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Posted by bender 02/28/2009 @ 16:00

Tags : wineries, terms, wine, food and wine, leisure

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Food notes: Idaho wineries get accolades at prestigious wine summit -
BY Dana Oland - Five Idaho wineries won gold medals at the Pacific Northwest Wine Summit on May 4-6 in Oregon. It's the largest wine competition in the region. Idaho wines won the highest percentage of medals for their entries...
Southern Illinois wineries could lose state aid - Bloomington Pantagraph
Pat Quinn and lawmakers are considering taxing wine and liquor to fund a statewide construction program, the governor's proposed budget calls for cuts in state aid to Illinois wineries. Quinn's budget plan would slash about $225000 in funding used for...
Napa winery Frog's Leap comes with a bit of whimsy - Seattle Post Intelligencer
Frog's Leap could be the poster child for a new generation of Napa wineries: beautifully appointed, genteel, terroir-oriented and dedicated to a green agenda. The vibe: A sense of ecological and social responsibility is nicely balanced by a dose of...
Amador's Shenandoah Valley maintains its rural feel while its ... - Modesto Bee
By Rick Kushman What struck me during a tour of Amador County wineries was the beauty of the soft hills, the varied and lush sense of wine country, the mix of vineyards and pasture. There were classic vistas of vineyards lining hillsides, accenting the...
US Saint James Co to buy winery in New Zealand - Trading Markets (press release)
The Saint James Company will buy the family winery through Samson Acquisition Company, which it recently announced it would acquire. The two deals are subject to due diligence and customary closing conditions, The Saint James Company said....
The right place for lovers of sweet wine - San Francisco Chronicle
Most big-time wineries crush and press Port grapes mechanically. Reading gives his fruit a cold soak, de-stems and crushes his fruit with a small machine, then presses it by hand - or rather, foot - with a contraption he has fashioned to save energy...
Woodinville Warehouse Wineries Hosts a Series of Themed Wine, Art ... - PR Web (press release)
Seattle (PRWEB) May 15, 2009 -- Alicia Hansen announced Monday that Woodinville Warehouse Wineries will host a series of themed Third Thursday Wine Walks beginning in May of 2009, and going all the way through September 2009....
NY wineries win 4 double golds, 33 golds in Mich. competition - Rochester Democrat and Chronicle
New York wineries took 151 medals, including four double gold and 33 gold, at the Tasters Guild International's 22nd Annual International Wine Judging. Forty judges evaluated more than 2100 wines from 36 states or provinces and 13 nations during the...
Explore 7 wineries, centers in 2 counties - Rochester Democrat and Chronicle
The self-guided tour to seven wineries and wine centers will provide visitors with wine and food pairings, wine tastings, tours and more. The stops are at Casa Larga Vineyards in Perinton; and in Ontario County, Widmer Wine Cellars and Imagine Moore...
Lake County, Off-The-Beaten-Track California Wine Touring -
Visitors who make the trek (about 1.5 hrs north of Napa) will be amazed to find high quality wineries, without crowds, traffic or attitude. Many early settlers and pioneers came to Lake County because land was plentiful, cheap and the soil good....

List of wineries in the Eden Valley

This is a list of wineries in the Eden Valley, a significant wine-producing region of South Australia, located within the Barossa wine zone and adjacent to the Barossa Valley wine zone.

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List of wineries in Illinois

The following wineries and vineyards operate wholly or principally in the U.S. state of Illinois. The article for Illinois wine provides an overview of the industry.

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Niagara Peninsula wineries

Niagara Peninusla wineries are a series of wineries located in the Niagara Peninsula in Ontario, Canada.

The region is also known for their icewines and may wineries are part of the wine tour region and have accommodations to attract visitors to stay and taste their products.

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List of vineyards and wineries

The following is a non-exhaustive list of vineyards and wineries from around the world.

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List of wineries in Ohio

The following wineries and vineyards operate wholly or principally in the U.S. state of Ohio.

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List of Oregon wineries and vineyards

A list of wineries and vineyards in the state of Oregon.

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List of wineries and vineyards in Maine

A list of wineries and vineyards in the state of Maine.

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Carmel Winery

Carmel Winery is a vineyard and winery in Israel. Founded in 1882 by Edmond James de Rothschild, its products are exported to over 40 countries.

Carmel Winery manufactures mainly wine, brandy and grape juice. It is the prime producer of wine in Israel, as it produces nearly half of the Israeli wine market, and one of the largest wine producers in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is the first and oldest exporter of wine, brandy and grape juice in the country, and also the largest producer of kosher wine in the world.

