Wyoming

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Posted by kaori 03/27/2009 @ 20:07

Tags : wyoming, states, us

News headlines
Wyoming gov. nominates wife for federal court - The Associated Press
Dave Freudenthal has listed his wife among three names he submitted to the White House for consideration for an open federal judgeship in Wyoming. Freudenthal says he thought long and hard before including his wife — Cheyenne lawyer Nancy Freudenthal...
Aid available to Mingo, Wyoming county residents - Daily Mail - Charleston
(AP) - Federal officials say residents and business owners in Mingo and Wyoming counties who sustained losses from recent floods can begin applying for assistance on Saturday. President Barack Obama made a federal disaster declaration in the two...
'Changing our Wyoming way of life' - The Casper Star Tribune
By JEFF GEARINO GREEN RIVER -- For more than 40 years, resident Dave Welch has been driving to his favorite isolated fishing spot on the scenic Flaming Gorge Reservoir in southwest Wyoming to catch lake trout, smallmouth bass and kokanee salmon....
Climbers search without success for missing poet - The Associated Press
(AP) — A team of climbers completed a two-day search without finding poet and University of Wyoming assistant professor Craig Arnold, who's been missing on a small Japanese island. Arnold was working on a book about volcanoes when he disappeared April...
Wyoming DEQ to investigate Sinclair spill - Forbes
By BOB MOEN , 05.14.09, 08:24 AM EDT The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality will investigate a large spill at the Sinclair Refinery after the company submits a report on the incident, an agency spokesman said Wednesday....
Wyoming briefs - The Casper Star Tribune
The Wyoming Highway Patrol said 27-year-old Isaac J. Trujillo, of Cheyenne, was driving westbound in a 2000 Saturn sedan when the car apparently left the roadway. Trujillo tried to steer left and the car rolled over at least three times, coming to rest...
White Energy, Peabody partner on Wyoming plant - Boston Globe
Coal giant Peabody Energy Corp. is partnering with an Australian firm to build a plant in Wyoming that will boost the heat value of coal mined in the Powder River Basin. St. Louis-based Peabody and White Energy Co. of Sidney will form a company that...
Wyoming Debate Hall of Fame Inducts Inaugural Class - University of Wyoming News
May 15, 2009 -- Five individuals were inducted into the Wyoming Debate Hall of Fame inaugural class during recent ceremonies at the University of Wyoming. "The hall of fame was designed to honor highly respected coaches, competitors and supporters who...
Genesee & Wyoming traffic falls 6.3 pct. in April - Forbes
AP , 05.13.09, 06:18 PM EDT Regional freight railroad operator Genesee & Wyoming Inc. said Wednesday traffic on its tracks fell 6.3 percent in April from a year earlier, mostly due to declines in pulp and paper shipments. Genesee & Wyoming's traffic in...
Another Grady on the outs? - Michigan Daily
Grady was given probation after he received a DWI last summer in Wyoming, MI. His BAC was .24, three times the legal limit. So when it came time for Grady to prove that he was following his probation, he failed to comply with Ann Arbor requirements...

Wyoming

Map of the United States with Wyoming highlighted

The State of Wyoming ( /waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ (help·info)) is a sparsely populated state in the northwestern region of the United States. The majority of the state is dominated by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountain West, while the easternmost section of the state is a high altitude prairie region known as the High Plains. While the tenth largest U.S. state by size, Wyoming is the least populous, with a U.S. Census estimated population of 522,830 in 2007, a 5.9% increase since 2000. The capital and the most populous city of Wyoming is Cheyenne.

As specified in the designating legislation for the territory of Wyoming, the state is defined as a geoellipsoidal rectangle bounded by lines of latitude and longitude. Wyoming is only one of three states (along with Colorado and Utah) to have only lines of latitude and longitude for boundaries and that has no natural borders. In reality, due to survey errors during the 19th century, Wyoming's border deviates from the latitude or longitude lines by up to 1/2 mile (.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,818 square miles (253,348 km²) and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 365 miles (587 km) at its south end and 342 miles (550 km) at the north end.

