georg Jensen are also on view.

Other notable aspects of the decorative arts collection include a rare set of five clerestory windows and two brilliant mosaic-clad architectural columns that represent Tiffany's lasting contribution to 20th-century ornament. Period rooms from six historic Maryland houses, along with architectural elements from other historic buildings, illustrate town and country building styles from the 18th and 19th centuries, and a dozen miniature rooms made by Chicago miniaturist Eugene Kupjack invite scrutiny of a variety of decorative styles at close range.

The BMA exhibits a distinquished collection of Antioch mosaics, the result of its participation in excavations of this ancient city, known today as Antakya in southeastern Turkey, near the border of Syria.

With the support of BMA Trustee Robert Garrett, The Baltimore Museum of Art joined the Musées Nationaux de France, Worcester Art Museum, and Princeton University during the excavations of 1932 to 1939, discovering 300 magnificent mosaic pavements in and around the lost city. The BMA received some of the finest mosaics from the excavation, totaling 34 pavements, 28 of which are on display in the Museum’s sunlit atrium court.

Discovered in the affluent suburb of Daphne and the nearby port city of Seleucia Pieria, the mosaics date from the days of the emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century A.D. to the Christian empire of Justinian in the 6th century, bridging the Classical world and the early Middle Ages. The mosaics illustrate how the classical art of Greece and Rome evolved into the art of the early Christian era and tell the story of how people lived in this ancient city prior to its destruction by catastrophic earthquakes in 526 and 528 A.D. The mosaics are notable for their grand scale and elaborately patterned borders, and the brilliance of their decorative and naturalistic effects.

This collection contains works from 59 distinct artistic traditions from Aztec and Maya of Mesoamerica, Chimú and Muisca of Andean South America, and Nicoya and Atlantic Watershed of Costa Rica. The collection includes works from 2500 B.C. – A.D. 1521. The core collection of 120 objects was given to the museum by Alan Wurtzburger in 1958 which significantly expanded the scope of the existing collection and provided momentum for a traveling exhibition of Peruvian ceramics titled Myths of Ancient Peru (1969).

The collection is particularly admired for its West Mexico ceramics including an important Nayarit house model and an enthroned chief. Also on display is a unique assemblage of 23 figures in dance regalia celebrates ancient performance and highlights the diversity of Colima art.

Other notable pieces include a finely worked serpentine figure of Olmec mastery, elegant portrayals of Maya and Aztec noblewomen showcasing the integral roles women played in the social, political, economic, and spiritual realms of society, and miniature gold votives in the Muisca tradition.

This exihibit includes artwork from several cultural traditions of the Pacific Islands including those of Melanesia and Polynesia. Works in collection include a cross section of objects such as jewelry, ornaments, and tapa cloths.

Of notable interest is a finely carved lizard of dark wood and shell from Easter Island, a battle pectoral created from hundreds of Nassa shells, which highlights Middi art of New Britain, and an 18th century royal Hawaiian necklace.

Other highlights of the collection include a breast ornament embellished with small birds and stars that figured as insignia of prestige for the Tonga of the Fiji Islands. Featuring whale ivory and pearl shell design, it is recognized as one of the largest of its kind.

The museum's Asian art collection includes works from China, Japan, India, Tibet, Southeast Asia, and the Near East. The collection is particularly known for its Chinese ceramics, with a particular depth in mortuary wares from the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and utilitarian stonewares from the 11th through the 13th centuries. Although more than 1,000 objects comprise this collection, due to limmited space only a portion of the pieces are on display at one time. Works are on view in rotating installations in the Museum’s Julius Levy Memorial Gallery.

Some notable works in the collection include the life-sized early 15th century bronze Guanyin, known widely as “Goddess of Mercy"; the robust figure of a horse from a Han dynasty tomb; a 39-piece mortuary retinue, a rare example of the quantities of clay figures that were placed in tombs during the early Tang dynasty; and an outstanding foliate-shaped brush washer that represents the mastery of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain. Asian art is also represented in other areas of the museum's collection, including 475 Japanese prints and 1,000 textiles from across Asia.

The European Art collection at the BMA contains works from the 15th through 19th-centuries. Most of the collection was formed through generous donations made by private citicens of the city of Baltimore, notably Mary Frick Jacobs, George A. Lucas, and Jacob Epstein. The collection contains a large selection of 19th-century French art including more than 140 bronze animal sculptures by Antoine-Louis Barye and several paintings by Barbizon artists such as Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and impressionist Camille Pissarro. The collection also includes a wide array of decorative arts, including jeweled snuffboxes, porcelain, and silver. The museum also exhibits a large collection of works on paper from the 15th through the 19th century.

Highlights of the European art exhibit include Sir Anthony van Dyck's Rinaldo and Armida (1629) which was commissioned by King Charles I of England. It is considered one of the world’s finest paintings by the artist. Other masterworks of northern European and French art include Frans Hals’ portrait Dorothea Berck (1644), Rembrandt van Rijn’s painting of his son Titus (1660), Jean Baptiste Siméon Chardin’s portrayal of a lovely maiden tossing a ball in The Game of Knucklebones (c. 1734), and French court portraitist Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun’s exotic Princess Anna Alexandrovna Galitzin (c. 1797). Medieval and Renaissance works include a 14th-century Burgundian Virgin and Child carved of limestone and Titian’s Portrait of a Gentleman (1561).

The Cone collection, housed at the Baltimore Museum of Art in Baltimore, Maryland, is one of the most important art collections in the world. It was the work of the Cone sisters, Claribel and Etta Cone, who in the early 20th century set out to acquire as much as they could of the work of artists such as Matisse and Picasso especially, and also Cézanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Renoir, and others who are now the acknowledged giants of the era.

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Henry Walters

Henry Walters (1848 – 1931) was an American rail magnate (Atlantic Coast Line) and founder of the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.

When William Walters, his father, died in 1894, he bequeathed his collection to his son, Henry, who greatly expanded the scope of acquisitions, including his astounding purchase of the contents of a palace in Rome that contained over 1,700 pieces. In September 1900, Henry bought the three houses adjoining the property in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore his father had owned to house and display his collection. He had the site transformed into a palazzo-like building, which opened to the public in 1909 as The Walters Art Gallery. He died in 1931, leaving the building and its contents to the mayor and city council of Baltimore "for the benefit of the public." The Walters Art Museum opened its doors for the first time as a public institution on November 3, 1934.

He also donated four public bath houses to the City of Baltimore one of which, Walters Bath No. 2, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.

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Source : Wikipedia