The company holds the two largest wineries in Israel, as well as three new boutique wineries. These wineries include Rishon LeZion Winery, Zikhron Ya'akov Winery, Yatir Winery (50%) and Ramat Dalton Winery. In addition, the company owns 1,500 hectares (3,750 acres) of vineyards in Israel.

Carmel's production reaches 25-30 million bottles per year and its profit from export adds up to USD 5 million from 40 countries.

When the settlers of the First Aliyah, Jews who immigrated to Palestine from Eastern Europe in the second half of the 19th century, encountered difficulties in cultivating the land due to their lack of experience and the soil's characteristics, they began to seek support outside of Palestine for establishing vineyards and wineries. Their representatives traveled to France, where they met Baron Edmond de Rothschild, owner of Château Lafite. As a Zionist, Rothschild provided financial and moral assistance to the settlers. His first vineyards were planted near Rishon LeZion, south east of Jaffa. In 1882, French rootstock was imported, and the Baron sent his own wine specialists to advise the pioneers in this enterprise. Construction began on a large wine cellar in Rishon LeZion. Later, a second winery was established in Zikhron Ya'akov, situated on Mount Carmel just south of Haifa.

In 1895 Carmel Wine Co. was formed to export wines of Rishon LeZion and Zikhron Ya'akov, first in Poland, then in Austria, Great Britain and the United States. In 1902 Carmel Mizrahi was founded in Palestine to market and distribute wines to the cities of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1896, the first Carmel wines were presented at the International Exhibition of Berlin at a special pavilion devoted to the industries of the Jewish colony in Palestine. Over a hundred thousand people visited the exhibition, looked at the products, and drank a glass of Rishon LeZion wine. A year later, a world gardening exhibition was held in Hamburg where the settlers' wines were well received. Rishon LeZion wines won a gold medal at the Paris World's Fair in 1900.

Interestingly, many of Israel's historical figures worked in the vineyards and in the wineries. Perhaps the two most famous were the first Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben Gurion and his successor, Levi Eshkol.

Through the early decades of the 20th century the wine business bloomed. Branches of Carmel Wine Co., were opened in Damascus, Cairo, Beirut, Berlin, London, Warsaw and Alexandria, and sales increased, particularly during the First World War, when allied troops passed through Palestine. However, the businesses fell sharply when the war was over. The industry lost its principal markets in Russia due to the October Revolution, in the United States because of Prohibition, and in Egypt and the Middle East because of Arab nationalism. Many of the vineyards were uprooted and replanted with citrus trees.

However, during the Second World War, the industry began to grow again and with successive waves of immigrants, drinking habits gradually changed. In 1957, the estate of the Baron Edmond de-Rothschild deeded over the two wineries to the Cooperative of Winegrowers, the Societé Cooperative Vigneronne des Grandes Caves, by then, better known under the trade name Carmel Mizrahi in Israel and Carmel worldwide.

For some years after the end of the war, Carmel's output was focused on sweet wines used for sacramental purposes. However, with the emergence of the new world in wine making, Israeli wine makers sought new varieties of grapes, thus in 1971 Cabarnet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc, the first varietal wines from Israel, were presented in the United States market.

In the early 80's, the wine industry in Israel fell upon hard times, but in the second half of the decade, wine became more popular and demands for quality stimulated tremendous improvements in the varieties of grapes being grown, the cultivation of new growing regions and the updating of fermentation and production techniques.

Over the past few years, new state of the art wineries have been built, the existing wineries have been renovated and a new team of young, highly qualified wine makers have been employed. The constant search for improvement is now part of the fabric of the cooperative.

In 2003 Carmel agreed to sponsor 'Carmel Trophy for Best Eastern Mediterranean Producer' at I.W.S.C. in London. In 2004 Peter Stern (formerly at Mondavi & Gallo) from California was appointed wine making consultant. The same year Carmel founded 'Handcrafted Wines of Israel'.

Exporting to over 40 countries, Carmel products are found in wine stores and retail chains around the globe.

Carmel's first winery and head office is Rishon LeZion Winery, which is located in the city of Rishon LeZion. It was built in 1890 by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, making it the oldest industrial building in Israel still in use. The winery is the largest winery in Israel in terms of production of wines, spirits and grape juice. It was the first establishment in Israel to install electricity and telephone, and David Ben Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, worked there. It underwent renovations in the 1990s.