The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by a number of mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), to the Belle Fourche River valley in the state’s northeast corner, at 3,125 feet (952 m). In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River and the Teton ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy and Sierra Madre ranges.

The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13,000 ft (4,000 m) tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.

The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km), part of which is included in Grand Teton National Park. The park includes the Grand Teton, the second highest peak in Wyoming.

The Continental Divide spans north-south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Atlantic Ocean. They are the North Platte, Wind, Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers. The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin.

The continental divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean. Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.

Several rivers begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Powder River, Green River, and the Snake River.

More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. Government, which ranks fifth in the US in both total acres owned by the Federal Government and by percentage of a state's land owned by the Federal government. This amounts to about 30,099,430 acres (121,808.1 km2) owned and managed by the U.S. Government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another 3,864,800 acres (15,640 km2).

The vast majority of this government land is managed by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service in numerous National Forests, a National Grassland, and a number of vast swaths of public land.

Wyoming's climate is generally a semi-arid continental climate (Koppen climate classification BSk), which is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 °F (29 °C) and 95 °F (35 °C) in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9,000 feet (2,743 m) averaging around 70 °F (21 °C). Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50-60 °F (10-14 °C) range at night. In most of the state, the late spring and early summer is when most of the precipitation tends to fall. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is an arid state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5-8 inches (125 - 200 mm) (making the area nearly a true desert). The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around 10-12 inches (250-300 mm), making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches (510 mm) or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches (510 cm) or more annually.

The climate of any area in Wyoming is largely determined by its latitude, altitude and local topography. When put together, these factors have a lot to do with airflow patterns, temperature variations, precipitation and humidity brought in by the weather systems that migrate eastward. In winter, Wyoming is often beneath the jet stream, or north of it, which accounts for its frequent strong winds, blasts of Arctic air and precipitation, all the necessary ingredients for great snow conditions at Wyoming's northwestern ski areas. In summer, the jet stream retreats northward to Canada, leaving the state's weather mild and pleasant at a time when the majority of Wyoming's visitors choose to arrive. Jackson, located at 6,230 feet (1,899 m) above sea level and surrounded by mountains, can expect a high temperature in July of 80˚ F (26.6 °C). The average is more likely to be 65˚ F (18.3 °C). The closest National Weather Station (in Riverton on the other side of the Wind River Mountains at 4,955 feet (1,510 m)) reports slightly warmer July weather.

The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those which occur a little further east.

Several Native American groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone were but a few of the original inhabitants encountered when white explorers first entered the region. Although French trappers may have ventured into the northern sections of the state in the late 1700s, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, first described the region in 1807. His reports of the Yellowstone area were considered at the time to be fictional. Robert Stuart and a party of five men returning from Astoria discovered South Pass in 1812. The Oregon Trail later followed that route. In 1850, Jim Bridger located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which the Union Pacific Railroad used in 1868 — as did Interstate 80, ninety years later. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded as tall tales at the time.

The region may have acquired the name Wyoming as early as 1865, when Representative J. M. Ashley of Ohio introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming." The name Wyoming derives from the Munsee name xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat," originally applied to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell.

After the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town of Cheyenne in 1867, the region's population began to grow steadily, and the Federal government established the Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868. Unlike Colorado to the south, Wyoming enjoyed no significant discovery of such celebrated minerals as gold and silver — nor Colorado's consequent boom in population — although South Pass City experienced a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867. Moreover, some areas, such as between the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Snowy Range near Encampment, Wyoming, produced copper.

Once government sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country were undertaken, the previous reports by men like Colter and Bridger were found to be true. This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, which became the world's first National Park in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming.

Wyoming's constitution included women's suffrage and a pioneering article on water rights. The United States admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890.

Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892, which erupted between competing groups of cattle ranchers. The passage of the federal Homestead Act led to an influx of small ranchers. A range war broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.

The center of population of Wyoming is located in Natrona County.

As of 2005, Wyoming had an estimated population of 509,293, which was an increase of 3,407, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 15,512, or 3.1%, since the 2000 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (Birth Rate of 14.04).

Wyoming is the least populous state of the United States (including the District of Columbia), and has the second lowest population density, behind Alaska.

The largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (25.9%), English (15.9%), Irish (13.3%), American (6.5%), Norwegian (4.3%), and Swedish (3.5%).

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 80,421; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 47,129; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 17,101.

According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming’s gross state product was $27.4 billion. Wyoming’s unemployment rate for 2006 was approximately 3.3%, which was lower than the national average of 4.6%. Components of Wyoming's economy differ significantly from those of other states. The mineral extraction industry and the travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming’s economy. The Federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state.

In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming’s national parks and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Devils Tower National Monument and Fossil Butte National Monument. Each year Yellowstone National Park receives three million visitors.

Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming’s economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming’s economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming’s culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural.

Wyoming’s mineral commodities include coal, natural gas, coalbed methane, crude oil, uranium, and trona. In fiscal year 2002, Wyoming collected over $48 million in sales taxes from the mining industry.

Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 2% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax. There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.

Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Minerals are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax and a severance tax when produced. Underground mining equipment is tax exempt.

Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, Wyoming's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died in 2005. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.

In 2008 the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states.

Three interstate highways and nine U.S. highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system.

Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 in Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo. Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston and runs east through the southern half of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs. Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman and cuts through the northern part of the state. It serves Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance. In addition, Interstate 180 services Cheyenne, and not only is it the only three-digit interstate highway in the state, it is the only non-freeway in the country that is signed as an interstate.

The U.S. highways that pass through the state are U.S. Highways 14, 16, 20, 26, 30, 89, 189, 191, and 287.

The Wind River Reservation is shared by the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans in the central western portion of the state near Lander. It is the seventh-largest Indian reservation in the United States, with a land area of 8,995.733 km² (3,473.272 sq mi), encompassing most of Fremont County. The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho.

Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868 as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger Treaty. However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation.

Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources. The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribal Government and the Northern Arapaho Tribal Government. The Eastern Shoshone Business Council meets jointly with the Northern Arapaho Business Council as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes. Six elected council members from each tribe serve on the joint council.

Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

The Wyoming state legislature comprises a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.

The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.

Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a solitary seat in the US House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the electoral college. Its low population renders Wyoming voters effectively more powerful in presidential elections than those in more populous states. For example, while Montana had a 2000 census population of 902,195 to Wyoming's 493,782, they both have the same number of electoral votes.

Wyoming is an alcoholic beverage control state.

Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's size and correspondingly lower caseload. Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court. Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well. All state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor. They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate.

Wyoming has historically been a conservative, Republican state. Its congressional delegation in Washington comprises its two Senators, Mike Enzi and John Barrasso, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Cynthia Lummis. All three are Republicans. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, one of only five times since statehood. There are only two reliably Democratic counties in the state: Teton and Albany County. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989. However, after his term, he resided primarily in Texas, a fact that drew mild criticism from his political opponents when he changed his voter registration back to Wyoming prior to joining George W. Bush's ticket in the 2000 Presidential election.

Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats have held the governorship for all but eight years since 1975. Democrat Dave Freudenthal was elected in 2002 and has one of the highest approval ratings of any governor in the USA.

The State of Wyoming has 23 counties.

In 2005, 52.4% of Wyomingites lived in one of the five most populous Wyoming counties.

The State of Wyoming has 98 incorporated municipalities.

In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.

The United States Census Bureau has defined two Metropolitan Statistical Areas and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas for the State of Wyoming.

In 2005, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and 73% lived in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area or a Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and text book selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming, but it closed in summer of 2000.

Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie. In addition, there are seven two-year community colleges spread through the state.

Prior to the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills. The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices, move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicts that in a few years the problem of diploma mills residing in Wyoming might be resolved.

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United States congressional delegations from Wyoming

These are tables of members from Wyoming of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.