Carmel's second winery is Zikhron Ya'akov Winery. Located in Zikhron Ya'akov, it is used for production of wine and blending of olive oil. It was built in 1892, also by Baron Edmond de Rothschild. The winery is the largest winery in Israel in terms of grapes received at harvest. It includes a new boutique winery built in 2003 and a pilot micro-winery for research and development.

Yatir Winery is a small winery built in 2000 with state of the art equipment, which receives grapes only from its own vineyards. It is situated in Tel Arad, an archaeological site with 3,000 years of history, in the northeastern Negev. The winery was a joint venture between Carmel (50%) and Gadash local wine growers (50%). Yatir Winery is now solely owned by Carmel Winery. Its vineyards are located in Yatir Forest in the southern Judean Hills.

Another newly built winery is Ramat Dalton, located in Ramat Dalton, Upper Galilee. It was built in 2004 and receives its grapes from vineyards in Upper Galilee and Golan Heights.

Carmel Winery owns numerous vineyards across Israel, from the Galilee and the Golan Heights in the North to the Negev in the South. These vineyards include some of the finest individual vineyard sites in the country. On average, Carmel harvests about 25,000 tonnes of grapes, which is approximately 50% of Israel’s total harvest. Exported wines will show the growing region on the label.

In the Galilee and Golan, which are generally accepted as Israel’s finest wine growing areas due to their higher altitude and cooler climate, Carmel's vineyards focus on growing quality grapes. Carmel has vineyards in the central and northern Golan and it is the leading winery presence in the premium Upper Galilee. The grapes from the finest vineyards go to Ramat Dalton Winery.

The coastal regions of Sharon and Central Coastal Plain are Israel’s traditional grape growing areas, where Carmel's vines were originally planted. In the northern Sharon Plain, Israel's largest wine growing region, benefiting from Mount Carmel Range and from breezes off the Mediterranean Sea, Carmel owns extensive areas of vineyards. The main concentration of vineyards is in the valleys surrounding the winery towns of Zikhron Ya’akov and Binyamina. This is the largest region for Carmel which surrounds the Zikhron Ya’akov Winery. It was announced in early 2008 that a 150-acre (0.61 km2) wine park would be created on the slopes between Zikhron Ya'akov and Binyamina in order to promote tourism in the area and wine tourism in Israel in general.

The Central Coastal Plain (known as Dan) and the rolling hills of the Judean Lowlands make up the second coastal region, in which grapes have been traditionally grown. This is the second largest area for growing vines in Israel, as it has a coastal Mediterranean climate: hot, humid summers and warm, mild winters. It is a large region for Carmel and it supplies the Rishon LeZion Winery.

In the Judean Hills, an area proved to yield grapes of high quality due to its warm days and cool nighttime temperature, Carmel has premium vineyards in Yatir Forest, the largest forest in Israel. These vineyards, which are up to 900 meters above sea level, supply grapes for the boutique Yatir Winery.

Carmel is a pioneer in the Negev, a popular area for vine growing in ancient times, with its high quality Ramat Arad vineyard situated on the north east Negev plateau, 500 meters above sea level with very hot days and cold nights.

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Oregon wine

The Willamette River Valley

The state of Oregon in the United States has established an international reputation for its production of wine. Oregon has several different growing regions within the state's borders which are well-suited to the cultivation of grapes; additional regions straddle the border between Oregon and the states of Washington and Idaho. Wine making dates back to pioneer times in the 1840s, with commercial production beginning in the 1960s.

American Viticultural Areas entirely within the state include the Willamette Valley, Southern Oregon, Umpqua Valley, and Rogue Valley AVAs. Parts of the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Snake River Valley AVAs lie within Oregon. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris are the top two grapes grown, with over 16,000 tons (14,515 metric tons) harvested in 2005. As of 2005, Oregon wine makers produced over 1.5 million cases combined.

With 303 wineries in Oregon, a tourism industry has developed around wine tasting. Much of the tourism focuses on the wineries and tasting rooms in and around the Yamhill Valley southwest of Portland. In 2004, it was estimated that wine tourism contributed USD $92 million to the state economy, excluding winery and tasting room sales.

Wine has been produced in Oregon since the Oregon Territory was settled in the 1840s; however, winemaking has only been a significant industry in the state since the 1960s. Grapes were first planted in the Oregon Territory in 1847, with the first recorded winery being established in 1850 in Jacksonville. Throughout the 19th century, there was experimentation with various varietals by immigrants to the state. In 1904, an Oregon winemaker won a prize at the St. Louis World's Fair. Wine production stopped in the United States during Prohibition. As in other states, the Oregon wine industry lay dormant for thirty years after Prohibition was repealed.

The Oregon wine industry started to rebuild in the 1960s, when California winemakers opened several vineyards in the state. This included the planting of Pinot Noir grapes in the Willamette Valley, a region long thought too cold to be suitable for viticulture. In the 1970s, more out-of-state winemakers migrated to the state and started to organize as an industry. The state's land use laws had prevented rural hillsides from being turned into housing tracts, preserving a significant amount of land suitable for vineyards. In 1979, Eyrie Vineyards entered a 1975 Pinot Noir in the Wine Olympics; the wine was rated among the top Pinots in the world, thus gaining the region its first international recognition.

The accolades continued into the 1980s, and the Oregon wine industry continued to add both wineries and vineyards. The state industry continued to market itself, establishing the first of several AVAs (American Viticulture Areas) in the state. The state also grew strong ties with the Burgundy region of France, as Oregon's governor paid an official visit to Burgundy and a leading French winemaking family bought land in Dundee.

In the early 1990s, the wine industry was threatened by a Phylloxera infestation in the state, but winemakers quickly turned to the use of resistant rootstocks to prevent any serious damage. The state legislature enacted several new laws designed to promote winemaking and wine distribution. The state found a newfound focus on "green" winemaking, leading the global wine industry into more environmentally friendly practices. Several new AVAs were established. By 2005, there were 314 wineries and 519 vineyards in operation in Oregon.

Like other wines produced in the United States, Oregon wines are marketed as varietals. Oregon law requires that wines produced in the state must be identified by the grape variety from which it was made, and must contain at least 90% of that variety. Oregon law has long forbidden use of place names, except as appellations of origin. Oregon is most famous for its Pinot Noir, which is produced throughout the state. Pinot Noirs from the Willamette Valley have received much critical acclaim from wine connoisseurs and critics, and Oregon is regarded as one of the premier Pinot-producing regions in the world.

Other varieties with significant production in Oregon include Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Müller-Thurgau, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, and Syrah. V. vinifera based wines produced in smaller quantities include Arneis, Baco noir, Cabernet franc, Chenin blanc, Dolcetto, Gamay Noir, Grenache, Marechal Foch, Malbec, Muscat, Nebbiolo, Petite Syrah, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Viognier, and Zinfandel. The state also produces sparkling wine, late harvest wine, ice wine, and dessert wine.

As of the 2005 wine growing season, the state of Oregon has 303 bonded wineries, 384 wine brands, and 734 vineyards growing Vitis vinifera, composing a total of 14,100 acres (57 km2) of which 11,800 acres (48 km2) were harvested in 2005. Out of all US wine growing regions, Oregon ranked third in number of wineries and fourth in production. Nearly 1.6 million cases of Oregon wine were sold in 2005. The retail value of these cases was $184.7 million, a 24% increase over the previous vintage.

The industry has had a significant economic impact on the state. The industry contributed a total of USD $1.4 billion to the Oregon economy. Of that figure, over USD $800 million is directly provided by wineries and vineyards via sales, wages, and spending. It is estimated that the industry contributed 8,479 wine-related jobs and USD $203 million in wages. Exports to other states in 2004 were USD $64.1 million.

Oregon produces wine on a much smaller scale than the California wine industry. Oregon's biggest producer ships only 125,000 cases per year and most produce under 35,000 cases. The state features many small wineries which produce less than 5,000 cases per year. In contrast, E & J Gallo Winery, the United States' largest winery, produced 65 million cases of wine in 2002. The majority of wineries in the state operate their own vineyards, although some purchase grapes on the market. Oregon contains a significant number of independent vineyards.

The Oregon wine industry focuses on the higher-priced segments of the wine market. Oregon growers receive a higher average return per ton and a higher average revenue per case than do growers in other wine-producing regions in the United States. Despite producing a much smaller volume of wine, Oregon winery revenues per capita are comparable to those of New York and Washington.

There are, loosely speaking, three main wine producing regions with a major presence in the state of Oregon, as defined by non-overlapping American Viticultural Areas. Two of them—the Willamette Valley AVA and the Southern Oregon AVA—are wholly contained within Oregon; a third, the Columbia Gorge AVA straddles the Columbia River and includes territory in both Oregon and Washington; however, this AVA is considered to be an Oregon AVA. Portions of the Walla Walla Valley AVA, an area which is primarily in Washington (along with the Columbia Valley AVA which contains it), descend into Oregon in the Milton-Freewater area. The Southern Oregon AVA was recently created as the union of two Southern Oregon winegrowing regions long considered distinct, the Rogue Valley and the Umpqua Valley. Several other smaller AVAs are found within some of these larger regions. The Snake River Valley AVA, which straddles Oregon's border with Idaho along the Snake River, is the first AVA to include a part of Eastern Oregon.