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Miss Wyoming Teen USA

The Miss Wyoming Teen USA competition is the pageant that selects the representative for the state of Wyoming in the Miss Teen USA pageant.

Wyoming is one of the least successful states at Miss Teen USA, having only placed on three occasions. The most successful of these was in 1985, when Emily Ernst placed first runner-up to Kelly Hu of Hawaii.

Two Wyoming teens have won the Miss Wyoming USA and competed at Miss USA.

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USS Wyoming (BB-32)

Wyoming about to sail under the Brooklyn Bridge, 1912

USS Wyoming (BB-32), the lead ship of her class of battleship was the third ship of the United States Navy named Wyoming, although it was only the second named in honor of the 44th state.

Wyoming was laid down on 9 February 1910 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by William Cramp and Sons. She was launched on 25 May 1911 sponsored by Miss Dorothy Eunice Knight, the daughter of Chief Justice Jesse Knight of the Wyoming Supreme Court,and god-daughter of Wyoming Governor Joseph M. Carey; and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 25 September 1912, Captain Frederick L. Chapin in command.

Wyoming departed from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 6 October and completed the fitting-out process at the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New York, before she joined the fleet in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Reaching the Tidewater area on 30 December 1912, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral Charles J. Badger, Commander, Atlantic Fleet, soon thereafter. Sailing on 6 January 1913, the new battleship visited the soon-to-be-completed Panama Canal and then conducted winter fleet maneuvers off Cuba before she returned to Chesapeake Bay on 4 March.

After gunnery practice off the Virginia Capes, on the southern drill grounds, Wyoming underwent repairs and alterations at the New York Navy Yard from 18 April-7 May. She then participated in war games off Block Island from 7-24 May, a period of activity broken by repairs to her machinery, carried out at Newport, Rhode Island from 9-19 May. She underwent more repairs at Newport, then visited New York City from 28-31 May for the festivities surrounding the dedication of the monument honoring the battleship Maine, destroyed in Havana harbor on 15 February 1898.

Shifting to Annapolis, Maryland on 4 June, Wyoming embarked a contingent of United States Naval Academy midshipmen and took the young officers-to-be on a summer cruise off the coast of New England that lasted into late August. Disembarking the "middies" at Annapolis on 24-25 August, Wyoming then conducted torpedo and target practices in the southern drill grounds, out of Hampton Roads, into the late autumn. She was docked at New York for repairs from 16 September-2 October and then ran a full-power trial as she headed south to Norfolk, Virginia, to resume exercises off the Virginia Capes before sailing for Europe on 26 October.

Reaching Valletta, Malta on 8 November, the dreadnought battleship visited Naples, Italy, and Villefranche, France, during the course of her Mediterranean cruise. The battleship then left French waters astern on the last day of November and reached New York on 15 December.

Wyoming then underwent voyage repairs at the New York Navy Yard remaining there through the end of 1913. Getting underway on 6 January 1914, the battleship reached Hampton Roads on the morrow and spent the next three days coaling to prepare for the annual fleet exercises in the warmer Caribbean climes.

Wyoming exercised with the fleet out of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base from 26 January-15 March before setting her course northward for Cape Henry, Virginia. She then ranged with the fleet from the southern drill grounds, off the Virginia Capes, to Tangier Sound, for gunnery drills and practices. She remained engaged in that routine until 3 April, when she headed for the New York Navy Yard and an overhaul.

After that period of repairs, which lasted from 4 April-9 May, Wyoming subsequently embarked a draft of men for transport to the fleet, departed from Hampton Roads on 13 May, and headed for Mexican waters. She reached Veracruz on 18 May, less than a month after American sailors and Marines had occupied that Mexican port.

Wyoming remained at Veracruz over the months that ensued, into the late autumn of 1914, before she returned northward. After conducting exercises off the Virginia Capes en route, she put into the New York Navy Yard on 6 October and then underwent repairs and alterations which lasted until 17 January 1915.

Shifting down the coast upon completion of that yard period, Wyoming left Hampton Roads in her wake on 21 January for the annual exercises in Cuban waters and in the Caribbean Sea. Returning to the Tidewater area on 7 April, the battleship carried out tactical exercises and maneuvers along the eastern seaboard, primarily off Block Island and the southern drill grounds, into the late autumn, when she again entered the New York Navy Yard for an overhaul.

After repairs lasting from 20 December 1915-6 January 1916, Wyoming got underway on the latter day, bound for war games in the southern drill grounds. She subsequently headed farther south, reaching Culebra, Puerto Rico on 16 January. After visiting Port-au-Prince, Haiti on 27 January, Wyoming put into Guantanamo Bay on 28 January and then operated in Cuban waters off Guantanamo and Guacanayabo Bays and the port of Manzanillo, Cuba until 10 April, when she sailed for New York.

Wyoming remained in the New York Navy Yard from 16 April-26 June, undergoing repairs; she then operated off the New England coast, out of Newport, and off the Virginia Capes through the remainder of 1916. Departing New York on 9 January 1917, Wyoming then conducted routine maneuvers in the Guantanamo Bay region through mid-March. She departed the Caribbean on 27 March and was off Yorktown, Virginia, when the United States entered World War I on 6 April 1917.

Over the months that ensued, Wyoming served in the Chesapeake Bay region as an engineering ship until 13 November 1917. On that day, Rear Admiral Hugh Rodman broke his flag in New York as Commander, Battleship Division 9 (BatDiv 9). After preparations for "distant service," Wyoming, New York, Delaware, and Florida sailed for the British Isles on 25 November and reached Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands on 7 December 1917. Although retaining their American designation as BatDiv 9, those four dreadnoughts became the 6th Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet upon arrival in British waters.

Wyoming carried out maneuvers and tactical exercises with the units of the British Grand Fleet until 6 February 1918. On that day, she got underway with the other ships of the 6th Battle Squadron and eight British destroyers to guard a convoy routed to Stavanger, Norway. En route, Wyoming dodged torpedo wakes off Stavanger on 8 February but reached Scapa Flow safely two days later. In the following months, Wyoming continued to patrol off the British Isles, guarding the coastwise sea lanes against the danger posed by the still-powerful German High Seas Fleet.

From 30 June-2 July 1918, Wyoming operated with the 6th Battle Squadron and a division of British destroyers, guarding Allied minelayers as they planted the North Sea Mine Barrage. Later, Wyoming returned to the Firth of Forth, where she was inspected by His Majesty George V of the United Kingdom, along with other units of the Grand Fleet.

Although American and German capital ships never met in combat on the high seas, they nevertheless made rendezvous. On 21 November 1918, ten days after the armistice ended World War I, Wyoming, New York, Texas, and Arkansas joined the Grand Fleet as it escorted the German High Seas Fleet into the Firth of Forth to be interned following the cessation of hostilities.

Later, Wyoming, hoisting the flag of Rear Admiral William Sims, Commander, BatDiv 9 (ComBatDiv 9), sailed on 12 December 1918 from the Isle of Portland, England, bound for France. The following morning, she and other battleships rendezvoused with George Washington off Brest, France. Embarked in the transport was the President Woodrow Wilson, en route to the Paris Peace Conference.

After serving in the honor escort for the President and his party, Wyoming returned Admiral Sims to Plymouth, along with the newly appointed ambassador to Britain. Debarking her distinguished passengers on 14 December, the battleship loaded 381 bags of mail and, within a few hours, sailed for the United States. Reaching New York City on Christmas Day 1918, she remained there through New Year's Day 1919. On 18 January 1919, she became the flagship of Battleship Division 7, Third Squadron, and broke the flag of Rear Admiral Robert Coontz.

Wyoming departed New York on 1 February and, following winter maneuvers in Cuban waters, returned north, reaching New York on 14 April. However, she stood out to sea soon thereafter, getting underway on 12 May to serve as a link in the chain of ships stretching across the Atlantic to guide the Curtiss NC flying boats on their flight across that ocean. After completing her duty as plane guard and meteorological station, Wyoming returned to Hampton Roads on the last day of May.