The Willamette Valley AVA is the wine growing region which encompasses the Willamette Valley. It stretches from the Columbia River in the north to just south of Eugene in the south, where the Willamette Valley ends; and from the Oregon Coast Range in the West to the Cascade Mountains in the East. At 5,200 square miles (13,500 km2), it is the largest AVA in the state, and contains most of the state's wineries; approximately 200 as of 2006.

The climate of Willamette Valley is mild year-round, with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers; extreme temperatures are uncommon. Most rainfall occurs outside the growing season and the valley gets relatively little snow. Not all parts of the Valley are suitable for viticulture, and most wineries and vineyards are found west of the Willamette River, with the largest concentration in Yamhill County.

This region is most famous for its Pinot Noir, and also produces large amounts of Pinot Gris, Riesling, and Chardonnay. The region also produces Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Müller-Thurgau, Sémillon, and Zinfandel grapes, but in far smaller quantities.

The region is divided into four subordinate AVAs: Dundee Hills AVA, McMinnville AVA, Ribbon Ridge AVA, and the Yamhill-Carlton District AVA. Two more AVA applications are pending. In addition, many wine connoisseurs further divide the Willamette Valley into northern and southern regions approximately at the latitude of Salem.

The Southern Oregon AVA is an AVA which was formed as the union of two existing AVAs—the Rogue Valley AVA and the Umpqua Valley AVA. (A small strip of connecting territory is included in the Southern Oregon AVA to make it a contiguous region; however, this strip passes through mountains regions not suitable for vineyards.) This AVA was established in 2004 to allow the two principal regions in Southern Oregon to jointly market themselves. As the Rogue Valley and Umpqua Valley regions produce different grapes and different varietals, they are examined separately.

The Umpqua Valley AVA contains the drainage basin of the Umpqua River, excluding mountainous regions. The Umpqua Valley has a warmer climate than the Willamette Valley, but is cooler than the Rogue Valley to the south. Grapes grown here include Pinot Noir, with smaller amounts of Pinot Gris, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Riesling, as well as several French-American hybrids. The region includes one sub-AVA, the Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon AVA.

The Rogue Valley AVA includes the drainage basin of the Rogue River and several tributaries, including the Illinois River, the Applegate River, and Bear Creek. Most wineries in the region are found along one of these three tributaries, rather than along the Rogue River itself. The region is 70 miles (110 km) wide by 60 miles (100 km) long (although much of the land within the AVA is not suitable for grape cultivation); there are less than 20 wineries with only 1,100 acres (4 km2) planted. The three valleys differ greatly in terroir, with the easternmost Bear Creek valley being warmest and driest, and the westernmost Illinois River valley being coolest and wettest. Each river valley has a unique climate and grows different varieties of grapes. Overall, however, this region is the warmest and driest of Oregon's wine-growing regions. The region has one sub-AVA, the Applegate Valley AVA.

The Columbia Gorge AVA is found in the Columbia Gorge. This region straddles the Columbia River, and thus lies in both Oregon and Washington; it is made up of Hood River and Wasco counties in Oregon, and Skamania and Klickitat counties in Washington. The region lies to the east of the summits of nearby Mount Hood and Mount Adams, situated in their rain shadows; thus, the region is significantly drier than the Willamette Valley. It also exhibits significant differences in elevation due to gorge geography, and strong winds common in the area also play a factor in the region's climate. This allows a wide variety of grapes to be grown in the Columbia Gorge. The region has nearly 40 vineyards, growing a wide variety of grapes, including Syrah, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Zinfandel, Cabernet, Pinot Gris, Riesling, and Sangiovese.

Portions of northeastern Oregon (in the vicinity of Milton-Freewater) are part of the Walla Walla Valley AVA, which was established in 1984. This appellation, which is part of the Columbia Valley AVA, lies primarily within Washington state. This region has nearly 100 wineries and 1,200 acres (5 km2) planted. Wines grown in the valley include Syrah, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon, as well as Sangiovese and a few exotic varietals including Counoise, Carmenère, Mourvèdre, Cabernet Franc, Nebbiolo and Barbera.