Later embarking midshipmen and taking them on their southern cruise in the Chesapeake Bay-Virginia Capes area, Wyoming entered the Norfolk Navy Yard on 1 July to prepare for service in the Pacific. The secondary battery was reduced to 16 5 in (130 mm)/51 cal guns. On that day, she became a unit of the newly designated Pacific Fleet, assigned the duty as flagship for BatDiv 6, Squadron 4 (BatRon 4). On the morning of 19 July, the fleet - led by New Mexico - got underway for the Pacific. Transiting the Panama Canal soon thereafter, the fleet reached San Diego, California on 6 August.

Shifting to San Pedro, California three days later, Wyoming operated out of that port into the autumn. After an overhaul at the Puget Sound Navy Yard from 15 September 1919-19 April 1920, Wyoming returned to her base at San Pedro on 4 May. Over the next few months, the battleship exercised off the southern California coast. During that time, she was reclassified from "Battleship No. 32" to BB-32 on 17 July 1920.

Departing San Diego on the last day of August 1920, Wyoming sailed for Hawaiian waters and conducted exercises and maneuvers there through September. Returning to San Diego on 8 October, Wyoming subsequently conducted tactical evolutions off the western seaboard, ranging north to Seattle, Washington. Departing San Francisco, California on 5 January 1921, Wyoming, over the ensuing weeks, conducted further drills, exercises, and maneuvers reaching from Panama Bay to Valparaíso, Chile, and was reviewed by President of Chile Arturo Alessandri Palma on 8 February. Returning north, Wyoming arrived at the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 18 March and remained there into the summer.

Upon completion of repairs, Wyoming headed south, and on 2 August reached Balboa, Canal Zone, where she embarked Rear Admiral Hugh Rodman and members of the commission to Peru for transportation to New York City. Reaching her destination on 19 August, she disembarked her passengers and, that afternoon, broke the flag of Admiral Hilary P. Jones, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet.

Over the next 41 months, Wyoming operated primarily in the Atlantic, off the eastern seaboard of the United States, participating in Atlantic Fleet exercises, ranging from the coast of New England to the Virginia Capes. She took part in the routine winter maneuvers of the fleet in Caribbean and Cuban waters, serving at various times as flagship for Vice Admiral John McDonald, Commander, Battleship Force; and, later, Commander, Scouting Fleet, and his successors, Vice Admirals Newton McCully and Josiah McKean. During that time, the ship received routine repairs and alterations at the New York Navy Yard and conducted a midshipman training cruise in the summer of 1924, cruising to Torbay, England; Rotterdam, Netherlands; Gibraltar; and the Azores.

Departing New York on 26 January 1926, the battleship conducted battle practice in Cuban waters, out of Guantanamo Bay, and then transited the Panama Canal on 14 February to join the Battle Fleet for exercises along the coast of California. Wyoming next sailed for Hawaiian waters and operated in those climes from late April-early June. After a visit to San Diego from 18-22 June, the battleship returned to the East Coast, via the Panama Canal, and arrived back at New York City on 17 July to resume operations off the coast of New England. Following those training evolutions with a cruise to Cuba and Haiti, Wyoming underwent an overhaul at the New York Navy Yard from 23 November 1925-26 January 1926. During her yard period, Commander William F. Halsey, Jr., reported on board as the battleship's executive officer. The future fleet admiral served in Wyoming until 4 January 1927.

Wyoming subsequently took part in the Fleet's annual winter maneuvers in the Caribbean and then returned northward, reaching Annapolis on 29 May to embark midshipmen for their summer training cruise. After touching at Newport, Rhode Island; Marblehead, Massachusetts; Portland, Maine; Charleston, South Carolina; and Guantanamo Bay, Wyoming returned to Annapolis on 27 August, disembarking the officers-to-be upon arrival. The ship then put into the Philadelphia Navy Yard for modernization.