A new viticultural area along the Snake River was established on April 9, 2007. Principally located in Idaho, the area also encompasses two large counties in Eastern Oregon, Baker County and Malheur County. The region's climate is unique among AVAs in Oregon; the average temperature is relatively cool and rainfall is low, creating a shorter growing season. Current production is led by hardy grapes such as Riesling, Gewürztraminer, and Chardonnay. The climate also lends itself extremely well to the production of ice wine. However, the AVA is quite large and warmer microclimates within the area can also support different types of grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.

With the continuing improvement in the region's winemaking reputation, wine tourism in Oregon has become a significant industry in its own right. On-site sales are becoming an increasingly important part of the business of Oregon winemaking, and other businesses which cater to wine tourists, such as lodging, fine restaurants, art gallerys, have been appearing in places like Dundee, many of which have long been rural farming communities. Wine festivals and tastings are commonplace. It is estimated that wine tourism contributed USD $92 million to the state economy in 2004, excluding sales at wineries and tasting rooms. There are approximately 1.48 million visits to Oregon wineries each year, 49% by Oregonians and 51% from out of state visitors. Major events which draw significant numbers of tourists to wine country include the International Pinot Noir Celebration and the Oregon Pinot Camp.

Facilities for wine tourists in Oregon are considered underdeveloped compared to wine regions in California, especially premium growing regions like the Napa Valley AVA. Only 5% of overnight leisure trips in the state involve visits to wineries, a much smaller figure than comparable Californian growing regions which range from 10%–25%. Oregon lacks many accommodations found in wine growing regions in other states such as luxury hotels, resorts, and other attractions suitable for well-heeled tourists. As of August 2006, a resort hotel is being planned in Dundee, which would be located near notable wineries such as Domaine Drouhin Oregon. A local developer and businessman has proposed construction of a 50-room hotel, spa and restaurant in the Dundee Hills region, but has met with opposition from many notable vintners, including David Lett, who fear that such a development would dramatically alter the landscape of the region. Concern has also been raised by vintners that the proposed site is on prime growing land that should be used for wine production rather than a resort hotel.

The increase in winery-related tourism, as well as the presence of a casino in the Willamette Valley, has greatly impacted the region's transportation infrastructure. Oregon Route 99W, the highway which runs through the heart of Willamette Valley wine country (and which is the main street in towns such as Newberg and Dundee), is plagued with frequent traffic jams. Plans to construct a freeway bypass around Newberg and Dundee (avoiding the prime growing areas in the hills) are in motion, but are highly controversial. Currently, construction of the highway project is unfunded, and the Oregon Department of Transportation has proposed making the new bypass a toll road, highly unusual for Oregon. Tolls have also been proposed on the existing route of OR 99W, in addition to the new bypass. This proposal has proven to be highly controversial, with many local residents opposing the plan, primarily due to potential negative effects on businesses located on 99W and a general aversion to tolling existing roads.

Oregon wines have won several major awards, and/or been praised by notable wine critics.

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Washington wine

Rattlesnake Mountain as seen across Chandler Reach vineyard - 1.JPG

Washington wine is wine produced from grapes grown in the U.S. state of Washington. Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California. By 2006, the state had over 31,000 acres (130 km2) of vineyards, a harvest of 120,000 short tons (109,000 t) of grapes, and exports going to over 40 countries around the world from the 500 wineries located in the state. Washington produces a full spectrum of wines ranging from mass-produced to premium boutique wines. In 2006, The Wine Advocate gave two perfect scores of 100 points for Cabernet Sauvignon wines made by Quilceda Creek Vintners using grapes from several Washington AVAs. Only 15 other American wines have ever been scored so highly by The Wine Advocate, all from California.

The glaciers resting upon what is now Washington state retreated 16,000 years ago, leaving behind a free-draining gravel bed up to 250 feet (76 m) deep in some places. The topsoil is sandy and stone-studded, which is ideal for low-vigor vine growing. Persistent lava flows created basalt-based soil foundation.

The rain shadow of the Cascade Range leaves the Columbia River Basin with around 8 inches (20 cm) of annual rain fall. Vignerons take advantage of long sunlight hours (on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season) and consistent temperatures. The fruit attains optimal ripening while the cool nights help the vines to shut down and the grape maintain natural levels of acidity.

Washington shares the same latitude as the prime wine-producing areas of Europe, which is felt by many to contribute to the quality of the grapes. A drawback of the region is that extreme winter freezes occur with some regularity, killing off substantial portions of the vineyards, which then have to be brought back to full production over a period of years.