Converted from a coal burner to an oil burner, Wyoming also received new turbines, blisters for added underwater protection against torpedoes, and other alterations. Completing the overhaul on 2 November 1927 and heading south for Norfolk, Wyoming then underwent a post-modernization shakedown cruise to Cuba and the Virgin Islands before returning to Philadelphia on 7 December. Two days later, she hoisted the flag of Commander, Scouting Fleet, Vice Admiral Ashley Robertson.

Over the next few years, Wyoming operated out of Norfolk, New York, and Boston, Massachusetts, making training cruises for the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) units hailing from Yale, Harvard, Georgia Tech, and Northwestern. That duty took her from the Gulf of Mexico to Nova Scotia and into the Caribbean Sea, as well as to the Azores. During the course of that duty, she departed Hampton Roads on 12 November 1928, and on the night of 13-14 November, picked up eight survivors of Vestris, landing them at Norfolk on 16 November.

Relieved as flagship of the Scouting Force on 19 September 1930, Wyoming then became the flagship of Rear Admiral Wat T. Cluverius, ComBatDiv 2, and performed that duty until 4 November. After then hoisting the flag of Rear Admiral Harley H. Christy, Commander, Training Squadron, Scouting Fleet, the battleship conducted a training cruise into the Gulf of Mexico, during which she visited New Orleans, Louisiana.

Returning north after that cruise, Wyoming was placed in reduced commission at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 1 January 1931 to prepare for demilitarization and conversion to a training ship in accordance with the 1930 London Naval Treaty for the limitation and reduction of naval armaments. During that process, Wyoming lost her blisters, side armor, and the removal of guns and turret machinery from three of her six main battery turrets. On 21 May 1931, Wyoming was relieved of her duties as flagship for the Scouting Force by Augusta (CA-31) and by Arkansas (BB-33) as flagship of the Training Squadron.

Wyoming subsequently visited Annapolis upon the completion of her demilitarization and, between 29 May-5 June 1931, embarked United States Naval Academy midshipmen for a cruise to European waters. Sailing on 5 June, the ship was in the mid-Atlantic ten days later, when she went to the aid of O-12, commanded by the famed British Arctic explorer, Sir Hubert Wilkins. Wyoming took the disabled submersible in tow and took her to Queenstown, Northern Ireland. Later in the course of the cruise, the former battleship visited Copenhagen, Denmark; Greenock, Scotland; Cadiz, Spain; and Gibraltar, before she returned to Hampton Roads on 13 August. During her cruise, her designation changed from BB-32 to AG-17 on 1 July 1931.

Over the next four years, Wyoming continued summer practice cruises for Naval Academy midshipmen and training cruises for NROTC midshipmen with units from various universities. Her service took her throughout the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as to northern European ports and into the Mediterranean.

However, there were new jobs for the old campaigner. On 18 January 1935, she embarked men of the 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, at Norfolk, for the winter-spring landing assault practices at Puerto Rico and the Panama Canal Zone. In almost every succeeding year, Wyoming took part in amphibious assault exercises, as the elements of the Fleet Marine Force and Navy developed tactics for use in possible conflicts of the future.

Departing Norfolk on 5 January 1937, Wyoming transited the Panama Canal; headed for San Diego soon thereafter; and spent the following weeks engaged in assault landing exercises and gunnery drills at San Clemente Island, off the coast of California. On 18 February, during the culminating phase of a multi-faceted (land, sea, and air) exercise, a shrapnel shell exploded prematurely as it was being rammed into one of the ship's five-inch broadside guns. Six Marines were killed, and 11 were wounded. Immediately after the explosion, Wyoming sped to San Pedro, where she transferred the wounded Marines to Relief.

Completing her slate of exercises and war games off the California coast on 3 March, Wyoming stood out of Los Angeles harbor on that day and headed back to the East Coast. Returning to Norfolk on 23 March, the ship served as temporary flagship for Rear Admiral Wilson Brown, Commander, Training Squadron from 15 April-3 June, during the preparations for the upcoming Naval Academy practice cruise. Putting to sea on 4 June from Hampton Roads, Wyoming reached Kiel, Germany on 21 June 1937, where she was visited by officers from Admiral Graf Spee. Her embarked midshipmen subsequently toured Berlin before Wyoming sailed for home on 29 June, touching at Torbay, England, and Funchal, Madeira before returning to Norfolk on 3 August.

After local exercises, Wyoming disembarked her midshipmen at Annapolis on 26 August. For the next few months, Wyoming continued in her role as training ship first for Naval Reserve units and then for Merchant Marine Reserve units, ranging from Boston to the Virgin Islands and from New York to Cuba, respectively, before she underwent an overhaul at the Norfolk Navy Yard from 16 October 1937-14 January 1938.

For the next three years, Wyoming continued her operations out of Norfolk, Boston, and New York, visiting Cuban waters, as well as Puerto Rico and New Orleans. In addition, she conducted a Naval Academy midshipman's practice cruise to European waters in 1938, visiting Le Havre, France; Copenhagen; and Portsmouth, England. On 2 January 1941, Wyoming became the flagship for Rear Admiral Randall Jacobs, Commander, Training, Patrol Force, and continued in her training ship duties into the autumn months.

In November 1941, Wyoming embarked on yet another phase of her career-that of a gunnery training ship. She departed Norfolk on 25 November 1941 for gunnery training runs out of Newport, Rhode Island, and was off Platt's Bank when the Japanese launched the Attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

Putting into Norfolk on 28 January 1942, Wyoming sailed out into the lower reaches of Chesapeake Bay on 5 February to begin a countless chain of gunnery training drills in that area that would carry her through World War II. So familiar was her appearance in that area that Wyoming earned the nickname of the "Chesapeake Raider." Assigned to the Operational Training Command, United States Atlantic Fleet, the former dreadnought battleship provided the platform on which thousands of gunners trained in guns, ranging from 5-inch to .50-caliber.

Refitted at Norfolk from 12 January-3 April 1944, Wyoming took on a different silhouette upon emerging from that yard period; the rest of her 12-inch turrets were removed, and replaced with two single and four twin-mount 5 in (130 mm)/38 cal guns; in addition, newer models of fire control radars were installed. She resumed her gunnery training activities on 10 April, operating in the Chesapeake Bay region. The extent of her operations can be seen from a random sampling of figures; in November, Wyoming trained 133 officers and 1,329 men in antiaircraft gunnery. During that month, she fired 3,033 5-inch shells, 849 3-inch; 10,076 40 mm; 32,231 20 mm; 66,270 .30-caliber; and 360 1.1-inch ammunition. She claimed the distinction of firing off more ammunition that any other ship in the fleet, training an estimated 35,000 gunners on some seven different types of guns.

On 30 June 1945, Wyoming completed her career as "Chesapeake Raider" when she departed from Norfolk for the New York Navy Yard and alterations. Leaving the yard on 13 July, she entered Casco Bay soon thereafter, reporting for duty to Vice Admiral Willis A. Lee, Commander, Composite Task Force 69 (CTF 69). She fired her first experimental gunnery practice at towed sleeves, drone aircraft, and radio-controlled targets, as the largest operating unit of the force established to study methods and tactics for dealing with the Japanese kamikaze aircraft. Subsequently, CTF 69 became the Operational Development Force, United States Fleet on 31 August. Upon the death of Admiral Lee, the reins of command passed to Rear Admiral R.P. Briscoe.

Even after the broadening of the scope of the work of the force to cover all the operational testing of new devices of fire control, Wyoming remained the backbone of the unit through 1946. On 11 July 1947, Wyoming entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and was decommissioned on 1 August 1947. Her final crew included future United States President, Ensign Jimmy Carter on his first Naval posting; his billets included Deck Division Officer, Radar Officer, CIC Officer. Her men and material were then transferred to Mississippi.

Wyoming's name was struck from the Naval Vessel Registry on 16 September 1947, and her hulk was sold for scrapping on 30 October 1947. She was then delivered to her purchaser, Lipsett, Incorporated, of New York City, on 5 December 1947.

This article includes text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

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Source : Wikipedia