The early history of the Washington wine industry can be traced to the introduction of Cinsault grapes by Italian immigrants to the Walla Walla region. In the 1950s and 1960s, the precursors of the state's biggest wineries (Chateau Ste Michelle and Columbia Winery) were founded. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, the wine world discovered a new aspect of Washington wines with each passing decade - starting with Rieslings and Chardonnays in the 1970s, the Merlot craze of the 1980s and the emergence of Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah in the 1990s.

While over 80 grape varieties are grown in Washington state, the primary grapes used in the production of wine are from the Vitis vinifera family of grapes. The main grapes used in wine production in Washington include Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Grenache, Malbec, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Petite Syrah, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sangiovese, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Syrah, Tempranillo, Viognier, and Zinfandel. Washington State is also home to plantings of some lesser known Vitis vinifera varieties that are used in wine production for some experimental wines and blending. These include Abouriou, Alicante Bouschet, Aligoté, Auxerrois, Black Cornichon, Black Monukka, Black Muscat, Black Prince, Blauer Portugieser, Calzin, Carignane, Chasselas, Chauche Gris, Clevner Mariafeld, Colombard, Csaba, Ehrenfelser, Feher Szagos, Gamay, Green Hungarian, Lemberger, Madeleine Angevine, Madeleine Sylvaner, Melon de Bourgogne, Mission, Morio Muscat, Muller-Thurgau, Muscat of Alexandria, Muscat Canelli, Muscat Ottonel, Palomino, Petite Verdot, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Meunier, Pirovano, Rkatsiteli, Rose of Peru, Salvador, Sauvignon Vert, Scheurebe, Siegerrebe, Sylvaner, Trollinger, and Trousseau. Some notable French hybrid grapes used in wine production include Aurore and Baco Noir.

Vineyard acreage planted to red varieties was 17,351 acres (7,022 ha) in 2006. The four most prevalent red varieties were Cabernet Sauvignon at 5,959 acres (2,412 ha), Merlot at 5,853 acres (2,369 ha), Syrah at 2,831 acres (1,146 ha), and Cabernet Franc at 1,157 acres (468 ha). Vineyard acreage planted to white varieties was 13,649 acres (5,524 ha). The four most prevalent white varieties were Chardonnay at 5,992 acres (2,425 ha), Riesling at 4,404 acres (1,782 ha), Sauvignon Blanc at 993 acres (402 ha), and Gewürztraminer at 632 acres (256 ha).

Washington has ten federally-defined American Viticultural Areas mostly located in Eastern Washington. The largest AVA is the Columbia Valley AVA, which extends into a small portion of northern Oregon and also encompasses six of the other Washington AVAs. These include the Walla Walla Valley AVA, the Horse Heaven Hills AVA, the Wahluke Slope AVA, and the Yakima Valley AVA, which in turn also encompasses the Rattlesnake Hills AVA, Snipes Mountain AVA and the Red Mountain AVA. The Columbia Gorge AVA is west of the Columbia Valley AVA. Washington's only AVA located west of the Cascades is the Puget Sound AVA. The Lake Chelan and the Ancient Lakes wine-growing regions of eastern Washington are currently seeking federal AVA status.

The Columbia Valley AVA is home to 90% of Washington state’s wine industry. This massive appellation, with over 16,000 acres (65 km2) under vine and well over 300 wineries, was the driving force behind the development of the state’s wine industry. It is geographically defined by three mountain ranges that border it on every side but the east, and by the Snake, Yakima and Columbia Rivers which converge within it. Located in the lee of the Cascade Mountains, the area is sheltered from the marine climate to the west and is left with semi-desert conditions. While portions of this appellation cross into Oregon, the majority of wine activity occurs on the Washington state side. The Columbia Valley appellation was created as a stepping stone for the definition of other viticultural areas in the state. Subsequently, smaller and more distinct appellations have been created within it.

Washington has a nascent wine tourism industry developing along similar lines to that found in California's Napa Valley. Starting in the late 1990s, wine industry officials began talking to state tourism officials and created the Washington Wine Tourism Task Force in 2000. Obstacles to be overcome include remoteness of the state wine industry from major transportation hubs, lack of high-end dining and lodging, and a lack of awareness of the region by possible customers. Promotion of the state as a wine tourism destination focuses on the high quality of the wine, a different wine tourism experience from California, a critical mass of wineries to visit, and lower costs than California.

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Sutter Home Winery

Sutter Home Winery is one of the largest, independent family-run wineries in the United States, the estate know for the creation of White Zinfandel. It is located in Napa Valley, California.

The history of the winery dates back to 1874, when the Swiss-German immigrant John Thomann established a small winery and distillery in St. Helena in central Napa Valley. After his death, the winery and Victorian home beside it were sold to another Swiss family, the Leunbergers who renamed the estate Sutter Home.

As with most Napa Valley wineries, Sutter Home was shut down during Prohibition. The winery remained abandoned until 1948, when it was purchased by John and Mario Trinchero, immigrant brothers from New York City whose family had been active in the Italian wine business. The Trincheros refurbished the winery and began producing Napa Valley wines, initially scraping by making generic jug wines. For years they operated “mom-and-pop” style, selling to their Napa Valley neighbors who filled their barrels and bottles at the winery’s back door.

A turning point occurred in 1968, when Louis “Bob” Trinchero (Mario's oldest son) sampled a homemade Zinfandel made from grapes grown in the Sierra foothills, California’s famed Gold Rush country. Impressed by the character and intensity of this robust, spicy red wine, Bob began vinifying Amador County Zinfandel.

By 1987, Sutter Home White Zinfandel had become the best-selling premium wine in the United States. In 1994, Wine Spectator, gave Trinchero its Distinguished Service Award for "having introduced more Americans to wine on the table than anyone in history".

This prompted the Trincheros to increase its production while refining the wine’s style to accentuate the fruitiness his customers found so appealing. White Zinfandel made Sutter Home a household name and one of the largest, independent family-run winery in the U.S.

Still family-run, Bob and Roger Trinchero and Vera Trinchero Torres, along with Vera’s sons, Anthony and Robert Torres, manage a large winemaking organization, overseeing operations from grapegrowing and production, marketing and sales. The Trincheros are noted for their industry leadership, commitment to sustainable agriculture and preserving the environment.

Today, Sutter Home is the sixth-largest winery in the United States. All production, bottling, shipping and warehousing operations are concentrated in three modern facilities in Napa County. The original winery site on Highway 29 houses the winery’s Visitors Center.

White Zinfandel production was increased from 25,000 cases in 1981 to 1.3 million in 1986, while currently producing about 10 million cases a year, with Sutter Home White Zinfandel making up 45 percent of the sales.

Sutter Home Winery produces 12 varietal wines including Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, White Zinfandel, White Merlot, Gewurztraminer, Chenin Blanc, Moscato, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel, Red, White Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Grigio.

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Sherry winery at Jerez de la Frontera

A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company. Some wine companies own many wineries. Besides wine making equipment, larger wineries may also feature warehouses, bottling lines, laboratories, and large expanses of tanks known as tank farms.

Wineries typically employ winemakers to produce various wines from grapes by following the winemaking process. This process involves the fermentation of fruit, as well as blending and aging of the juice. The grapes may be from vineyards owned by the winery or may be bought in from other locations. Many wineries also give tours and have cellar doors or tasting rooms where customers can taste wines before they make a purchase. Winery architecture is very varied and rich and it is used by wineries as a way to promote their wines and cellar doors.

While most people associate wineries with large winemaking regions such as Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley in California or the legendary wine regions of Italy, wineries can be found nearly everywhere. Wineries do not have to be located adjacent to vineyards; grapes can be shipped anywhere. In addition, people make wine out of other fruits and plants (dandelion wine, apple wine, strawberry wine), so these specialty wineries tend to pop up where the other substances are grown. For example, in Maui, there is a pineapple winery.

In recent years many states in the United States have created a new class of winery license, the farm winery, to allow farms to produce and sell wines on site. Farm wineries differ from commercial wineries in that the fruit which is the source of the wine is usually produced on the farm, and the final product is also sold on the farm. States such as New York have given a special permit to open a satellite store in a tourist area. With New York's passing of the Farm Winery Law of 1976 an example was set for many other states to pass similar laws.

Farm wineries are usually at a much smaller scale than commercial ones. Farm wineries may produce distinctive and very high quality wines. There are highly competitive contests by which wineries can establish prestige by winning in their categories. Farm wineries are a form of value added marketing, also known as agritourism, for farmers who may otherwise be struggling to show a profit.

Winery wastewater is primarily generated during the cleaning of winemaking equipment and facilities. The quantity and quality of wastewater shows seasonal variations. Wastewater handling involves collection, possible treatment, then disposal and/or reuse.

Peak wastewater generation occurs during the "crush", in other words, when grapes are actively being processed into juice for fermentation. This process requires large amounts of clean water for washing newly harvested grapes, and results in a high wastewater output. To a lesser degree, wastewater is produced if boilers or water conditioning equipment is used.

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Source : Wikipedia